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The Effect of Exercise on Global Self-Esteem: A Quantitative Review

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively review the body of research on exercise and global self-esteem (GSE). This review focuses specifically on studies using adults and also incorporates both published and unpublished works. Computer and manual searches identified 113 studies matching the selection criteria. Each study was coded according to 20 study features. A total of 128 effect sizes (d) were derived. As indicated by effect-size magnitude, participation in exercise brought about a small change in GSE (d=+0.23). Change in physical fitness and type of program were significant moderators of the effect of exercise on GSE. Larger effect sizes were observed for those who experienced significant changes in physical fitness and those participating in exercise or lifestyle programs as opposed to skills training.

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... (3) os adolescentes com baixa autoestima já revelaram fazer maior uso de redes sociais em relação aos adolescentes com autoestima elevada, sendo o uso de redes sociais uma faceta do sedentarismo (COLLIPAL et al., 2006;HARFUCH et al., 2010;SPENCE;MCGANNON;POON, 2005). Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a associação entre o nível de autoestima e o tempo de atividades sedentárias em adolescentes. ...
... (3) os adolescentes com baixa autoestima já revelaram fazer maior uso de redes sociais em relação aos adolescentes com autoestima elevada, sendo o uso de redes sociais uma faceta do sedentarismo (COLLIPAL et al., 2006;HARFUCH et al., 2010;SPENCE;MCGANNON;POON, 2005). Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a associação entre o nível de autoestima e o tempo de atividades sedentárias em adolescentes. ...
... (3) os adolescentes com baixa autoestima já revelaram fazer maior uso de redes sociais em relação aos adolescentes com autoestima elevada, sendo o uso de redes sociais uma faceta do sedentarismo (COLLIPAL et al., 2006;HARFUCH et al., 2010;SPENCE;MCGANNON;POON, 2005). Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a associação entre o nível de autoestima e o tempo de atividades sedentárias em adolescentes. ...
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Objetivou-se associar o nível de autoestima com o tempo de atividades sedentárias em adolescentes. A amostra foi composta por 98 sujeitos, com média de 16,7±1,2 anos. Utilizou-se dois instrumentos: Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg e o questionário IPAQ. Empregou-se medidas de tendência central, de dispersão e o modelo de regressão linear, construído através da Análise de Covariância (ANCOVA), com α de 0,05. A ANCOVA obteve ajuste significativo (F(4,777); p=0,003; R2 ajustado=0,105), indicando que a autoestima baixa elevou o sedentarismo em relação a autoestima elevada (p=0,04; β=87,54(IC95%=0,30-174,77) min./dia). Conclui-se que, a autoestima se associou ao sedentarismo, portanto, ações de saúde integradas poderão ser mais eficientes.
... Self-efficacy can function on parallel level as the results obtained through exercising in that it can indirectly, through subdomains, increase the evaluation of physical abilities and characteristics and the overal self-esteem (McAuley, Blissmer, Katula, Duncan andMihalko, 2000 andMcAuley et al., 2005). The changes in physical parameters have their role in the impact of physical activity on the overall self-esteem (Spence, McGannon and Poon, 2005) and they moderate the impact of physical activity on the self-concept component in the domain of physical self-concept (Schneider, Dunton and Cooper, 2008). The existing research shows that physical activity enhances social benefits, self-esteem, the self-perception of physical appearance and physical abilities of adolescents and that the positive effects are greater among those adolescents who initially had lower self-esteem (Biddle and Asare, 2011). ...
... Similar as in this study, significant positive correlation between the overall physical activity and self-esteem, as well as between moderate physical activity and self-esteem of students, were obtained in the study by Yahong, Zhipengi Shunzhong (2014). Furthermore, Spence, McGannon and Poon (2005) state that approximately 60% of research papers included in their study indicate a positive correlation between physical activity and selfesteem. However, McAuley et al. (2000) challenge the actual amount of change towards more positive self-esteem that can be expected as a result of engaging in physical activity. ...
... There are four possible moderators of effects of physical activity on overall self-esteem (Spence et al. 2005). Firstly, the changes in physical condition can have effect on the change in self-efficacy, which in its turn will further influence overall sefesteem. ...
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The aim of this research was to establish the correlation between the physical activity of students at the University of Zadar and possible gender differences, and to examine the relationship between physical activity and certain habits (health habits) and personality traits (self-esteem). A total of 100 students (56 women, 44 male sexes) were interviewed, of which 72 exercised two or more times a week, and 28 students who were practicing one or nothing weekly in the academic year 2016/17. The questionnaire assembly consisted of four parts (general information and health habits, Food frequency questionnaire-FFQ and personality traits-Rosenberg's self-esteem scale). The results showed that the students of the University of Zadar had an average wealth status, further 33.33% of the surveyed students are smoking cigarettes, while alcohol consume 65.28% There were no statistically significant differences in smoking habits in students who exercise as opposed to the students who rarely or do not exercise at all, while the t-test results of female students show statistically significant differences in alcohol consumption. Regularly trained students and those who rarely practice do not differ in the time spent sitting and sleeping, so we assume that the difference is in the structure of free time. Students who regularly exercise take more vitamins and minerals and drink more water, while those who rarely or never practice eat more fast food. Although the results of this research do not show a significant association between self-esteem and physical activity, because of their complexity it is difficult to determine their cause-and-effect relationship, but we can say that the relationship depends on several factors and that there is a tendency to increase self-esteem with the growth of the degree of physical activity. To conclude, we have taken this research further to determine the real structure of physical activity, health habits and personality traits of the student population. The obtained results can be a guideline in planning and programming the physical activity of students. Furthermore, the correlation between physical activity and personality features with no doubt exists. Also, given the results, it is obvious that the dietary habits of students need to be changed in the direction of more regular and balanced, and ultimately, healthy eating. © 2019, DPTZK (Physical Education Pedagogues Association). All rights reserved.
... A meta-analysis conducted by Spence et al. (2005) revealed a significant positive effect of small magnitude for physical activity programs on global self-esteem (d = 0.23), with no difference in the efficacy of various types of exercise (aerobic, strength, martial arts, mix). No significant dose-response relationship for intensity, duration, or length of exercise programs has been identified. ...
... However, it has been suggested that more frequently performed exercise (i.e., 2-3 times per week) can result in greater self-esteem (Lindwall, 2013). In addition, moderation analyses indicated that individuals with low self-esteem might reap greater benefits from exercise (Spence et al., 2005). ...
... In accordance with the existing literature (e.g., Spence et al., 2005), our findings support the positive effect of physical exercise training on global self-esteem; with the exercise group showing more positive changes compared to the support group (where the changes were less positive but still significant) and to the control group (where no improvement was observed). However, the extent to which physical exercise increased global self-esteem (d = 0.85) is markedly higher than usually seen in samples of participants without history of domestic violence (mean effect size of 0.23 in the meta-analysis by Spence et al., 2005). ...
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Purpose: The purpose of the present brief report was to examine the effects of a 6-week long physical exercise program on global self-esteem and physical self-perceptions among women who faced lockdown-related domestic violence. Method: Thirty-six domestic violence victims (mean age: 33.4 ± 3.5 yrs-old) were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly and equally assigned to two intervention (physical exercise, counseling/support group therapy) and one control (no intervention) groups. The French version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (ISP-25) was administered to all participants pre- and post-study. Results: Mixed-design ANOVAs revealed significant Group by Time interactions for Global Self-Esteem, Physical Condition, and Body Attractiveness. Global Self-Esteem significantly improved in the two intervention groups, with a trend for better improvement in women who exercised compared to those who took part in support group meetings, Cohen’s d = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [‒0.18, 1.54]. On the other hand, only women from the Physical Exercise group reported significant gains in Physical Condition and Body Attractiveness. There was no change in any of the assessed variables for women in the control group. Conclusion: The present study provides new insights on the role of physical exercise in the understudied population of women with domestic violence. Our findings are discussed and related to previous studies.
... Außerdem bietet Sporttreiben die Möglichkeit, sich selbst als Verursacher eines angezielten Effekts zu erfahren, sei dies nun die erwünschte Veränderung körperlicher Parameter, die Steigerung der eigenen sportlichen Leistung oder aber der Erfolg im Rahmen von Wettkämpfen. Daher konnten Studien immer wieder einen positiven Einfluss sportlicher Aktivität auf die identitätsrelevante Erfahrung von Selbstwirksamkeit feststellen (Spence et al. 2005), wobei sich zudem abzeichnet, dass vor allem Menschen mit einem niedrigen Selbstwertgefühl vom Sporttreiben profitieren (Alfermann und Stoll 2000;Müller 2017 (Neuber 2006), doch bleibt der individuell gesuchte Anschluss an eine besonders geeignet erscheinende Sportaktivität und deren stereotype männliche Auslegung weiterhin möglich. ...
... Folglich werden durch die Nutzung freizeitsportlicher Angebote in der JVA die beiden für die Identitätsbildung zentralen Bedürfnisse befriedigt (Keupp et al. 2013) und es wird einer drohenden Deformation (Taylor 1993) begegnet. Immer wieder bieten zudem die ersichtlichen Leistungsfortschritte Gelegenheit, sich als selbstwirksam wahrzunehmen (Spence et al. 2005) Ob mit Blick auf den organisationsseitig angezielten Resozialisierungsprozess diesen Häftlingen nun allerdings damit gedient wäre, dass das klassische Krafttraining vor Ort untersagt würde, bleibt mehr als fraglich, denn schließlich könnte ein solches Verbot lediglich die praktische Ausübung des Krafttrainings, nicht aber die Existenz entsprechender subkultureller Ordnungen und Erwartungen unterbinden. Vielversprechender scheint demgegenüber, die vorhandenen freizeitsportlichen Möglichkeiten um eine Reihe modernerer Varianten des Fitness-und Gesundheitssports zu erweitern (Dannebaum 2015). ...
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Die Studie beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, welchen Beitrag der Freizeitsport zur Identitätsbildung junger, männlicher Strafgefangener leistet. Mittels leitfadengestützter Interviews werden die subjektiven Bedeutungen einer Teilhabe an Sportangeboten untersucht, um deren Stellenwert für Identitätsaufbau und -stabilisierung und damit für die Bewältigung des Gefängnisalltages abschätzen zu können. Die Befunde zeigen die große Bedeutung des Sports für die jungen Straftäter, der neben Anerkennungserfahrungen und einem Gefühl von Zugehörigkeit vor allem auch Gelegenheiten bereithält, sich als selbstbestimmt handelndes Subjekt wahrzunehmen. Allerdings zeichnet sich vereinzelt eine Orientierung an problematisch erscheinenden Männlichkeitsvorstellungen ab, was die subjektive Auslegung des Sinns des eigenen Sporttreibens einschränkt und daher auch dem angezielten Resozialisierungsprozess zuwiderlaufen könnte.
... In addition, the qualitative literature synthesis of Mason and Holt [4] shows the mental health relevant effects and processes of physical activity interventions, particularly regarding social interaction and social support; feeling safe; improved symptoms; a sense of meaning, purpose and achievement; identity and the role of the facilitating personnel. Furthermore, the effects of sport and exercise on various factors of mental well-being, for example, self-esteem [5], self-efficacy [6,7], and resilience [8] were reviewed. Thus, the existing literature provides evidence for the social and mental health benefits of sport and physical activity. ...
... There is convincing evidence on the effects of sport and exercise on mental health and well-being [1,2,[4][5][6]9,19]. Less evidence is provided about how to achieve these benefits in the context of grassroots sport coaching. ...
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There is convincing evidence on the effects of sport and exercise on mental health and well-being. Less evidence is provided about how to achieve these benefits in the context of grassroots sport coaching. We systematically reviewed the scientific literature of three databases to narratively synthesize the current knowledge about which coaching-related factors influence well-being or ill-being, and how to promote mental health in adult athletes through sport coaches. The review includes 52 studies with different methodological and theoretical approaches and mental health outcomes. The wide range of themes were mapped and synthesized within two clusters, i.e., coaching behavior, antecedents, and context; and coach–athlete relationship and social support. The results highlight the importance of the promotion of empowering environments, autonomy-supportive coaching behavior, and coach–athlete relationship quality that relate to the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The review also calls for a critical perspective, in the sense that the coaching context and working environment may not be empowering and supportive to the well-being of coaches and consequently to the athletes, and that coaches who want to provide autonomy-supportive environments may face various obstacles. Finally, the review synthesizes recommendations for the training of coaches, as one piece of a holistic mental health promotion.
