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Indian Medicinal Plants Used in Hair Care Cosmetics: A Short Review



Plants act as a source of food and medicine from long times. A wide range of plant oils are used in cosmetics and toiletry preparations. Hair is an important part of body, reflect personality of person. There are many cosmetics available for hair care. From long time plant materials are used for hair care. In this review, Indian medicinal plants having hare care properties are summarized in terms of their biological source, active constituents and biological activity.
Pharmacognosy Journal Vol 2, Issue 10, June, 2010 Page 361-364
PHCOG J.: Research Article
Indian Medicinal Plants Used in Hair Care Cosmetics: A Short
Amit Gupta*, Rishabha Malviya, Tej Prakash Singh, Pramod Kumar Sharma
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Baghpat Bypass, Meerut – 250005, Uttar Pradesh, India
* Author for correspondence: Amit gupta, Research Scholar, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut
Institute of Engineering and Technology, Baghpat Bypass, Meerut – 250005, Uttar Pradesh, India email: Phone No: +91 9808452537
Plants act as a source of food and medicine from long times. A wide range of plant oils are used in cosmetics and
toiletry preparations. Hair is an important part of body, reflect personality of person. There are many cosmetics
available for hair care. From long time plant materials are used for hair care. In this review, Indian medicinal plants
having hare care properties are summarized in terms of their biological source, active constituents and biological
KEY WORDS: hair care formulations, hair tonic, natural plants, hair cosmetics.
In olden times herbal products were used for medicinal purposes, both internally as well as externally. Herbal drugs
were used as juice, latex or in dried powder form.[1] Now a day’s personal care products containing ingredient from
the plant origin are getting an increasing trend in the pharmacy world. Cosmetic product containing plant material as
active ingredient is comes under the category of cosmeceuticals.[23] Appearance of hair makes an important impact
on total body feature. Color, length and appearance of hair make a significant difference from person to person.
Cosmetics that are used for hair care purpose applied orally and should not be used for therapeutic purpose.[45] Basic
feature of hair care cosmetics are as-
1. Should be easy to use
2. Should have local effect.
3. Should be harmful to hair skin and mucous membrane.
4. Should not be allergic to body.
5. Should be applied topically.
Hair care cosmeceutical formulations mainly include shampoo, gel, lotion solution and oil.
Different herbs used in hair care
Amla (Emblica officinalis)
Amla (Emblica officinalis, Family- Euphorbiaceae) is deciduous tree widely found in India at the height of 350 m. It is
often cultivated at commercial level in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Amla contains 5-6% of
tannins such as gallic acid, ellagic acid and phyllembelin. It is commercialized in the form of shampoos and hair oil.
Mainly its oil and aqueous extract is used in the hair care formulations.[5]
Brahmi (Centella asiatica)
Brahmi (Centella asiatica, Family- Umbelliferae) is herbaceous creeping herb growing at the bank of river. In India,
brahmi is found in wet damp and marshy places of north India. Brahmi contains essential oils, sterols, flavonol,
glycoside and triterpenoid saponins. Brahmi oil and soft extract are two commercial preparation of brahmi used in hair
care formulations. It is also categorized as rasayan in ayurveda and hence possesses the properties of delaying
ageing signs in body like graying of hairs. Brahmi also helps in relieving mental fatigue and hence helps in maintain
proper bodily environment that leads to healthy hairs.[6]
Bhringraj (Eclipta alba Linn.)
Bhringraj (Eclipta alba Linn, Family- Asteraceae) is an annual or perennial plant found in moist places throughout
India, ascending up to 600 fts. Bhringraj mainly contains coumestans (wedelolactone and dimethyl wedelolactone),
alkaloid (ecliptine), glycosides ( -amyrin), triterpenic acid and steroids (ecalbasaponins). Brahmi oil is very good hairβ
tonic and used as a constituent in hair formulation for healthy, black and long hair.[57]
Coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.)
Coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn, Family-Palmae) tree is tall rising to a height of 30 meters, grow near the sea side. Oil
of coconut fruit is used in different hair formulations such as shampoos and hair oil. Coconut oil has good
saponification value so used in shampoos for hair care.[7]
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, Family- Myrtaceae) is a long tree, cultivated in India for production of oil. Oil
contains mainly cineole and lesser amount of volatile aldehyde, terpenes, alcohol and phenol. The oil is colorless or
pale yellow liquid that has a characteristics aromatic odor and a pungent, spicy and cooling taste. It produces very
satisfactory results in scruff and chafes dandruff.[67]
Henna (Lawsonia inermis)
Henna (Lawsonia inermis, Family- Lythraceae) grows wild and cultivated as garden plant throughout India. Henna
leaves are the part of plant that is used in hair formulations. Leaves mainly contain lawsone (quinone) dissolve in
basic pH to give dark intense orange color. Henna leaves have been used from ancient time as a hair colour due to
the chemical interaction of lawsone (thiol group) to the keratin.[6, 7, 8, 9]
Neem (Azadirachta indica)
Neem (Azadirachta indica, Family- Melliaceae) is indigenous to all plains in Indian subcontinent. It also grows widely
in the sub-Himalayan track at altitude of 700–10, 000 m above sea level. Neem leaves contain flavonoids, steroids,
terpenoids, sterols and nimbolide. Neem seed and seed oil contain different bitter limonoids including nimbin,
nimbibin, salanin etc. many commercial shampoos contain neem oil for the control of ticks, fleas and lice. In
European countries neem oil also used in different herbal hair oil, hair tonic and conditioners.[67]
Gurhal (Hibiscus rosa sinensis)
Gurhal (Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Family-Malvaceae) is a popular Indian garden plant. Gurhal contain taraxeryl acetate,
beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, cholesterol, erogosterol, flavonoids and flavonoid, glycosides, lipids, citric
and oxalic acids. In herbal formulations, hibiscus petal is used to stimulate thicker hair growth and to prevent
premature graying, hair loss and scalp disorders. Petals extract acts as a natural hair conditioner and can be used in
hair washes.[610]
Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi)
Jatamansi (Nardostachys jatamansi, Family-Valerianaceae) is grown widely in India, especially north India to east
India. These are found in the alpine Himalayas at an altitude of 3000–5000. Rhizomes of jatamansi contains 1 to 2 %
of pale yellow volatile oil, jatamansic acid, and ketones (jatamansone and nardostachone), resin, sugar etc. oil
obtained from rhizomes of this plant used in hair tonic preparations, to promote the growth of hair and impart
blackness. Jatamansi is a useful hair tonic and is commonly used in hair oils, promoting hair growth and luster. It
promotes hair growth and imparts black color to the hair.[7]
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum)
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, Family- Leguminoseae) plant is a quick growing annual leguminous herb
about 2 feet in height. In India Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum, Family- Leguminoseae) is often cultivated as
a cover crop in citrus-fruit groves to take advantage of their leguminous nature. The major producers of Indian
fenugreek are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Tamilnadu. Generally seed is used to prepare hair care
formulations. Seed contain alkaloids (Neurin, Trigonelline, Choline, Gentianine), amino acids (Isoleucine, 4-
Hydroxyisoleucine, Histidine, Leucine, lysine), Saponins (Graecunins, fenugrin B, fenugreekine, trigofoenosides A-G),
lipids, vitamins and fibers. Traditionally fresh Fenugreek leaves paste applied over the scalp regularly before bath
helps hair grow, preserves natural color, keeps hair silky and also cures dandruff.[6, 10, 11]
Cedar wood oil (Juniperus virginiana)
Cedar wood oil extracted from the woods (Juniperus virginiana, Family-) for hair loss and dandruff. The chief
components of cedar wood essential oil are alpha cedrene, beta cedrene, cedrol, widdrol, thujopsene and a group of
sesquiterpenes, which contribute to its medicinal values. Cedarwood oil is used for hair care formulations, especially
for dry hair, and to induce hair growth along with other essential oils. Even people having the problem of dandruff can
too benefit from using cedarwood oil.[9, 11, 12]
Rosemary oil (Rosmarinus officinale)
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinale Linn, Family- Labiatae) is cultivated in Indian gardens. It contains volatile oil, resin,
ursolic acid etc. Commercially rosemary oil is used in hair lotions and hair gels to promote hair growth and shining.[6]
Shikakai (Acacia concinna)
Shikakai (Acacia concinna, Family-Mimosaceae) is a shrub widely found in plains of central and south India. Shikakai
literally means fruit of hairs. It is an excellent natural hair cleanser and astringent and also acts as detangle. It is used
in soaps and shampoos for hair wash, promotes hair growth, removes dandruff and strengthens hair.[57]
Almond oil (Prunus dulcis)
Almond oil (Prunus dulcis, Family- Rosaceae) is obtained from ripe seeds of Prunus dulcis by cold expression
