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White Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)): Antioxidant Properties And Beneficial Health Effects

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Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, next to water. It can be categorized into three major types, depending on the level of fermentation, i.e., green and white (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented) and black (fermented) tea. Each type of tea has a distinct composition, dependent on how the leaves are processed, as well as maturation, geographical location and agricultural practices. White tea (WT), the least processed tea, is one of the less studied and is ascribed to have the highest content of phenolic compounds. Tea polyphenols, especially catechin derivatives, are potent antioxidant agents, with positive effects on human health. Antioxidant components have aroused great interest because of their ability to scavenge free radicals, thereby inhibiting oxidative stress. During the past years, oxidative damage induced by reactive species has been linked to the development of several human diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders and certain types of cancer. Therefore, tea antioxidants may be of great value in preventing the onset and/or the progression of oxidative stress mediated diseases, when endogenous defences are insufficient against reactive species. The possible beneficial health effects of WT are being investigated and have received considerable attention in recent years. In this review, we aim to explore the new findings concerning WT effects on health.
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... White tea and puerh tea are less well known and they are mainly produced and consumed in China. However, the popularity for white tea has been increasing in Europe due to its milder tastes which is deemed more acceptable (Dias et al., 2013), while interests in pu-erh tea has been rising as well, especially in Southeast Asia . ...
... Chen et al., 2020). In some literature, however, it has been stated that steaming is used instead of withering to produce nonfermented white tea (Dias et al., 2013). Tea leaves subjected to prolonged withering would have initiated oxidation and are therefore slightly fermented (Q. ...
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Fresh tea leaves (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) are processed by various techniques to produce different types of tea. The most common way to classify tea types is based on the similarities in processing methods resulting in the five commonly recognized tea types: white, green, oolong, black, and pu‐erh teas. The differences in the degree and nature of fermentation of tea leaves lead to different chemical changes depending on the processing method. Understanding the phytochemical profile of differently processed tea is important, as tea types classified by processing methods are currently not well defined because the chemical parameters for these tea types are still not established. Therefore, any significant characteristics found for a tea type due to processing may be helpful in defining tea types. However, the evidence on the impact of tea processing on phytochemical profile and contents in differently processed tea is currently unclear. Therefore, this review aims to examine (1) the processing techniques of white, green, oolong, black, and pu‐erh tea, (2) the impact of tea processing on tea phytochemicals, and (3) the key characteristics associated with the phytochemical profiles of differently processed tea. Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has been demonstrated through in‐vitro experiments and in animal and human intervention studies to exhibit potential in preventing various oxidative stress‐related chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer.s disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Based on the processing methods, tea is commonly categorized into white, green, oolong, black and pu‐er tea. However, there are large overlap in processing methods between some teas and, more importantly, the chemical compositions of differently processed teas are highly variable. This review aims to examine (1) how white, green, oolong, black and Pu‐erh tea are processed, (2) what are the effects of tea processing on tea phytochemicals and (3) to identify whether there are key characteristics associated to the phytochemical profiles of differently processed teas. The review will contribute to tea research in collating in one article the state of knowledge on the chemical changes and composition of the differently processed teas, and point to future direction in this area of research.
... White tea (WT) contains the highest level of phenolic compounds and is the least processed tea, as well as one of the less studied (Dias et al., 2013). The biological properties of tea and coffee are related to the content of polyphenols (flavonoids, catechins, tannins) caffeine, etc. ...
... According to the tea production process, white tea contains relatively low concentrations of tea flavins and arubigins and high concentrations of catechins. The degree of tea processing influences the tea flavonol content (Dias et al., 2013). Đorđevic et al. (2018) assessed the antioxidant activity of polyphenols present in wines and showed that higher content of catechin and gallic acid in the product led to its stronger antioxidant activity and increased survival of yeast cells exposed to oxidative stress. ...
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... Based on the different sensory, flavor, and processing procedures of tea products, tea can be classified into oolong tea, black tea, yellow tea, dark tea, white tea, or green tea. White tea (Camellis sinensis (L) O. Kuntze) has gradually attracted the attention of the public due to its special flavor, significant health care functions, and resistance to deterioration in storage [1][2][3]. There is a significant difference in nonvolatile components between white and other types of teas due to the differences in fresh tea sources and processing processes [4]. ...
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In this study, nonvolatile metabolomics and proteomics were applied to investigate the change mechanism of flavonoid glycoside compounds during withering processing of white tea. With the extension of withering time, the content of the main flavonoid glycoside compounds significantly decreased, and then the flavonoid aglycones and water-soluble saccharides contents increased. However, the change trends of these compounds were inconsistent with the expression pattern of related biosynthesis pathway proteins, indicating that the degradation of flavonoid glycosides might exist in the withering process of white tea. One co-expression network that was highly correlated with variations in the flavonoid glycosides’ component contents during the withering process was identified via WGCNA. Further analysis revealed that the degradation of flavonoid glycosides may be related to the antioxidant action of tea leaves undergoing the withering process. Our results provide a novel characterization of white tea taste formation during processing.
... Novak et al. 2010 [36] Square wave voltammetry 12 Horie et al. 1997 [37] Capillary zone electrophoresis 13 Wang et al. 2016 [38] Nanozymes - 14 Ye et al. 2019 [39] Computer vision -Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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The world's high-value crop is tea, its aspect plays a powerful role in its marketability. Tea is the utmost extensively absorb aromatic beverage with the legion of health benefit and respond as a remedy for various disease like neurological disorder and cardiovascular. The emerging, spectroscopic and classified approaches for safety and quality assessment determination like electrochemical method, microbial of tea are very effective. These approaches improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the standard and direct technique and increase the speed of the detection process. Also, the approaches are non-destructive, cost-effective, and rapid that provides real-time detection. Application of these approaches in the tea industry from picking, fermentation, sensor evaluation, developing portable devices for real-time safety assessment benefits the tea production mechanism. Recently, colorimetric and chromatography techniques have been reported in several stages of tea processing that are expensive, laborious and inaccurate, and time-consuming. Here, computer vision and deep learning can be explored to overcome inconsistency and inaccuracy. This paper presents an overview of the processing of tea, type of tea, the microbiology of tea, safety & quality evaluation, standard & emerging techniques, and electrochemical detection using separation method, bio electrochemical sensor, and health benefits of tea with distinct tea contaminates. This paper also includes the analytical comparison of distinct approaches proposed by the different researchers for quality analysis of tea and its products. This potential review may guide for evaluation and detection of tea products which further promotes the development of the food industry.
... The young tea leaves may be shielded from sunlight during growth for reducing chlorophyll formation and preparing white tea (Alcazar et al., 2007). The wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties for white tea including anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant (Dias, 2013), antiatherosclerotic and antihypertensive (Hodgson et al., 2005), and hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects (Huang and Lin, 2012) were reported. It has been suggested that oolong tea and dark tea could improve alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice by regulation of gut microbiota . ...
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