... The study provides evidence on the extent to which potential moderating factors influence this relationship. The relationship between PA and self-concept is reciprocal or symbiotic nature [38][39][40]. This implies that self-concept influences PA as well as PA influences self-concept. ...
... It posits that improvements in performance of specific activities (e,g., time taken to walk one mile) increase confidence in one's ability to complete that activity, in turn increasing perceived ability in that facet (walking speed), which in turn increases perceptions of ability in that subdomain (condition competence), and so on up to global self-esteem. The implication of this model is that interventions which promote both physical activity and self-concept may be most effective [37][38][39][40]. ...
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Background: Physical inactivity (PA) is a modifiable risk factor for many chronic illnesses. Studies on physical activity in adolescent populationshave reported associations between PA and demographic and psychosocial factors. However, there is a limited evidence on PA level and associated factors among adolescents in south-east Nigeria. Thus, the study examined adolescents’ PA level and its demographic and psychosocial correlates among school-going adolescents in Obollo-Afor Education Zone, Enugu State, South-East Nigeria. Methods: A total of 365 randomly selected adolescents aged 12-19 years in Obollo-Afor, Enugu State, south-East Nigeria participated in the study. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire-Short Form (PSDQ-S), the Social Support and Peer Norms Scales for Physical Activity (SSPNS)were used to measure PA level, physical self-concept, social support and peer norms for PA.Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t -test, fixed effects ANOVA, and multiple linear regression. Results: The mean age of the participants was 15.76 ± 1.78 years for boys and 15.65 ± 1.83 years for girls. One-third (33.3%) had low PA level, more than half of the participants had moderate PA level(58.1%) whilevery few (8.5%) had high PA level. School-going adolescents had high mean physical self-concept(16.6 ± 40), social support(2.48 ± 1.04) and peer norms(2.19 ± 1.049). Adolescents’ PA level was positively related to self-concept ( r = .06, p > 0.05), social support ( r = .26, p < 0.01), peer norms ( r = .27, p < 0.01). Social support (beta = .22, p < .001), peer norms received for PA (beta = .23, p < .003), and class of study (beta = -.047, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with PA level among adolescents. Conclusions: One third of school-going adolescents had low level of PA, and low proportion had high level of PA. Also, Social support, peer norms received for PA and class of study were significantly associated with PA among adolescents. Future studies are needed to design interventions that promote PA among adolescents in Nigeria.
... B. Müdigkeit, schlechtes Wetter, Freunde zu Besuch). (Ekeland et al. 2004(Ekeland et al. , 2005Ahn und Fedewa 2011;Liu et al. 2015) und zwei für Erwachsene (Spence et al. 2005;Netz et al. 2005 Germain und Hausenblas (2006), in die Studien mit Personen zwischen 12 und 68 Jahren eingeschlossen wurden, zeigt, dass tatsächliche und wahrgenommene Fitness in einem moderaten Zusammenhang stehen (r = 0,38). Der Zusammenhang ist bei Männern und Frauen vergleichbar ausgeprägt, bei Jüngeren aber stärker als bei Älteren. ...
... Zum anderen wäre es zu kurz gegriffen, auf Basis der grundsätzlich nachweisbaren Effekte sportlicher Aktivität auf das Selbst bzw. die Identität anzunehmen, dass sportliche Aktivität per se zu einer Positivierung dieser Aspekte beitrage: "The widespread assumption that enhanced overall or global self-esteem is an automatic outcome of participation in physical activity" (Spence et al. 2005 Neben der Inszenierung sportlicher Aktivität oder der Berücksichtigung von Personenmerkmalen scheint besonders der Einbezug der Dynamik des Selbst bzw. der Identität gewinnbringend. ...
... However, non-regular exercisers were clearly below average (approximately one standard deviation of the global sample), underlining the importance of regular exercise for self-esteem. As a potential mechanism of exercise in relation to self-esteem, it is suggested that engaging in exercise results in an increase in physical fitness, which in turn positively affects self-esteem [31]. ...
... Therefore, the possibilities to draw comparisons to existing literature are limited. Previously conducted research in adults is heterogeneous: In intervention studies, no moderating effect of mode of exercise was found (e.g., aerobic vs. strength training) [31]. In a cross-sectional study, higher self-esteem was found in high-risk sport participants compared to low-risk sport participants, but self-esteem was similar between low-risk sport participants and non-exercise controls in adults [17]. ...
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Alpine sport is a popular form of exercise and provides several skills that are potentially relevant for positive development during adolescence. However, empirical data on differences between alpine and non-alpine sport participants in variables related to developmental changes are lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to analyze differences in self-esteem and additional variables between adolescent alpine and non-alpine sport participants. A comparison to non-regular exercisers was conducted for self-esteem. In a cross-sectional design, information on self-esteem, sensation seeking, agency, and emotion regulation was collected in 183 adolescents [(mean age: 15.4 (SD: 2.3) years, 71.0% female)]. Alpine sport participants reported significantly higher self-esteem compared to non-regular exercisers, p = 0.003, d = 0.95, but not compared to non-alpine sport participants, p = 0.774, d = 0.06. When controlling for sex and high-risk sport engagement, alpine sport participants showed a significantly higher experience of agency compared to non-alpine sport participants, p = 0.016, d = 0.46. We conclude that alpine sport participation is less relevant with regard to self-esteem compared to regular exercise. However, the characteristics of alpine sport might provide a trigger for higher experience of agency during sport participation, potentially helping to satisfy the increased need for autonomy and independence in adolescence.
... A meta-analysis showed that participation in exercise indeed improves self-esteem (Cohens' d = 0,23) depending on change in physical fitness (Spence et al., 2005). More recent meta-analyses found similar results in children and adolescents (Ahn & Fedewa, 2011;Ekeland et al., 2005;Liu et al., 2015). ...
... The positive effect of physical activity on self-esteem is in line with previous evidence (Ekeland et al., 2005;Joseph et al., 2014;Spence et al., 2005) and with Sonstroem & Morgan's exercise and self-esteem model (Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989). The present study demonstrates that these interactions fluctuate over the course of the day, from moment to moment. ...
Article
Physical activity has positive effects on self-esteem and sense of belongingness and vice versa. The experience sampling method allows for a level of analysis of the within-subject temporal dynamics of these interactions. We hypothesized that physical activity would predict prospective increases of self-esteem and belongingness in the flow of daily life, and vice versa. Additionally, we hypothesized that belongingness would predict self-esteem at the beep level. The study included 781 individuals (17.4 ± 3.5 years; 59% female) who responded to 10 beeps daily for 6 days to items on physical activity, self-esteem and belongingness. Univariate and multivariate multilevel models were used to examine within-person prospective bidirectional associations. We found that physical activity predicted higher self-esteem and belongingness at t0+1. Participants who had a stronger increase of self-esteem following an increase in physical activity also had a concurrent stronger increase in belongingness. In contrast, self-esteem had no effect on physical activity at the next beep. Belongingness predicted self-esteem. We conclude that the interactions between physical activity, self-esteem and belongingness are complex and fluctuating in daily life. This has important implications for current theories describing the mental health benefits of physical activity.
... Studies conducted with healthy subjects have already shown that exercise has an effect on global self-esteem [22], self-efficacy and well-being improvement overall [22,23]. In line with these results, Lubans et al. [24] have developed a conceptual model explaining the psychosocial and biological mechanisms for the effect of physical activity on cognitive and mental health in young people. ...
... Studies conducted with healthy subjects have already shown that exercise has an effect on global self-esteem [22], self-efficacy and well-being improvement overall [22,23]. In line with these results, Lubans et al. [24] have developed a conceptual model explaining the psychosocial and biological mechanisms for the effect of physical activity on cognitive and mental health in young people. ...
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Physical inactivity is discussed as one of the most detrimental influences for lifestyle-related medical complications such as obesity, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes and premature mortality in in- and outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In contrast, intervention studies indicate that moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) might reduce complications and depression symptoms itself. Self-reported data on depression [Beck-Depression-Inventory-II (BDI-II)], general habitual well-being (FAHW), self-esteem and physical self-perception (FAHW, MSWS) were administrated in a cross-sectional study with 76 in- and outpatients with MDD. MVPA was documented using ActiGraph wGT3X + ® accelerometers and fitness was measured using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Subgroups were built according to activity level (low PA defined as MVPA < 30 min/day, moderate PA defined as MVPA 30–45 min/day, high PA defined as MVPA > 45 min/day). Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis test, Spearman correlation and mediation analysis. BDI-II scores and MVPA values of in- and outpatients were comparable, but fitness differed between the two groups. Analysis of the outpatient group showed a negative correlation between BDI-II and MVPA. No association of inpatient MVPA and psychopathology was found. General habitual well-being and self-esteem mediated the relationship between outpatient MVPA and BDI-II. The level of depression determined by the BDI-II score was significantly higher in the outpatient low- and moderate PA subgroups compared to outpatients with high PA. Fitness showed no association to depression symptoms or well-being. To ameliorate depressive symptoms of MDD outpatients, intervention strategies should promote habitual MVPA and exercise exceeding the duration recommended for general health (≥ 30 min/day). Further studies need to investigate sufficient MVPA strategies to impact MDD symptoms in inpatient settings. Exercise effects seem to be driven by changes of well-being rather than increased physical fitness.
... Considering to the main role of mental health amongst athlete, lack of attention to this factor can lead to low level of activity, failure instead of success in the competitions, appearing some disorders in later years, and reduction of general activity (McGannon & Poon, 2005). Furthermore, the mental health is essential to study on.Additionally, the presence of stress during athlete training has negative influence on body and reduce their performance (Humphreys, 2003). ...
... There are several research have been done about each of these factors in different countries, culture, population etc. while due to the rate of mental disorders that refer to mental health, the present study attempts to focus on the mental health of athlete that impacted by stress and physical exercise. Some investigators such as Nancy and Becker (1984), McGannon and Poon (2005), Chiu (2002), Walsh (2011), Sterling (2011, and Alibakhshi Kenari (2014) have been focused on mental health, and determined this factor as one of the imperative factors has been impacted bydiverseelements such as stress and physical exercise. ...
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The purpose of current literature review is to identify the association between stress, physical exercise, and mental health among athlete. The outcomes of this investigation reveal stress and physical exercise have crucial role on the level of mental health; they likewise can impact on mental health positively and negatively. As well, this study focused on mental health as a main factor among athlete that increase the level of their activities in sports fields. Moreover, lack of attention to this main factor that influenced via stress and physical exercise appeared various results. Therefore, the current paper supports athletes requirements based on two main factors stress and physical exercise to accomplish mental health. Keyword: Athlete, mental health, physical exercise, stress.
... So zeigt ein systematisches Review, dass die Verbesserung der körperlichen Fitness häufig eine Erhöhung des globalen Selbstwertgefühls zur Folge hat, wenn auch mit eher geringen Effektstärken (vgl. Spence et al., 2005). Dieses erhöhte Selbstwertgefühl kann sich wiederum posi tiv auf die Handlungsauswahl und dadurch letztendlich auch auf Handlungserfolge auswirken: Eine Person, die sich auf körperlicher Ebene stark fühlt, traut sich mögli cherweise auch in anderen Lebensbereichen mehr zu. ...
... ungen entstehen, verhindert oder behandelt werden können.Hinsichtlich der ressourcenorientierten Förderung der psychischen Gesundheit zeigt der Literaturüberblick, dass körperliche Aktivität und Sport das Potenzial haben, die verfügbaren personalen und sozialen Ressourcen zu stärken und somit die psy chische Gesundheit positiv zu beeinflussen (vgl.Spence et al., 2005;Stathopoulou et al., 2006). Während es für den positiven Zusammenhang zwischen körperlicher Aktivität und Sport und dem Selbstwertgefühl empirische Hinweise gibt(vgl. Spence et al., 2005), mangelt es noch an ausreichenden wissenschaftlichen Belegen und er forschten Wirkmechanismen hinsichtlich der Kontrollüberzeugungen (vgl.Schlicht, 199 ...