technique. It is commerciaaly cultivated in north part of India. Almond oil contains 40-55% fixed oil, about 20%
proteins, mucilage and emulsion. The fixed oil constituents are mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. It is
commercially used in dermatology as hair lotion and hair tonic.[11]
Ginko (Ginko biloba)
Ginko (Ginko biloba, Family- Ginkgoaceae) are obtained as dried leaves from Ginkgo biloba. It is commercially grown
in North India. The levees chiefly contain terpenes, ginkolides, flavanol glycosides and kaemferol. It is
commercialized in the form of shampoos and hair lotions. Mainly leaf extract is used in the hair care formulations.[1011]
Sandalwood oil (Santalum album)
Sandalwood oil (Santalum album, Family- Santalaceae) is from the heartwood of obtained from Santalum album an
evergreen tree 8-12 meter in height by steam distillation method. It is indigenous to South India, and grows in the
Western Ghats and a few other mountains. The Sandalwood oil contains 90-97% of sesquiterpenes alcohol
(Santalol), hydrocarbons, acids, aldehydes and ketones. Sandalwood oil is employed as hair care products.[911]
Sesame oil (Sesamum indicum)
Sesame oil (Sesamum indicum, Family- Pedaliaceae) is obtained from ripe seeds of Sesamum indicum, an annual
herb by expression technique. Sesame is produced commercially in Gujarat, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu,
Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Karnataka in India. Sesame oil
contains palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, and gandoleic
acid. Sesame oil is used commercially for hair tonic formulations.[8]
Senna (Cassia angustifolia/Cassia acutifolia)
Senna (Cassia angustifolia/Cassia acutifolia, Family-Leguminoceae/Fabaceae) is obtained as senna leaf from dried
leaflets of Cassia angustifolia (Indian senna) & Cassia acutifolia (Alexendrian senna). The senna (Cassia angusifolia)
is most commercially obtained from south india and some from the north part of India. The senna leaves contain
rhein, chrysophanol, emodin, aloe emodin, mono and diglucosides, kaemferol. Palmidin, myricyl alcohol and
mucilage. The leaves are commercially employed as hair black dye.[79]
Lemon oil (Citrus limonum)
Lemon oil (Citrus limonum, Family-Rutaceae) is obtained from peels Citrus limonum by cold extraction technique. The
lemon is commercially grown in north-west region of India. The lemon oil contains -pinene, camphene, -pinene,α β
sabinene, myrcene, -terpinene, linalool, -bisabolene, limonene, trans- -bergamotene, nerol and neral. Lemon oil isα β α
used as hair cleaning agent.[912]
Rose Oil (Rosa Damascena)
Rose oil (Rosa Damascena, Family- Rosaceae) is obtained from fresh petals of Rosa Damascena by hydro-steam
distillation technique. Rose is grown in almost all the parts of India. Rose oil contains citronellol, geranoil, linalool,
farnesol, stearoptene, camphene, eugenol and pienene. Rose oil is employed as Hair care products.[3, 7, 11
Sage oil (Salvia officinalis Linn)
Sage oil (Salvia officinalis Linn, Family-Labiatae) is obtained from dried leaves of Salvia officinalis Linn by steam
distillation technique. The Sage is shrubby perennial plant cultivated in India. The Sage oil contains -pinene, cineole,α
linalyl acetate, thujone (44 to 45%), borneol, bornyl acetate, farnesol, and camphor. The sage oil is employed as anti
dandruff agent.[513]
Basil Oil (Ocimum Sanctum)
The Basil oil (Ocimum Sanctum, Family- Labiatae) is obtained from leaves & flowering tops of Ocimum Sanctum by
steam distillation method. Basil Sanctum is cultivated in India widely. The basil oil contain 1, 8 cineol, linalool, citral,
methyl chavicol (estragole), eugenol and methyl cinnamate. Basil oil stimulates and promotes hair.[713]
Jojoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis)
Jojoba oil (Simmondsia chinensis, Family-Simmondiaceae) is obtained from seeds of Simmondsia chinensis by cold
pressed method. The Jojoba plant is mainly grown in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Tamilnadu in India. The
Jojoba oil contain Eicosenoic acid, Docosenoic acid and oleic acid. Jojabo oil is used as a revitalizing agent for hair.
Neem oil (Azadirachta indica)
Neem oil (Azadirachta indica, Family- Meliaceae) is obtained from powdered seeds, kernels or leaves of Azadirachta
indica. Neem is native of India and grows throughout all parts of India. Neem oil contains Linoleic Acid, Lower Fatty
Acids, Palmitic Acid, Stearic Acid and Oleic Acid. Neem oil is used as hair tonic and anti dandruff agent.[2, 5, 13]
Methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L)
Methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Family- Fabaceae) is obtained from dried ripe seeds of Trigonella foenum-
graecum L. Methi plant is cultivated mainly in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh in
India. Methi contain essential amino acids, protein, starch, sugars, mucilage, mineral matters, volatile oil, fixed oil,
vitamins and enzymes. Methi is used as hair care agent.[1314]
Arnica (Arnica Montana)
Arnica (Arnica Montana, Family-Apiaceae) is obtained from dried roots and flowers of Arnica Montana. Arnica Arnica
is a perennial herb cultivated mainly in north region of India. Arnica contains Arnicin, volatile oil, Tannin and phulin.