Chapter
In diesem Beitrag wird die positive Wirkung von körperlicher Aktivität und Sport sowohl aus gesundheitsförderlicher und ressourcenorientierter Perspektive (Salutogenese) als auch aus der krankheitsorientierten Perspektive (Pathogenese) betrachtet. Hinsichtlich ihrer gesundheitsförderlichen Wirkung können körperliche Aktivität und Sport die verfügbaren personalen und sozialen Ressourcen einer Person stärken und somit ihre psychische Gesundheit positiv beeinflussen. Im ersten Teil des Beitrags wird daher im Speziellen beleuchtet, wie körperliche Aktivität und Sport in Beziehung zu Aspekten der Persönlichkeit und des Selbst, zum Wohlbefinden und zu sozialen Faktoren stehen. Gemäß der pathogenetischen Perspektive können körperliche Aktivität und Sport krankheitserzeugende Faktoren reduzieren sowie als therapeutische Maßnahmen bei psychischen Beeinträchtigungen und Erkrankungen eingesetzt werden. In diesem Zusammenhang werden im zweiten Teil des Beitrags körperliche Aktivität und Sport in Beziehung zu Stress, Depressionen, Burn-out und Abhängigkeitserkrankungen gesetzt.
... En este sentido, las personas mayores que realizan actividad física con frecuencia perciben una autoestima personal positiva; mientras que las personas mayores sedentarias que perciben una autoestima personal más empobrecida. No obstante, habrá que tener en cuenta que la influencia de la práctica de actividad físico-deportiva sobre la autoestima está sobredimensionada como concluyen Mcauley, Blissmer, Katula, Duncan & Mihalko (2000), Mcauley, Mihalko & Bane (1997) y Spence, Mcgannon & Poon (2005). En este sentido, es fundamental proponer estudios de carácter longitudinal para comprobar de forma efectiva la influencia de la práctica física frecuente en la mejora de la autoestima personal. ...
Article
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El propósito del presente estudio es investigar acerca de la relación existente entre la Autoestima manifestada por personas mayores de 65 años y la realización de actividad física. El autoconcepto y la Autoestima aparecen como componentes psicológicos fundamentales de la calidad de vida durante la adultez mayor y del bienestar personal. La Autoestima ha sido propuesta como un área de intervención para mejorar la calidad de vida en la población mayor. La muestra la componen 184 personas mayores, de las que 92 realizan actividad física frecuentemente y otras 92 desarrollan un estilo de vida sedentario. Se aplicó el cuestionario de Autoestima personal de Rosenberg. Los resultados muestran diferentes niveles de Autoestima entre los mayores que realizan actividad física y los que no, siendo significativamente más alta en los primeros. Estudios con objetivos similares demuestran y apoyan la comprobación de la hipótesis de partida que establece la relación positiva entre la Autoestima y la realización de actividad física. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem perceived by people over 65 and practicing of physical activity. Self-concept and self-esteem emerge as fundamental psychological components of quality of life in elderly and for personal well-being. Self-esteem has been proposed as an area of intervention to improve quality of life in senior citizens. The sample consisted of 184 elderly people, 92 of which often practiced physical activity, whereas the other 92 carried out a sedentary lifestyle. Rosenberg´s Personal Self-esteem questionnaire was applied. Results show different levels of self-esteem between elderly people who practice physical activity and those who do not, being significantly higher in the formers. Studies with similar goals support and corroborate the initial hypothesis that establishes a positive relationship between self-esteem and practicing physical activity.
... Physical exercise programmes have also been linked to psychological well-being. While the extensive research in this area is almost exclusively focused on association studies, there is some evidence of a causal relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological well-being, as seen in experimental trials which show that moderate exercise increases positive affect and self-esteem [59,60]. ...
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Taking a whole-population perspective, the chapter argues that improved well-being is the most important outcome of policy. Despite growing awareness of its importance, accepting the primacy of well-being has been a challenge within public mental health because there has been no uniform definition or measure, nor consensus on how to apply such a subjective concept across diverse populations. Confusion created by using terms such as happiness, or the continuing tendency to equate mental well-being with lack of mental illness, have created barriers to gaining widespread agreement on the importance of well-being in policy. In this chapter, historical approaches to defining well-being, issues of measurement, and evidence underpinning well-being interventions are explored. The chapter closes with a proposal on how best to consider well-being as an outcome, making use of the evidence in driving public mental health policy.
... Early on it was assumed that physical activity might have the potential to counterbalance negative effects on mental health [10]. Nowadays the connection between physical activity and mental and physical health is widely established: physical activity has a moderate effect on reducing state and trait anxiety [11] and is associated with a decreased risk of developing clinical depression [12], enhanced subjective well-being [13], the moderation of stress [14], improved mood state [15,16], increased self-esteem [17][18][19][20][21], and quality of life [22]. As a result, many modern occupational health promotion interventions include physical activity in the workplace not only to improve or maintain physical health but also to support well-being [23][24][25]. ...
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The present field study evaluates the use of dynamic workstations (cycling devices) in a real-life office environment. Specific characteristics of use were recorded and possible relationships with short-term changes in well-being were investigated. For a period of 12 weeks, 36 employees were given free access to eight devices. Frequency, duration and speed of use were self-determined but registered objectively for every event of use. Immediately before and after using a cycling device, employees rated their well-being with a modified version of the EZ-scale from Nitsch to assess changes in the short-term. In total, 817 events of use were registered. On each day of the intervention period one of the devices was used. Participants used the devices between one day to all days present at the office, for 21.09 (SD 0.58) to 31.58 (SD 2.19) minutes on average per event of use per day. Comparing the pre- and post-measurements, a significant increase in well-being after using a cycling device was found. Results of a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analysis showed mixed effects for the duration of use, the speed and variation of speed on the probability of reporting positive changes in recovery, calmness and mood. Therefore, using cycling devices in the office might improve short-term well-being.
... In addition, PA has been linked with positive health perceptions, subjective psychological well-being, vitality, and physical functioning [3,4]. For instance, meta-analyses revealed small to medium-sized effects for PA on higher global self-esteem, reduced depression, reduced anxiety, and better psychological well-being [5][6][7]. Perceptions of health have been identified as a mediating variable between physical and mental health in older Korean Americans [8], suggesting that better mental health outcomes may arise due to changes in health perception. Fitness has also shown to be associated with good mental health in Korean adolescents [9] and American middle school students [10]. ...
Article
Purpose To examine associations between physical activity contexts and health and fitness perceptions among Korean adults and youth. Method Data were from the Korean Survey on Citizens’ Sports Participation in 2015. Korean youth (N = 832; Mage = 14.7) and adults (N = 6719; Mage = 41.3) were included in the hierarchical logistic and linear regressions. Youth physical activity was examined in school-based (i.e., school-based and after-school/Saturday school sports) and out of school (i.e., organized sports) settings. Adults who met the World Health Organization (WHO) physical activity guidelines or not, and participated in structured (e.g., sport) and unstructured (e.g., walking) physical activity were compared. The outcome variables were self-reported health and fitness. Gender interactions between physical activity and all outcomes were examined for the adult sample only. Results No associations existed between physical activity and perceived health or fitness among youth. Adults who met the WHO guidelines, or participated in structured physical activity showed higher odds of reporting good health. Unstructured physical activity was associated with lower odds of reporting good health. Positive perceptions of fitness were more likely to be reported by males who met physical activity guidelines compared to females. Conclusions For youth, the potential benefit of physical activity, regardless of contexts, may be more apparent for psychological health than perceived physical health, and school should be used as a venue to promote physical activity. For adults, structured physical activity and achieving the WHO physical activity guidelines may be suggested for perceptions of overall health.
... First, some constructs that are often operationalized as body image were excluded. The exclusion of studies focused solely on physical self-concept and self-perceptions and self-esteem enabled a more specific focus on body image and reviews of these constructs are available elsewhere (Babic et al., 2014;Liu, Wu, & Ming, 2015;Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005). The exclusion of SPA may have limited the research on negative body image. ...
Article
Objectives: This scoping review explored the associations between physical activity, sport, and body image. Design: Scoping review. Method: The studies were identified and selected using broad search criteria using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO via Ovid and CINAHL, Gender Studies and Sport Discus via EBSCO, from January 1, 2008 up to May 15, 2018 for English peer-reviewed publications. A rigorous evaluation following specific exclusion criteria ensued and 210 publications (182 quantitative, 26 qualitative, and 2 mixed-methods studies) were indexed and summarized using frequency counts. Results: The studies were focused exclusively on sport (14.8%) or physical activity (defined as structured or leisure; 85.2%). The majority of the quantitative studies (58.2%) focused on the relationship between physical activity or sport and body image whereas 41.8% explored how body image was either a protective factor or deterrent for physical activity or sport participation. Four qualitative studies specifically examined the intersection of physical activity or sport and body image experiences. Based on the frequency of reported findings in the journal articles, participation in physical activity and sport was related to less negative and more positive body image. Negative body image was linked to lower physical activity and sport participation and was discussed qualitatively as a barrier to participation. Positive body image was associated with greater participation in physical activity and sport. There was no empirical focus on the bi-directional and reciprocal associations between physical activity or sport and body image, thus precluding any causal conclusions. Conclusions: Future research is needed using integrative conceptual frameworks and research designs that emphasize and delineate the causal, bi-directional, and reciprocal associations between body image and physical activity and sport behaviors.
... Scores of ?20 represent the cut point for "Zone IV" risk level and should be referred to a health provider for further evaluation for an alcohol use disorder. The reliability and validity of the AUDIT are well established (Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005). ...
Thesis
Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychological disorder that affects about 7% of adults in the United States. PTSD and its symptoms have consistently been shown to have an inverse relationship with exercise participation. The strongest reported associations have been between high intensity exercise, and the hyperarousal and avoidance symptom clusters. Importantly, resistance training (i.e., weight lifting) is thought to have beneficial effects for several conditions that commonly co-occur with PTSD, such as anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality. However, no studies have examined the effects of high intensity resistance training on PTSD symptoms. Purpose: This study sought to examine the effects of a 3-week high intensity resistance training program on the PTSD hyperarousal and avoidance symptom clusters, sleep quality, anxiety, and depression symptoms in anxious adults who screened positive for PTSD. Additionally, this study explored potential mechanisms of action (e.g., cognitive appraisal, perceived exertion, acute changes in affect, arousal, and distress) between exercise and PTSD. Methods: Thirty trait anxious individuals who screened positive for PTSD were randomly assigned to either a 3-week high intensity resistance training intervention, or a 3-week time-matched attention control group, while blocking for gender. Both groups were required to attend 3 on-site sessions per week, for 3 weeks (i.e., 9 total sessions). Each resistance training session consisted of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of high intensity resistance training, and a 5-minute cool-down. Each control session consisted of a brief 30-minute educational video on topics not relating to exercise or PTSD. Changes in PTSD symptoms, sleep quality, anxiety and depression were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, and potential mechanisms of action were explored with a series of longitudinal mixed-effects regression models. Results: Participants were 73.3% female, with a mean age of 29.1 years (SD = 7.4), and 63.3% identified as a racial minority. Groups did not significantly differ at baseline. There was a Time*Group interaction for hyperarousal symptoms (F = 4.7, p = .04, η2 .18), demonstrating a significantly larger reduction in hyperarousal symptoms for the resistance training group (d = -1.84) relative to the control (d = -1.13). The Time*Group interaction for avoidance symptoms was not significant (F = 1.7, p = .20, η2 = .08); however, the effect size of resistance training was larger (d = -2.71) than the control (d = -1.16). There was a significant Time*Group interaction for sleep quality (F = 4.7, p = .04, η2 = .19), demonstrating greater improvements in global sleep quality for resistance training (d = -1.06) relative to the control (d = -.15). However, there was no significant effect of Time on PTSD-related sleep disturbances (F = 3.0, p = .1, η2 = .13) nor was there a significant Time*Group interaction (F = .09, p = .80, η2 < .01). Similarly, Time*Group interactions for anxiety (F = 3.5, p = .08, η2 = .14) and depressive symptoms (F = 2.7, p = .12, η2 = .11) were not significant. However, resistance training had a large effect on anxiety (d = -.81), and small effect on depression symptoms (¬d = -.41). Regarding the potential mechanisms of action, changes in cognitive appraisal significantly predicted changes in PTSD symptoms during the resistance training intervention (b = 7.1, SE = 2.9, p = .02). Similarly, changes in perceived exertion during exercise was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms over the 3-week intervention period (b = -3.1, SE = 1.2, p = .01). However, changes in affect, arousal, and distress did not significantly predict changes in PTSD (p’s >.05). Conclusion: This is the first randomized attention-controlled trial testing the effects of high intensity resistance training on PTSD symptoms. The overall results support the hypothesis that resistance training can beneficially affect PTSD symptoms and its commonly co-occurring conditions, such as poor sleep quality. Future adequately powered studies are warranted.
... These two terms are used interchangeably in literature where confidence is defined as a belief in one's ability to achieve goals and realize their ability (Taylor andWilson 2005, Vealey 2009). A meta-analysis reviewed 113 studies relating to confidence and global self-efficacy arising from participation in physical activity (Spence 2005). It revealed that exercise participation was linked to small statistically significant improvements in confidence and global self-efficacy but had the greatest influence on domain-specific physical self-efficacy. ...
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This paper reports on mixed methods research that was part of a larger investigation into the impact of an inclusive, physical activity intervention programme on a broad range of variables including children’s enjoyment of, and participation in physical activity, self-perceptions, physical self-efficacy and how this influenced their overall social–emotional health and well-being. A six-month intervention programme based on Traditional Indigenous Games (TIG) was conducted in a total of five schools with 235 children and their seven teachers, in Queensland, Australia. Student reflective surveys used a four-point Likert scale to collect quantitative data relating to enjoyment and inclusion, perceptions of ability and physical self-efficacy. Qualitative data were also obtained through teachers’ anecdotal notes and post-intervention semi-structured interviews. Statistically significant differences across time were found for student enjoyment, inclusion, perceptions and physical self-efficacy and were supported by the teacher’s qualitative data. Improvements in students’ physical self-efficacy through inclusive physical activity occurred as a result of the positive experiences created by the TIG intervention programme. This study demonstrates the huge potential for the inclusive and cooperative approach foregrounded in TIG, to support the development of inclusive physical activity in schools which enhances physical self-efficacy and promotes the social–emotional health and well-being of children.
... La sensibilidad a la ansiedad (SA) o miedo a las sensaciones de ansiedad (Reiss, Peterson, Gursky, y McNally, 1986), es uno de los constructos psicológicos de mayor relevancia, fundamentalmente caracterizado por el miedo a la creencia que la ansiedad y sus sensaciones poseen consecuencias peligrosas o dañinas, lo que supone un factor de predisposición y preparación para el desarrollo de conductas evitativas . El desarrollo de la SA como elemento de una "alarma adaptativa" sobre la respuesta psicológica de ansiedad (ver figura 1), permite a modo de impulso preparador de alerta, el manejo de situaciones bajo presión (Coudevylle, Gernigon, y Martin, 2011;Molina et al, 2014a;Taylor, Koch y Crockett, 2001) o en la propia autoestima (Arent y Landers, 2003;Landman, Nieuwenhuys, & Oudejans, 2016;Mesagno, Harvey, y Janelle, 2012;Molina, Chorot, Valiente, y Sandín, 2014;Spence, McGannon, y Poon, 2005). ...
... . Mais recentemente, Lindwall e Hassmén19 , em 2004, ressaltaram que adolescentes envolvi-dos com atividades corpóreas adjuntas de movimento apontavam competências físicas mais refinadas, pelas quais se sentiam mais satisfeitos consigo mesmos. Spence et al.20 , em 2005, associaram a prática esportiva à autoestima, porém o esporte é apenas um componente da atividade física. Fiske e Taylor 21 , em 2013, analisaram a repercussão das competências físicas oriundas da prática de atividade física na saúde subjetiva da pessoa, inclusive, ressaltaram a importância de olhar para os benefícios da atividade física sob essa ótica, além dos benefícios biológicos já lembrados na literatura3,22,23 .Internacionalmente a associação entre NAF e autoconceito de autoestima já foi objeto de estudo no extrato etário da adolescência. ...
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Resumo O nível de atividade física e o autoconceito de autoestima são fatores adjacentes do status de saúde da população. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar a associação entre nível de atividade física e autoconceito de autoestima de adolescentes. A amostra foi constituída por 98 sujeitos com média de 16,7 ± 1,2 anos. Utilizou-se dois instrumentos: Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física – versão curta e Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg. A regressão logística binária (Odds Ratio) com α de 5% foi utilizada. As evidências teóricas giraram em torno da abordagem contemporânea do conceito de saúde e os resultados foram discutidos à luz da teoria comportamental do adolescente. Houve predominância de adolescentes ativos (41,8%), bem como menor proporção de sedentários (4,1%). Apresentaram autoestima elevada 55,1%, enquanto 44,9% revelaram a ter baixa. Conclui-se que não houve associação (Wald F = 2,756; p = 0,600) entre nível de atividade física e autoconceito de autoestima. Por fim, discutiu-se elementos comportamentais do adolescente que apontam lócus às futuras intervenções relativas ao tema com este público.
... #8: Exercise to maintain your sense of wellbeing Feeling healthy, strong, and good about our bodies has been demonstrated to result in not only better health but also more self-confidence, more energy, and a sense of well-being (Edwards, 2006;Fox and Lindwall, 2014;Spence et al., 2005). Therefore, it is imperative for us to make time to exercise regularly to sustain the energy level needed to accomplish the daily chores of living and employment and to feel better about ourselves. ...
... Заниманията с ФА са ефективни за намаляване симптомите на депресия и тревожност при стари хора с лека или с клинична депресия (Singh, 2005) Изследвания, обзори и метаанализи показват, че заниманията с ФА подобряват общата самооценка или самооценката при възрастни (Fox, 2000;Spence, McGannon, Poon , 2005) Метаанализ, обобщаващ резултатите от изследвания относно влиянието на ФА върху позитивния и негативния афект при стари хора, показва положителни резултати от ФА (Arent, Landers and Etnier 2000). Авторите обобщават, че позитивните настроения се повишават значимо повече при групите с ФА, в сравнение с контролите, при всички видове ФА, но найголямо влияние имат физически активности с по-ниска интензивност. ...
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Книгата съдържа информация, която очаквам да бъде интересна и полезна, както за интересуващите се от българската система от гимнастически музикални упражнения, наречена паневритмия, така и за широк кръг специалисти, работещи в областите на здравеопазването и образованието. В първа глава са представени най-нови научни данни за: въздействието на физическата активност върху здравето, характеристиките на здравословната физическа активност и последните оповестени от световни здравни институции долни граници на необходимата за здравето двигателна активност. Направен е актуален научен обзор за влиянието на физическата активност (ФА) върху физическото и психичното здраве и качеството на живота при деца и юноши, зрели лица и при хора в напреднала възраст. Резюмирани са концепциите на П. Дънов за здравето и неговото възстановяване, както и поддържането чрез двигателна активност. Във втора и четвърта глава е представена паневритмията с общо описание, кратък анализ на паневритмичния комплекс упражнения от гледна точка на кинезитерапията, обсъждане на ключовите концепции относно общите теоретични постановки за паневритмията и важните компоненти на нейното въздействие, както и история на паневритмията. В трета глава от съвременна гледна точка са формулирани и са подкрепени с научни факти обяснителните механизми за влиянието на паневритмията върху физическото, психичното и социалното състояние на практикуващите я. Всички тези данни обогатяват както разбирането за паневритмията, така и за човека и неговото здраве. Петата глава съдържа обзор на значимите научни изследвания на паневритмията, публикувани до излизането на настоящата книга. В част от тази монография са представени резултатите от дисертационен труд, в който за първи път с голяма батерия от физически и психологически тестове е изследвано и установено психофизическото влияние на начално обучение по паневритмия при възрастни лица (Червенкова, 2012). Тази основа е надградена с нови големи раздели данни и анализи, както и с резултатите от първо, непубликувано до момента, експериментално изследване на промените в психофизическото състояние в резултат на един сезон (6 месеца) изпълнение на паневритмия при по-отдавна практикуващи. Шеста глава е посветена на методологията на тези две експериментални изследвания, обединени в едно по-голямо изследване. В седма глава са представени резултатите, направен е анализ и са изведени изводи. На базата на наличната до момента научна литература за паневритмията и на представените в този труд собствени резултати, са формулирани перспективни насоки за приложение и изследване на паневритмията за подобряване на психофизическото състояние и съхраняване на здравето при три възрастови групи. С цел по-голяма яснота за незапознатите с упражненията на паневритмията са добавени и снимки, които показват паневритмичните упражнения, като илюстрират крайните позиции на индивидуалните движения, изпълнявани от практикуващите.
... Meta-analyses show that physical exercise is associated with decreased depression and anxiety (Rebar et al., 2015), increased global self-esteem (Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005), and improved body-image (Campbell & Hausenblas, 2009). A reciprocal relationship between anxiety and PE has been suggested (e.g., Althof et al., 2014;Jern, 2009), where previously experienced perceived failures lead to heightened anxiety, which leads PE, thus sustaining the dysfunction. ...
... People who actively participate in physical activities develop a better perception of themselves (Sonstroem, 1997), which often leads to an increase of global self-concept (Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005). Top-level athletes possess a higher level of emotional intelligence (Costarelli, & Stamou, 2009). ...
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Although research in education, including worldwide Programme for International Stu-dent Assessment (PISA) by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, shows that female language learners outdo their male counterparts in the development of verbal skills, a number of re-searchers have strongly challenged that claim. The aim of this paper is to find out whether professional foreign language competence in a higher education institution (HEI) in Latvia is different between females and males. In order to determine this, we have analyzed final grades and presentation scores (lecturer, peer and self-assessment) of students in an ESP (English for Specific Purposes, in our case: Sport English) course, as well as their levels of second language acquisition, obtained in centralized secondary school leaving exams, which serves as the basis for further development of professional foreign language competence in a sport related HEI. Whereas grades, scores and levels are considered in the present paper as depen-dent variables, gender constitutes an independent variable. A series of Mann-Whitney U tests has revealed no significant difference in male and female achievement in centralized school leaving exam in second language (English); in final grades, obtained by students in an ESP course; and in lecturer assessment of student presentations in the ESP course. However, the analysis of peer assessment of student presentations in the ESP course reveals that females tend to overestimate themselves and their peers. The latter observation, as this paper argues, may result from the fact that sport related HEI students are characterized by increased self-esteem (Rudzinska, 2007).
... Besonders deutlich profitieren depressiv Erkrankte von diesen Wirkungen, aber auch bei psychisch Gesunden sind stimmungsaufhellende Effekte nachweisbar (Rethorst, Wipfli & Landers, 2009). Des Weiteren kann körperliche Aktivität Angstzustände erfolgreicher als beispielsweise Gruppentherapien, Entspannungsverfahren oder Stressmanagementedukation lindern (Wipfli, Rethorst & Landers, 2008) und beeinflusst die Eigenwahrnehmung und das Selbstwertgefühl positiv (Spence, McGannon & Poon, 2005). Körperliches Training verbessert außerdem die Aufmerksamkeitsfähigkeit, die kognitiven Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeiten und das Erinnerungsvermögen (Smith et al., 2010). ...
... Given the cumulative influence of components of physical fitness on adolescents' self-esteem, it would be interesting if public health strategies focussed on the promotion of psychological well-being included specific exercise programs aimed to improve cardiorespiratory and muscular strength fitness levels. This is especially relevant during adolescence, which is an important period of life in terms of establishment of health-related behaviours (Viner et al. 2015), influencing physical and psychological well-being during adulthood (Spence et al. 2005;Lin et al. 2015;Kandola et al. 2019). ...
Article
Background: Self-esteem is a common indicator of psychological well-being, but its relationship with physical fitness components during adolescence is not fully understood. Aims: The aims of this study were to analyse the association of physical fitness components (low vs. high) with self-esteem in adolescents, and to examine the combined influence of physical fitness on self-esteem. Subjects and methods: A total of 225 participants (44% girls), aged 13.9 ± 0.3 years, from the DADOS (Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud) study were included in the analyses. ALPHA-Fitness Test Battery was used to evaluate physical fitness components. The Spanish version of the Behaviour Assessment System for Children-3 questionnaire was used to asses self-esteem. Results: Our results showed differences on self-esteem between groups of cardiorespiratory fitness (low= 49.51 ± 12.03 vs. high= 55.01 ± 4.46; p < 0.05) and upper limb muscular strength (low= 53.87 ± 7.38 vs. high= 54.29 ± 5.99; p < 0.05). Lower limb muscular strength and speed-agility groups did not show statistical differences. Significant differences on self-esteem were found when comparing adolescents with a physical fitness index of ≤1 vs. 4 (52.66 vs. 55.28; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness and upper limb muscular strength are positively related with self-esteem. Moreover, our results revealed a combined influence of physical fitness on the self-esteem of adolescents.
... Sport und Bewegung zeigen in den bisherigen Untersuchungen vielseitige positive Wirkungen sowohl auf die psychische, die soziale als auch auf die physische Gesundheit [3,4,8,9,15,16,25,27]. In der aktuellen Studie konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sportliche Aktivität einen positiven Effekt auf die individuelle Belastung durch den Tinnitus und die subjektiv eingeschätzte Lautstärke der Ohrgeräusche zeigt. ...
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Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Trotz nachgewiesener positiver Wirkungen auf die psychische, physische und soziale Gesundheit werden sporttherapeutische Interventionen momentan äußerst selten bei der Behandlung von Tinnitus eingesetzt. Fragestellung Wirkt sich ein sporttherapeutisches Interventionsprogramm positiv auf die individuelle Belastung durch den Tinnitus, das globale Wohlbefinden und die subjektiv wahrgenommene Lautstärke bei PatientInnen mit Tinnitusbeschwerden aus? Material und Methode Es wurde ein Prä-Post-Design mit Interventions- und Kontrollgruppe (Sportprogramm vs. keine Intervention) durchgeführt. Die gekürzte Fassung des Tinnitusfragebogens (Erfassung der individuellen Belastung), der Gesichterskala (Erfassung des globalen Wohlbefindens) und einer selbstkonstruierten Skala zur Erhebung der subjektiv eingeschätzten Lautstärke wurden als Erhebungsinstrumente eingesetzt. Ergebnisse Insgesamt nahmen 64 Personen an der Untersuchung teil (jeweils 32 in der Interventions- und Kontrollgruppe). Signifikante Gruppenunterschiede resultierten bezüglich der Veränderung der individuellen Belastung (2,84 ± 1,11 Punkte; F = 2,64; p = 0,010) und der subjektiv eingeschätzten Lautstärke (2,56 ± 0,68 Punkte; F = 3,79; p = 0,000). Die Interventionsgruppe zeigte eine signifikant stärkere Abnahme im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe. Hinsichtlich der Veränderung der globalen Stimmung resultierten keine signifikanten Gruppenunterschiede (−0,53 ± 0,38 Punkte; F = −1,39; p = 0,690). Schlussfolgerungen Sport zeigt vielfältige positive Wirkungen auf die selbst eingeschätzte Symptomatik einer Tinnituserkrankung und sollte dementsprechend innerhalb der Therapie häufiger eingesetzt werden.
... Many studies pointed out that internal psychological factors, such as the strengthened fitness consciousness of individuals (4)(5) and stimulated excise motives (6), are decisive factors in effectively increasing the degree of individual participation in physical exercises (7). Physical exercise motives refer to internal psychological incentives that encourage individuals to participate in physical exercises and meet their needs or demands, which are also important factors for guiding physical exercise behaviors (8). Gao (9) conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis on the level of physical activity of adolescents and health-related quality of life and verified that strengthening guidance for adolescents' sports expectations and motivations can increase their beliefs in sports expectations and promote their participation in daily physical activities. ...
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Background: A good level of physical fitness helps teenagers maintain a good state in daily study and life and enables them to cope well with emergencies. We aimed to explore the influences of physical exercise motives on the physical health and aerobic fitness of teenagers. Methods: A total of 982 teenagers aged between 13 and 16 years in the four districts of Guangzhou City, China from January to December 2019 were selected randomly with the assistance of communities. Their physical exercise motives and exercise behaviors were investigated using a questionnaire survey, and their physical health indexes and aerobic fitness were assessed. The relationships of physical exercise motives and behaviors with physical health and aerobic fitness were analyzed. Results: Teenagers who have higher physical health scores show significantly increasing trends in their scores in exercise motives and different dimensions, exercise behaviors, and aerobic fitness scores (P
... Recent data show that 27.5% of adults do not meet the WHO recommendations on physical activity (PA) internationally, and this number is 25% in Denmark [2,3]. Physical inactivity (PI) not only affects health risks such as non-communicable diseases, disease-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality [4,5], but have also been associated with lower mental wellbeing and quality of life [6,7]. Globally PI has been estimated to cost health care systems $ (INT$) 53.8 billion in 2013 and contribute to productivity losses of 13.7 billion due to deaths related to PI [8]. ...
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Background Physical inactivity is recognized as a leading global public health threat. Physical Literacy, a concept describing an individual’s prerequisites to participate in and adhere to physical activities, has been suggested to be a key concept in understanding physical activity in various populations. The aim of this study was to describe the prerequisites for physical activity among inactive adults in terms of their physical literacy and previous experience with sport and exercise and how these are interrelated. Methods Sample: 1033 physical inactive Danes. Measures: BREQ-3, ESES, the Levels of knowledge questionnaire and the physical self-confidence scale. Results Inactive Danish adult’s physical literacy scores are generally low compared to samples in other studies. Inactive adults with no or little previous experience with sport and exercise had lower levels of competences, self-efficacy and autonomous motivation for exercise and sport than the inactive with more experience. Previous sport and exercise experience was positively associated to the physical and affective domain of PL. Conclusion Previous experience with sport and exercise is very important to consider when developing sport and exercise activities for currently inactive adults as individuals with low previous experience have lower competences and autonomous motivation and therefore need lower challenges and other important attention to the motivational climate in order to ensure that the activities are motivating enough to secure continued engagement.
... Thus, it is unsurprising that the available literature on self-esteem and exercise focuses on the relationship between global self-esteem and exercise. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between global self-esteem and exercise in adults showed a small but statistically significant relationship between engaging in exercise and improved self-esteem (Spence et al., 2005). Other studies of adult and college student samples reported similar findings, with engagement in even relatively small amounts of exercise associated with modest increases in self-esteem and improved quality of life (e.g., Kell & Rula, 2019;Li et al., 2014;Moore et al., 2007). ...
Article
While regular exercise is associated with a number of physical and mental health benefits, basing one’s self-esteem largely on exercise is likely associated with negative outcomes. In the present studies, the authors developed a novel measure of this construct, something they term “exercise overvaluation.” In Study 1, 820 participants completed an online survey measuring self-esteem, exercise attitudes and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to develop the 14-item Exercise Overvaluation Scale. The results provided evidence of discriminant and convergent validity and internal consistency reliability of scale scores. In Study 2, the Exercise Overvaluation Scale was administered to 134 university athletes, including those who participated in intramural sports, club sports, and collegiate athletics. The results from Study 2 supported the criterion validity and test–retest reliability of scale scores. This scale offers researchers a new tool to help understand the relationships among exercise, self-esteem, and physical and mental health outcomes.
... Physical activity is well regarded for its many physiological and psychological health benefits across the lifespan. One aspect of psychological health which physical activity has been shown to impact is an individual's global self-esteem (GSE) (Fox, 2000;Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005). GSE is a multidimensional concept defined as "the individual's positive or negative attitude toward the self as a totality" (Rosenberg, Schooler, Schoenbach, & Rosenberg, 1995) and has been identified as a key indicator of positive mental health and wellbeing (Paradise & Kernis, 2002). ...
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Low self-esteem is frequently identified as source of personality, anxiety and body image disorders among adolescent females. The Exercise Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM) is a framework that embodies the multidimensional and hierarchical structure of global self-esteem and its relationship to physical activity and has been effective in guiding the design of physical activity interventions. Although this model has been tested with a variety of populations, it remains to be validated in adolescent females. Additionally, we sought to expand the original model by investigating how additional parameters of body fat and cardiovascular fitness independently contributed to physical and global domains of self-esteem. Ninety-four adolescent females (Mage = 15.6 ± 1.7) completed validated measures of global self-esteem, physical self-esteem and physical self-efficacy. Participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents to quantify habitual physical activity levels. Objective physical measurements included height, weight, body fat and cardiovascular fitness. The newly proposed expanded-EXSEM model provided a good model-data fit tested using structural equation modeling (χ2 = 4.54 (p = .21), CFI = .99, RMSEA = 0.07, SRMR = 0.02) compared to the original EXSEM. Physical activity levels were significantly associated with both cardiovascular fitness and body fat and were a positive predictor of physical self-efficacy. Physical self-efficacy, cardiovascular fitness, and body fat were all predictors of physical self-esteem, which directly affected global self-esteem. Our data validates the expanded-EXSEM model in a sample of adolescent females and identifies targets for interventions to change global self-esteem as well as sub-domains of physical self-esteem. While changing fitness variables may be effective in targeting perceptions of body-esteem alone, physical activity participation still remains the primary determinant to bring about the cascade of positive changes in physical self-efficacy and self-esteem in this population.
... BMI may be influenced by lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions, which may in turn improve self-esteem, but PCOS cannot be prevented and there is no cure. Perhaps increasing PA can improve self-esteem (Spence, McGannon and Poon, 2005), but there is little evidence to support this notion in the current study, since the correlation coefficients between PA and self-esteem were close to zero regardless of the group being analysed. However, the role of PA in the promotion of self-esteem also warrants further investigation. ...
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-aged women. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of PCOS typically include cystic ovaries, ovulatory dysfunction, and hyperandrogenaemia. PCOS is also associated with metabolic and psychological morbidity. Typically, management of PCOS focusses upon weight loss through positive lifestyle changes, namely caloric restriction and increasing physical activity (PA). Exercise is an effective treatment for a range of populations; despite its recommendation in PCOS, little is known about its effectiveness at improving health in this population. Accordingly, three studies were completed to investigate the effect of PA in the management of PCOS. Studies of women with PCOS that compared exercise (and diet) interventions to control conditions were meta-analysed in a systematic review. Exercise interventions improved insulin resistance, lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness. However, the magnitude of these changes was small and the certainty of the evidence was graded as low or very low. A need for rigorously designed and sufficiently powered studies that address this question was highlighted. In study 2, despite no differences in PA, women with PCOS were found to be more overweight, and have poorer self-esteem and quality of life (QoL) than women without PCOS. Self-esteem, BMI and a PCOS diagnosis impaired QoL, whereas PA appeared to have no effect. Study 3 also reported less-favourable health, independent of BMI, in women with PCOS compared to controls. Cluster analysis was completed, and a larger proportion of women with PCOS were assigned to the poorer health cluster; this cluster was also less active. Furthermore, women who were more active, and spent less time sitting, had more favourable health. In conclusion, this PhD highlights a lack of high-quality studies to investigate the role of PA in women with PCOS; this should be a research priority. However, women with PCOS who are more active, and spend less time sitting have reduced cardiovascular risk, which supports current treatment recommendations.
... Meta-analyses of the effectiveness of exercise programs to improve body image (e.g., Campbell & Hausenblas, 2009) produced effect sizes of small-to-moderate magnitude, with slightly higher values for women (Cohen's d = 0.32) than for men (Cohen's d = 0.19). The influence of exercise on global self-esteem was also found to be of small-to-moderate size (Cohen's d = 0.31 in the meta-analysis by Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005). On the other hand, the impact of exercise on specific physical aspects of the self can be of greater amplitude. ...
Article
Objective: To examine the moderating effect of internalized media messages on ideal body shape and lifestyle in the relationships between physical exercise, self-esteem, physical self-perceptions, and body image satisfaction. Design: pre-test/posttest control group experimental design. Methods: 46 inactive women (mean age = 21.4 ± 2.1 years-old) volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to Exercise (n = 23) or Wait-list (n = 23) groups. The Exercise group participated in two 50 minutes long exercise sessions per week for six weeks. During this period women in the Wait-list group did not participate in any regular physical activity. The French version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile (ISP-25) and the Body Image Assessment Scale (BIAS-BD) were administered to participants before and after intervention. In addition, the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) was completed to assess participants’ level of internalization of media standards. Results and Discussion: Women in the Exercise group improved more in outcomes than those in the Wait-list group. Effects were only marginally moderated by levels of media internalization. Potential explanations for these findings are reviewed and discussed.
... Akan tetapi, penulis ulasan tersebut mencatat bahwa banyak penelitian di kalangan anak muda telah mengalami keterbatasan metodologis, hanya satu dari 25 penelitian yang termasuk dalam kajian yang dinilai memiliki '' risiko bias yang rendah, '' dan 14 memiliki '' risiko bias yang tinggi. '' Demikian pula, meta-analisis intervensi di antara orang dewasa (Spence, McGannon, & Poon, 2005) menyimpulkan bahwa partisipasi dalam aktivitas fisik menghasilkan perbaikan kecil yang signifikan dalam physical self-concept, namun mengeluarkan seruan untuk penelitian lebih lanjut dari tautan physical self-concept dan aktivitas fisik yang menguji perubahan dalam kebugaran fisik aktual. ...
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Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji keterkaitan antara physical self-concept dengan aktivitas fisik pada usia remaja. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah asosiasonal korelasi dan kausal komparatif. Partisipan dalam penelitian adalah 50 orang siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) yang ada di pedesaan Jawa Barat. Instrument Personal Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) digunakan untuk mengukur physical self-concept, sedangkan Accelerometer (ActivPAL) digunakan untuk mengukur aktivitas fisik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan yang signifikan antara physical self-concept dengan aktivitas fisik pada usia remaja SMA p 0.05. Temuan ini berbeda dengan beberapa hasil penelitian sebelumnya dan perlu dikaji lebih jauh lagi.
... Generalmente, la autoestima se considera como el componente de evaluación del autoconcepto. El autoconcepto es un concepto más amplio que la autoestima, y está compuesto por los componentes cognitivos y conductuales, así como los afectivos y físicos (Schneider, Fridlund Duntun y Cooper, 2008;Spence, McGannon y Poon, 2005). ...
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RESUMEN: El propósito del presente estudio ha sido examinar la relación entre autoestima y competitividad en surfistas de élite. Los participantes del estudio fueron los miembros de una selección peruana juvenil de surf (n=11), previa a su participación en un campeonato mundial. Se les administró el Cuestionario de Competitividad-10 de Remor (2007) y el Cuestionario de Autoestima de Coopersmith (1967). Los resultados obtenidos evidenciaron ciertas correlaciones entre la competitividad y la motivación para el éxito y para evitar el fracaso, así como con las dis-tintas subdimensiones de la autoestima. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem and competitiveness in elite surfers. Study participants were members of a selection of Peruvian surfing youth (n = 11) prior to their participation in a world championship. Questionnaire were administered the Competitiveness Remor-10 (2007) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Questionnaire (1967). The results showed some correlations between competitiveness and motivation to succeed and to avoid failure, as well as the various subdimensions of self-esteem. RESUMO: O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar a relação entre a auto-estima e competitivida-253 AUTOESTIMA Y COMPETITIVIDAD EN UNA SELECCIÓN JUVENIL PERUANA DE SURF
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Sportpsychologie wird von vielen Menschen, vor allem solchen, die sich weniger gut auskennen, zuerst einmal mit Themen wie Wettkampf, Leistung und Leistungssport assoziiert. In den vergangenen Jahrzehnten hat sich neben diesem Themenkomplex jedoch noch ein zweiter entwickelt, zu dem inzwischen fast genauso viel geforscht und publiziert wird. Sportpsychologinnen und Sportpsychologen widmen sich intensiv auch gesundheitsbezogenen Themen.
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Introduction Physical fitness and psychosocial health might improve through resistance training programs. However, there has been controversy regarding the efficacy of different exercise programs. Therefore, this study attempted to compare the effect of 8-week resistance training with linear and undulating programming on physical fitness and mental health. Twenty-nine healthy and untrained students (age: 16.06±0.83) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) control (n= 6), (2) linear programmed resistance training (LPRT) (n= 12), and (3) undulating programmed resistance training (UPRT) (n= 11). After two weeks of familiarization, 1RM (one-maximum repetition) values were obtained. Thereafter, experimental groups attended a resistance training program of 3 sessions/week (lasted 60 min each) for 8 weeks. Both groups had a similar plan until the fourth week. Then, intensity increased up to 70% of 1RM on a weekly basis for the LPRT group, and varied on a daily basis for the UPRT group. Upper-and lower-extremities strength and endurance, balance, speed, explosive-power, lean body mass, general mental health (GSQ) and physical self-concept (PSCQ) were measured. Experimental groups produced significant improvements in physical outcomes, in comparison with the control group. There were no improvements in GSQ and PSCQ. There were no statistically significant differences between the two programs. Both linear and undulating programs improved physical fitness of previously sedentary adolescent males to a similar extent. For practical purposes, as long as loads are individually adjusted, the type of program may not be relevant in beginner practitioners. Furthermore, both models were ineffective in producing changes in the psychosocial variables.
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In diesem Beitrag werden die stressregulierenden Mechanismen von Sport und Bewegung genauer untersucht. In einem auf der transaktionalen Stresstheorie basierenden Modell der Stress-Gesundheits-Beziehung werden vier verschiedene Wirkweisen der körperlichen Aktivität postuliert. Im Prozess der Stressentstehung werden stressorreduzierende und ressourcenstärkende Wirkweisen von Sport und Bewegung angenommen. Geht es nicht mehr nur um Stressentstehung, sondern bereits um Stressbewältigung (Coping), kann die körperliche Aktivität auf der Ebene der Stressreaktionen ansetzen und dort eine reaktionsverringernde Wirkweise entfalten. Unterschieden werden hier kognitive, affektive, behaviorale und biologische Wirkungen, die allesamt der Gruppe der palliativ-regenerativen Coping-Strategien angehören. Palliativ-regenerative Stressbewältigung setzt nicht an den Ursachen stresserzeugender Bewertungsprozesse an, sondern an deren Folgen, nämlich den Stressreaktionen. Ziel ist es, diese zu lindern (palliativ) bzw. den positiven Ausgangszustand des betreffenden Reaktionsparameters wiederherzustellen (regenerativ). Dies geschieht dadurch, dass durch körperliche Aktivität z. B. die stressbedingte Kortisolausschüttung abgemildert oder die stressbedingte psychische Anspannung verringert wird (Reaktionsverringerung). Schließlich wird im Modell noch eine gesundheitsstärkende Wirkweise angenommen, die den gesamten Stress-Gesundheits-Prozess betrifft und die auf einer kompensatorischen Wirkung der körperlichen Aktivität beruht.
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Die Frage der (positiven) Wirkungen sportlicher Aktivitäten auf die Persönlichkeitsentwicklung ist seit Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts ein zentrales Forschungsthema innerhalb der Sportpsychologie. Trotz einer Vielzahl von Studien konnte allerdings lange Zeit keine eindeutige Wirkung sportlicher Aktivitäten auf die Persönlichkeit nachgewiesen werden. Die Gründe liegen zum einen in der Breite der Begriffe „Sport“ und „Persönlichkeit“, zum anderen an forschungsmethodischen Unzulänglichkeiten früherer Studien. In neueren Studien wird diesem Mangel unter anderem durch Interventionsstudien mit spezifisch inszenierten Sportaktivitäten und durch die Wahl plastischerer Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, z. B. dem Selbstkonzept, begegnet. Als theoretischer Ansatz rückt zunehmend der dynamische Interaktionismus in den Fokus, der einen ganzheitlichen Blick auf die Persönlichkeitsentwicklung und ihre Einflusssysteme erlaubt.
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In diesem Beitrag werden die stressregulierenden Mechanismen von Sport und Bewegung genauer untersucht. In einem auf der transaktionalen Stresstheorie basierenden Modell der Stress-Gesundheits-Beziehung werden vier verschiedene Wirkweisen der körperlichen Aktivität postuliert. Im Prozess der Stressentstehung werden stressorreduzierende und ressourcenstärkende Wirkweisen von Sport und Bewegung angenommen. Geht es nicht mehr nur um Stressentstehung, sondern bereits um Stressbewältigung (Coping), kann die körperliche Aktivität auf der Ebene der Stressreaktionen ansetzen und dort eine reaktionsverringernde Wirkweise entfalten. Unterschieden werden hier kognitive, affektive, behaviorale und biologische Wirkungen, die allesamt der Gruppe der palliativ-regenerativen Coping-Strategien angehören. Palliativ-regenerative Stressbewältigung setzt nicht an den Ursachen stresserzeugender Bewertungsprozesse an, sondern an deren Folgen, nämlich den Stressreaktionen. Ziel ist es, diese zu lindern (palliativ) bzw. den positiven Ausgangszustand des betreffenden Reaktionsparameters wiederherzustellen (regenerativ). Dies geschieht dadurch, dass durch körperliche Aktivität z. B. die stressbedingte Kortisolausschüttung abgemildert oder die stressbedingte psychische Anspannung verringert wird (Reaktionsverringerung). Schließlich wird im Modell noch eine gesundheitsstärkende Wirkweise angenommen, die den gesamten Stress-Gesundheits-Prozess betrifft und die auf einer kompensatorischen Wirkung der körperlichen Aktivität beruht.
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In this second volume of “Informed Leisure Practices: Cases as Conduits between Theory and Practice” ten more case studies are presented that document a diversity of contexts where research has been used to guide decision-making. Although unintended, there is a clear theme that emerges from the case studies in this volume. Each of the cases presented documents innovative approaches to research within community settings. Steven Henle’s case in Chapter one demonstrates an approach to involving students in tourism research based on his work in Montreal. In Chapter two, David Robinson highlights the approach and results of his efforts to engage in action research with students in Costa Rica. Rick Rolllins, Jeff Ward and Lynn Wilson demonstrate how collaborative research between academic and non academic partners can provide key information for parks planning in Chapter three. Camerson Raushenberger highlights in chapter five how a historical analysis of an emerging sport can provide insights on how to approach collaboration efforts. In Chapter six, Catherine Moores demonstrates the insightful approach being taken by Oliver, British Columbia to construct tourism based on local expert knowledge. Anne Hardy, in Chapter seven demonstrates how qualitative research methods can be used to gain insight into valuable market segments like the self-drive market. Ruth Jeanes and Tess Kay, in Chapter eight provide thought provoking evidence of the need to incorporate the voices of unheard groups in research results. Chrystal Stone and Richard Giele continue with this trend in Chapter nine by highlighting how emerging approaches such as the rapid rural appraisal method can be used to learn with and about rural communities. Richard Giele continues this message, but in another community, in Chapter 10 as he describes how a community driven research approach is being used to help inform tourism planning.
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The number of the elderly is growing dramatically, the average life expectancy is growing too, and we see natality decreasing at the same time. There is a close connection between life expectancy and quality of life. Due to an international trend of aging population we see an increased atten-tion paid to studies dealing with the factors that have positive or negative impact on successful aging. In our publication we outline the findings of our research and we include the weaknesses and limitations of this study.In the first part of this publication we dealt with the question of health in the elderly, from both physical and mental points of view.The increasing number of health problems and functional deficits in the older age are the warning signals, called geriatric syndromes. eeper analysis of causes and consequences of high-risk health factors in the elderly, including geriatric syn-dromes are discussed in the second chapter.The major problem in the elderly is the risks of falls.Analysis of aspects related to the falls presented in this publication revealed the significance of lower muscular tension, previous experience with fall-ing, bad stereotype of walk, impaired balanced abilities, using supporting equip-ment, visual deficits, arthritis and lower cognitive functions. Several of these factors can be affected by physical activity. The development of recommendations in application of physical activity responses to the changing structure of population as reflected in the third chapter.The chapter about recommendations for application of physical activity was ex-tended to original academic study focusing on comparing impacts of three different types of exercises on the selected parameters of fitness and the body composition in the group of elderly women in the South Moravian region. We summarized the recommendations for practice based on this accomplished study, evidence-based research of academic studies, and our own experience.
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This Study was conducted to study the self-concept adolescents. Self-concept scale of Saraswat (1984) was used to analyze the self-concept of 40 adolescents of twin cities of Hyderabad, Telangana Stage. The findings of the study revealed that higher percentage of adolescents had above average levels of self-concept in dimension of temperamental (85), intellectual (77.5), physical (60) and social (52.5). About 47.5percent of adolescents equally had high and above average self-concept in education. And 57.5 percent of adolescents had high moral self concept. Adolescents overall Self-concept was found as 27.5 percent in high and 72.5 per cent have above average. Hence, the study may help the teachers and parents to maintain the optimum level of self-concept of adolescents.
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Das Wissen um sowie die Bewertung der eigenen Person als eines der faszinierendsten Themen psychologischer Forschung wird entlang zweier zentraler Fragestellungen behandelt: Welche Effekte hat sportliche Aktivität auf das Selbst bzw. die Identität? Und wie wirkt umgekehrt das Selbst bzw. die Identität auf die sportliche Aktivität? Es werden globales und physisches Selbst, sportbezogene Identität und sportbezogenes Selbstschema sowie die Selbstwirksamkeit vorgestellt. Ein Desiderat der Forschung ist die stärkere Berücksichtigung der Dynamik des Selbst bzw. der Identität. Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit sowie Lebenszufriedenheit als auch ein stabiler Selbstwert unterstützen gesundes Altern. Durch körperliches Training können altersbedingte motorische und psychologische Merkmale positiv beeinflusst werden. In der Studie werden Effekte von körperlichem Training auf motorische Fähigkeiten (Gleichgewicht, Reaktion) sowie psychische Merkmale (Selbstwert, Lebenszufriedenheit) älterer Menschen untersucht. 132 Seniorinnen und Senioren ( M = 69.58 Jahre, SD = 4.02 Jahre) wurden zufällig drei Interventionsgruppen Tanz, Sport, Tanz und Sport zugeordnet. Die Gruppe Tanz und die Gruppe Sport trainierten jeweils 90 Minuten wöchentlich, die Gruppe Tanz und Sport 180 Minuten über 15 Monate. Nach Messung der Ausgangssituation (Prä-Test) wurden nach sieben Monaten der Post-Test 1 und nach 15 Monaten der Post-Test 2 durchgeführt, wobei 95 komplette Datensätze nach Drop-Out ausgewertet werden konnten. Für die gesamte Stichprobe konnten positive Veränderungen in den gemessenen motorischen Fähigkeiten nachgewiesen werden. Sie traten in allen drei Versuchsgruppen gleichermaßen auf. Die psychischen Merkmale Selbstwert und Lebenszufriedenheit veränderten sich im Interventionszeitraum nicht.
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Sind sportlich aktive Personen selbstbewusster als Inaktive? Was versteht man aus (sport-)psychologischer Sicht unter dem Selbst? Wie ist es strukturiert? Und wie wird der Einfluss sportlicher Aktivität auf das Selbst erklärt? Dieses Kapitel gibt zunächst einen Überblick über das Selbst als Wissenssystem und die Entwicklung des Selbst. Danach wird das für die Sportpsychologie besonders relevante multidimensional-hierarchische Modell des Selbst dargestellt, bevor der physische Selbstaspekt gesondert betrachtet wird. Es wird ein Modell vorgestellt, das die Wirkung sportlicher Aktivität auf das Selbstkonzept zu erklären versucht. Auch die andere Wirkrichtung wird betrachtet: Inwieweit beeinflussen Aspekte das Selbst Handlungen im Sport? Abschließend wird die empirische Befundlage zu diesen Zusammenhängen überblicksartig dargestellt.
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Objectives: The objective of this study is to verify the association between sociodemographic, behavioral, psychosocial and biological factors with health risk behaviors and physical fitness components of adolescents from São José dos Pinhais. Methods: The probabilistic sample consisted of 772 adolescents, 366 boys and 406 girls aged 14.0 to 17.9 years, enrolled in the public-school system of São José dos Pinhais, PR. The health risk behaviors were divided into: i) sedentary behavior, estimated by the Youth Active Profile and Adolescents Sedentary Questionnaire in their respective versions valid for the Brazilian population, and ii) consumption of legal drugs and eating habits, as verified by the Brazilian version of Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The components of physical fitness and their respective assessment protocols were: i) cardiopulmonary fitness, estimated by the 20-meter back-and-forth test; ii) muscular fitness, estimated by the abdominal test in 60 seconds and ii) flexibility, evaluated by the sit and reach test. The prevalence’s of the outcomes and the possible associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, psychosocial and biological factors were verified by the chi-square and Poisson regression tests, respectively. Results: for the health risk behaviors, the female sex was positively associated to the high use of cellular (PR: 1.06; CI95%: 1.01 – 1.11) and screen time (PR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.26 - 1.72) and negatively with time in educational activities (PR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66 - 0.90), cultural (RP: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.85 - 0.97), social (RP: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62 - 1.11) and transportation (RP: 0.92; 95% CI : 0.86 - 0.99). Low socioeconomic status was positively associated with sedentary transport time (PR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28). Physical activity options are negatively associated with cultural activities (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83 - 0.98). Receive social support from parents and whenever associated negatively with cell phone use (PR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.99) and positively with cell rate (PR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1, 09 - 1.55), respectively. The social support received from friends has always been positively associated with high cell phone use (PR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.17) and, when received, has been negatively associated with time in educational activities (RP: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.54) and social (RP: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.59). Intermediate self-efficacy was positively associated with time in educational (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.44) and social (RP: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.59) activities. High self-esteem was negatively associated with time in educational activities (PR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63 - 0.90). Age was positively associated with educational activities (PR: 1.00; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.01). Regarding licit drugs and eating habits, females were positively associated with alcohol consumption (PR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05 - 1.16). Low socioeconomic status was negatively associated with alcohol consumption (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83 - 0.98) and positively associated with soft drink consumption (PR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1, 19). Sufficient level of physical activity was positively associated with fruit consumption (PR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.05). Social support from friends, when always received and sometimes was positively associated with alcohol consumption (“sometimes” RP: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.15 and “always” RP: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.14). High self-efficacy was positively associated with sedentary transport (PR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.11). Finally, for the components of physical fitness, female gender was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (PR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.25 - 0.41), muscle strength and endurance (PR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.27 - 0.45) and aggregation and components of physical fitness (PR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.35 - 0.55). Sufficient level of physical activity was positively associated with muscle strength and endurance (PR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.40) and flexibility (PR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03 - 1, 40). Parental social support was associated with muscle strength and endurance (“sometimes” PR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.59 and “always” RP: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.78) and the physical fitness score (PR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.61). Social support from friends was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (“sometimes” PR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.68 and “always” RP: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1, 68) and muscle strength and endurance (PR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05 - 1.78). High self-esteem was negatively associated with flexibility (PR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72 - 0.98). Sexual maturation was positively associated with flexibility (PR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.42). Excess weight was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (PR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.57 - 0.96). Finally, age was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.88 - 0.92) and positively associated with muscle strength and endurance (PR: 1.00; 95% CI: 1, 00 - 1.01). Conclusions: female gender is associated with sedentary behavior, alcohol consumption, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, and physical fitness score. And the social support of friends was associated with the use of cellular, educational, social, alcohol consumption, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength and endurance, these being the factors most associated with the study outcomes.
Article
This research aimed to investigate the valuation of self concept in volleyball teams. As participants, 31 volleyball high performance athletes adults and youths from both gender categories were investigated. As measure instrument the Factorial Scale of Self Concept was used. For the data analysis were used: the Kruskall Wallis test and MANOVA. All teams behaved similarly according to self concept factors, evidencing statistically significant difference only for safety factor between the youth teams. The ethical-moral factor presented high levels of valuation in relation to other factors, being statistically higher in the female and male youth teams. In the adult male team, this factor was higher than the somatic, receptivity and social attitude factors. The feeling of belonging to a socially valued group, seems to be the main aspect that makes the athletes perceives themselves as moral citizens. In conclusion there are differences of gender when related to self concept (safety factor) and that the sport seems to favor the morality feeling.
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Tests for experiments with matched groups or repeated measures designs use error terms that involve the correlation between the measures as well as the variance of the data. The larger the correlation between the measures, the smaller the error and the larger the test statistic. If an effect size is computed from the test statistic without taking the correlation between the measures into account, effect size will be overestimated. Procedures for computing effect size appropriately from matched groups or repeated measures designs are discussed.
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There is increasing interest in the contribution of exercise in both the promotion of mental well-being and the treatment and prevention of mental illness and disorders. Within this context, self-esteem has been regarded as an important element of well-being and a construct that might be open to change through exercise. This paper discusses recent advances in the theory and measurement of self-esteem including the concepts of multidimensionality, hierarchical structuring and the specific role of the physical self with a view to a) informing critique of the existing literature and b) suggesting future research challenges. The results of a recent comprehensive review of 37 randomised and 42 non-randomised controlled studies investigating the effects of exercise on self-esteem and physical self-perceptions are summarised. This is followed by suggestions for advancing research in the field and practical pointers for those already involved in the promotion of exercise for mental health.
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This study sought to evaluate the association between perceived physical fitness, actual fitness measured by VO2max, daily physical activity measured by an ambulatory activity monitor, and coping with daily stress. One hundred and thirty participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring perceived fitness as well as daily stress and coping levels each day for one week. Participants were also provided with a digital physical activity monitor (Yamax Digi-Walker SW 200) and instructed to wear it throughout the seven day assessment period. Upon completion of the week evaluation, participants then were evaluated for actual physical fitness by treadmill testing. Multiple regression and effect size analysis revealed that perceived fitness predicted daily coping better than actual fitness and daily physical activity. Coping was unrelated to age, gender,VO2max, and physical activity. Results suggest that perceived fitness may be a better predictor of coping with daily stress than actual physical fitness or physical activity.
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This book attempts to pull together the diverse range of research on self-concept from the medical sciences, psychology, sociology, physical education, and exercise and sport science. In doing so, this book attempts to trace how the concept of the physical self has evolved over the last decade and how it has contributed to our understanding of the total self. The contributors examine how the physical self motivates and determines behavior and contributes to mental health and well-being. The following specific issues as they relate to the physical self are covered: physical self-perception measurement; research considerations; body image; social construction; role of sport and physical education in children's self-esteem; identity development; weight management; disability issues and the therapeutic effects of exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This meta-analysis examined the exercise-mood relationship in older adults. 158 effect sizes (ESs) from 32 studies were grouped into experimental-versus-control, gains, and correlational ESs. Each study was coded for moderator variables related to descriptive, design, participant, exercise, and mood assessment characteristics. Experimental-versus-control ESs for negative (NA) and positive affect (PA) were 0.35 (p < .05) and 0.33 (p >.05), respectively, with an overall ES of 0.34, p < .05. The gains ESs for NA and PA in an exercise group were 0.39 (p < .05) and 0.35 (p < .05), respectively, with an overall ES of 0.38, p < .05. All effects were significantly greater than those for the control groups. Correlational ESs of 0.47 and 0.42 were found for NA and PA, respectively. It was concluded that chronic exercise is associated with improved mood in the elderly. Moderating variables and implications for exercise prescription to improve mood in the elderly are discussed.
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Tests for experiments with matched groups or repeated measures designs use error terms that involve the correlation between the measures as well as the variance of the data. The larger the correlation between the measures, the smaller the error and the larger the test statistic. If an effect size is computed from the test statistic without taking the correlation between the measures into account, effect size will be overestimated. Procedures for computing effect size appropriately from matched groups or repeated measures designs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Numerous provocative studies on the psychological effects of aerobic fitness training are available today, and more are appearing almost on a daily basis. This book reviews and evaluates the research, and it asks and attempts to answer significant background questions: What are the various motivating factors that have contributed to the emergence of the national fitness movement? What are the public health considerations con- cerning the relationship between physical fitness and coronary heart disease? What exactly do we mean by "physical fitness," especially "aerobic" fitness? This book contains essential, in-depth data for everyone interested in the most solid and reliable information on the psychology of aerobic fitness.
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To identify the most consistent relationships among psychological variables and physical activity in youth (ages 11-21 years), 20 articles on depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, self-concept, hostility, anger, intellectual functioning, and psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Physical activity was consistently related to improvements in self-esteem, self-concept, depressive symptoms, and anxiety/stress. The effect sizes were +.12, -.15, and -.38 for self-esteem/self-concept, stress/anxiety, and depression, respectively. The evidence for hostility/anger and academic achievement was inconclusive. No negative effects of physical activity were reported. The literature suggests that physical activity in youth is psychologically beneficial. More research is needed to confirm previous findings. Adolescents should engage in moderate or vigorous aerobic activity approximately three times per week for a total of at least 60 minutes per week.
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Background: About two-thirds of Canadians are physically inactive. As a risk factor for several chronic diseases, physical inactivity can potentially be a substantial public health burden. We estimated the direct health care costs attributable to physical inactivity in Canada, the number of lives lost prematurely each year that are attributable to a sedentary lifestyle and the effect that a reduction of 10% in inactivity levels (a Canadian objective for 2003) could have on reducing direct health care costs. Methods: We calculated summary relative risk (RR) estimates from prospective longitudinal studies of the effects of physical inactivity on coronary artery disease, stroke, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis. We then computed the population-attributable fraction (PAF) for each illness from the summary RR and the prevalence of physical inactivity (i.e., 62%) and applied the PAF to the total direct health care expenditures for 1999 and to the number of deaths in 1995 associated with each disease to determine the health care costs and lives lost prematurely that were directly attributable to physical inactivity. Results: About $2.1 billion, or 2.5% of the total direct health care costs in Canada, were attributable to physical inactivity in 1999. A sensitivity analysis (simultaneously varying each of the health care costs and PAF by +/- 20%) indicated that the costs could be as low as $1.4 billion and as high as $3.1 billion. About 21,000 lives were lost prematurely in 1995 because of inactivity. A 10% reduction in the prevalence of physical inactivity has the potential to reduce direct health care expenditures by $150 million a year. Interpretation: Physical inactivity represents an important public health burden in Canada. Even modest reductions in inactivity levels could result in substantial cost savings.
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An evaluation of a program designed to enhance self concept, reduce muscular tension and alleviate feelings of helplessness and depression was presented. Results indicated that physical fitness training alone may be as effective as relaxation on the aforementioned variables. Additionally, a combination of both treatments may not be as effective as either single treatment programs. Suggestions are given as to the kinds of exercises and sports which will be useful to the therapist in private practice.
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The ability of older adults to retain skill and mobility in daily activities such as walking, rising to stand and reaching above the head are important aspects of a quality lifestyle. The problem investigated in the present study was to determine the effects of two fitness/flexibility programs on the gait and mobility characteristics of older adults (age over 65 years). Three groups of female subjects, a pool exercise group (N=24), a walking exercise group (N=25) and a control group (N=17), underwent a series of pretests. These consisted of evaluation of joint flexibility of the hip, ankle, knee, shoulder and neck, using a Leighton flexometer and bilateral grip strength, as well as a sit and reach test. All subjects were filmed using two shuttered video cameras while walking along a marked walkway, at a freely chosen speed, and the film was analyzed in detail using biomechanical techniques to determine the three dimensional gait and lower limb mobility characteristics of each subject. As well, three measures of self-esteem were administered to the subjects at the beginning of the study. The two experimental groups were then enrolled in one of two 12 week exercise programs, one program in the water and the other a land-based program. The control group received no structured exercise program. Both groups then underwent a post test, using the same test procedures as employed in the pretest, including the flexibility tests, biomechanical filming and psychological tests. Statistical comparison of the test results using ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance of the differences between the pre and post test scores for flexibility and movement characteristics and for the measures of self-esteem for the two experimental and control groups. The experimental subjects improved in hip and lower back flexibility and ankle flexibility, while the control subjects experienced no such improvements. The exercise subjects also improved significantly in grip strength of both the left and right hands and the total of both hands. The exercise subjects also improved significantly in several biomechanical variables of gait, including stride length, stride rate, stance time, toe clearance, average velocity, vertical displacement of the center of gravity and pelvic displacement. There were no significant differences in the psychological variables measured from pre test to post test, for either of the three groups.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if publication bias exists in the sport and exercise psychology literature. All relevant articles from the 1987, 1992, and 1997 issues of five sport and exercise psychology journals were included in the analysis. The articles were coded by two reviewers according to whether null hypothesis tests were conducted and, secondly, if these tests resulted in a rejection of the main stated null hypothesis. Of those articles including tests of significance, approximately 98% had at least one significant finding and approximately 80% rejected the main stated null hypothesis. Taken together, along with comparisons to a sample of unpublished dissertations and theses, these findings indicate that publication bias is alive and well in the sport and exercise psychology literature. The implication of such findings is that we are overestimating the effectiveness of our interventions and the degree to which variables covary.
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There are 2 families of statistical procedures in meta-analysis: fixed- and random-effects procedures. They were developed for somewhat different inference goals: making inferences about the effect parameters in the studies that have been observed versus making inferences about the distribution of effect parameters in a population of studies from a random sample of studies. The authors evaluate the performance of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests when each type of statistical procedure is used for each type of inference and confirm that each procedure is best for making the kind of inference for which it was designed. Conditionally random-effects procedures (a hybrid type) are shown to have properties in between those of fixed- and random-effects procedures.
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This study was conducted to determine the effect of a weight-training program on the self-concepts of 105 college males and whether or not success in the lifting program affected self-concepts. Subjects were randomly selected by a duster-sampling strategy, divided by self-selection into an experimental and a control group, and assessed on the Tennessee Self-concept Scale. The weight-training program required two intense 50-min. total-body workouts per week for 16 wk. Significant differences between groups were found on five of the nine self-concept measures including the Total Positive score; this supported the hypothesis that regular weight-training positively influences self-concept. The experimental group also showed significant improvement from pre- to posttest on eight of the nine self-concept indices, yet control subjects displayed no significant changes on any of the measures. Level of success in the lifting program was not determined to be a significant moderator variable.
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To measure the effects of participation in selected physical activities on scores of global self-concept and body-cathexis, 78 men in university physical education service classes participated 3 hours per week for 8 wk. in one of three activities: strength development, body building, or jogging for fitness. The total number of subjects was 113, with the additional 35 men serving as controls. For body-cathexis scores, significant differences were found in favor of the body-building and jogging groups as compared to those of the strength-development and control groups. On global self-concept scores, the body-building and jogging groups showed an increase on immediate retest, while the strength-development and control groups showed little change.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Arizona State University, 1990. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [142]-170).
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Introduction: Behavioral science provides the foundation for physical activity interventions. The mediating variable framework is used to assess the status of physical activity interventions and the roles that are, or could be played, by behavioral theory.
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Objectives: To investigate the effects of participation in a physical fitness programme on anxiety and physical self-concept of female university students in Turkey.Design: True experimental design with repeated measures.Methods: 40 female university students volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to experimental (n=20; Mage=21.35±0.88) or control (n=20; Mage=21.20±1.67) groups. The experimental group participated in one aerobic and two step dance sessions per week for ten weeks at 60–80 % of heart rate reserve. During this period, the control group did not participate in any regular physical activity programme. The State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI) and Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) were administered to participants before, in the middle, and after the ten week treatment.Results: Participants in the experimental group improved more in physical activity, coordination, sport competence and flexibility subscales of physical self-concept than the control group. In addition, there was a significant reduction in trait anxiety scores of participants in the experimental group in comparison to the control group.Conclusions: A ten-week physical fitness programme was effective in reducing trait anxiety and strengthening the physical self-perceptions of female university students.
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Recent advances in statistical methods for meta-analysis help reviewers to identify systematic variation in research results.
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted on 40 studies (76 effects) in order to examine exercise training as a method of stress-management treatment for adults. It offered evidence of a low-to-moderate positive effect in anxiety reduction. Exercise training studies that examined change from pre to post-treatment and studies that examined both change over time and between group differences were examined separately. The unbiased weighted average effect sizes were .45 and .36, respectively. Thus, exercise training improved anxiety levels an average of .36 standard deviations over alternative or control conditions. Adults who were more likely to have a stressful lifestyle benefited more from the exercise training than those who did not. Recommendations are made for both practice and research.
Article
Written from the standpoint of the social behaviorist, this treatise contains the heart of Mead's position on social psychology. The analysis of language is of major interest, as it supplied for the first time an adequate treatment of the language mechanism in relation to scientific and philosophical issues. "If philosophical eminence be measured by the extent to which a man's writings anticipate the focal problems of a later day and contain a point of view which suggests persuasive solutions to many of them, then George Herbert Mead has justly earned the high praise bestowed upon him by Dewey and Whitehead as a 'seminal mind of the very first order.'" Sidney Hook, "The Nation""
Article
Using a randomized controlled trial, this study examined whether a 6-month Tai Chi exercise program enhanced elderly individuals' multidimensional, hierarchical physical self-esteem. Participants either continued their daily routine activities or participated in a Tai Chi exercise class performing slow rhythmic movements. Both global and domain-specific physical esteem measures were assessed at baseline, at 3 months, and at the 6-month termination of the intervention. Growth curve models were used to analyze the repeated-measures data. Results indicated that individuals who participated in the 6-month Tai Chi exercise program showed increased levels of global self-esteem, domain-specific physical self-worth, and subdomain-specific esteem of attractive body, physical strength, and physical condition. Thus, Tai Chi, a simple, low-cost form of physical activity, has the potential to alter favorably specific facets of physical self-worth/ esteem in older adults, which may in turn enhance important aspects of their quality of life.
Article
The growing popularity of meta-analysis has focused increased attention on the statistical models analysts are using and the assumptions underlying these models. Although comparisons often have been limited to fixed-effects (FE) models, recently there has been a call to investigate the differences between FE and random-effects (RE) models, differences that may have substantial theoretical and applied implications (National Research Council, 1992). Three FE models (including L. V. Hedges & I. Olkin's, 1985, and R. Rosenthal's, 1991, tests) and 2 RE models were applied to simulated correlation data in tests for moderator effects. The FE models seriously underestimated and the RE models greatly overestimated sampling error variance when their basic assumptions were violated, which caused biased confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. The implications of these and other findings are discussed as are methodological issues concerning meta-analyses.
Article
The effects of within-class grouping on student achievement and other outcomes were quantitatively integrated using two sets of study findings. The first set included 145 effect sizes and explored the effects of grouping versus no grouping on several outcomes. Overall, the average achievement effect size was +0.17, favoring small-group learning. The second set included 20 effect sizes which directly compared the achievement effects of homogeneous versus heterogeneous ability grouping. Overall, the results favored homogeneous grouping; the average effect size was +0.12. The variability in both sets of study findings was heterogeneous, and the effects were explored further. To be maximally effective, within-class grouping practices require the adaptation of instruction methods and materials for small-group learning.
Article
The efficacy of the Hedges and colleagues, Rosenthal-Rubin, and Hunter-Schmidt methods for combining correlation coefficients was tested for cases in which population effect sizes were both fixed and variable. After a brief tutorial on these meta-analytic methods, the author presents 2 Monte Carlo simulations that compare these methods for cases in which the number of studies in the meta-analysis and the average sample size of studies were varied. In the fixed case the methods produced comparable estimates of the average effect size; however, the Hunter-Schmidt method failed to control the Type I error rate for the associated significance tests. In the variable case, for both the Hedges and colleagues and Hunter-Schmidt methods, Type I error rates were not controlled for meta-analyses including 15 or fewer studies and the probability of detecting small effects was less than .3. Some practical recommendations are made about the use of meta-analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies over the past three years have produced the following significant results: Interval training is the most effective and efficient method of modifying all three energy systems, consequently producing the best conditioned individual in the shortest period of time. Physical work should be conducted, employing principles of the interval system. Greater work output and less fatigue are the results. Interval training programs are logistically feasible for the military. Appendix A contains a nomogram developed and validated to measure anaerobic power of the legs; Appendix B is an interval bench stepping program constructed for the 15th Submarine Squadron. (Modified author abstract)
Article
Although positive physiological and psychological changes may occur as a result of exercise, many people do not exercise regularly. Either different methods to ensure exercise adherence must be examined or new ways of acquiring the desired changes must be found. The effectiveness of one alternative method, electronic muscle stimulation, was examined in a group of college students. Three groups, each consisting of seven males and seven females comprised the Exercise, Electrostim, and Control groups. Subjects (N=42), all of whom reported being minimally physically active, completed pre-tests measuring self-concept, anxiety, and depression. The exercise group received a combined aerobic, anaerobic workout for 50 minutes twice a week, the electrostim group received treatments for 50 minutes twice a week, while the control group received no treatments. All subjects were post-tested using the identical measures at the end of 6 weeks. Analysis of variance of gain scores revealed a significant improvement for subjects in both the exercise and electrostim groups in self-concept (p.<.01) and anxiety (p.<.05) but not in depression. There were no differences found between males and females and neither the exercise nor electrostim programs were significantly better than the other at bringing about this change. It is concluded that either program is a viable approach to reducing anxiety and improving self-concept, with the traditional active exercise program considered the more practical approach. (NRB)