Arnica is used for hair tonics and anti-dandruff preparations.[14]
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... The major representative phytochemical compounds are oxidized tetranortriterpenoids, such as azadirachtin A (azadirachtin), azadirachtin B (3-tigloylazadirachtol), azadirachtin D (1-tigloyl-3-acetyl-11-hydroxy-meliacarpin), azadirachtin H (11-demethoxycarbonyl azadirachtin), azadirachtin I (1-tigloyl-3acetyl-11-hydroxy-11-demethoxycarbonyl meliacarpin), azadirachtanin, azadiriadione, azadirachtolide, deacetylnimbin, epoxyazadiradione, isoazadirolide, margosinolide, nimbin, nimbolin A, nimbandiol, nimocinol, nimbinene, nimbocinone, nimbocinolide, nimocin, nimbolide, salannin and related derivatives [3,[11][12][13]. Many of these have specific physiological functions, mainly in the defense against harmful environmental factors, such as light, predators, microorganisms and insects. ...
... Other biological activities found in Neem oil studies are attributed to the following compounds: salannin, nimbin, meliantriol, meliacin, tignic acid, gedunin (also present in leaves), nimbidin, nimbidic acid, nimbidinin, nimbolide (found in leaves), valassin, meliacin, deacetylnimbin, linoleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, azadiradione, hexadecanoic acid, caryophyllene oxide, linalool oxide, mahmoodin, margolone, azadirone, nimbolin, nimbinene and nimbosterol. Neem kernels have 30-50% oil, which is mainly used in soaps, biopesticides and pharmaceuticals [3,[11][12][13]. ...
... Furthermore, it can be mentioned that the following nonisoprenoid compounds are present: proteins (amino acids), sulfurous compounds, carbohydrates (polysaccharides), polyphenolics such as flavonoids and their glycosides, rutin, dihydrochalcone, quercetin, carotenoids, catechin, ferulic acid, β-sitosterol, steroids (produced in leaves and/or bark), Cosmetics 2022, 9,58 3 of 17 coumarin and tannins (produced in the bark), aliphatic compounds, ellagic acid, lupeol, saponins (leave), alkaloids (leave), resins, gums, margisine, cyclic trisulphide, steroids and ketones [3,4,13,14]. Hence, Table 1 shows the main secondary metabolites that are used in cosmetics and topical products with the corresponding reported biological activities. ...
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Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a large tree that is native to India and is traditionally used due to its several properties, mainly to treat skin diseases, as well as its “herbicidal” activity. Its bark, leaves, seeds, fruits and flowers are widely used in medicinal treatment due to the presence of active secondary metabolites with biological effects, mainly limonoids and tetranortriterpenoids, such as azadirachtin. Thus, A. indica was studied in a variety of conditions, such as anticancer, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents, as well as a biopesticide. Furthermore, differentiated cell tissue in A. indica cultivation was reported to produce active metabolites for different purposes. However, only a few studies have been developed regarding its potential use in cosmetics. For instance, most studies explained the antimicrobial properties in health conditions, such as acne, dandruff and personal health care. Here, we summarized not only the most common cosmetic claims to treat acne but also mitigating other skin disorders related to inflammatory and oxidant processes in recent in vivo studies and patents to aid researchers and industrialists to select A. indica derivatives as novel cosmetic ingredients.
... The banana corm is usually discarded as waste. However, it can be developed into a useful and profitable source of compounds used in cosmetic preparations, such as shampoos, hair cream baths, and hair tonics [8]. ...
... Haircare cosmetics of the future should be safe and effective. Their effects should be localized, and they should not be harmful to mucous membranes, hair and skin, and should be safe to the body as a whole; in addition, they should be easy to use and be able to be applied topically [8]. All these aspects are mainly determined by the materials used and the way of manufacture, storage, and use of preparations [9]. ...
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Objective: Banana waste, especially corms, has potential as a source of haircare agents due to its active compound, anthraquinone, which is known to promote hair growth. This study aimed to assess preparations of hair tonic shampoo containing Musa acuminata Colla corm extract and evaluate their characteristics and stability. Methods: Three shampoo formulas were prepared containing 8%, 10%, and 12% corm extract. Physical stability tests were performed at high (60±2 °C) and room temperature (25±2 °C) for three weeks. The shampoo formulas were evaluated for their organoleptic properties (colour, form, and odour), homogeneity, pH, density, viscosity, rheology, foam height and stability, and surface tension. Results: The shampoo formulas with corm extract were white to yellowish-white, creamy, and smelled of banana, and were homogenous without precipitation. The formulas had a pH of 6.08–6.12, a density of 1.027–1.054 g/ml, foam height of 3.56–3.63 ml, the surface tension of 28.92–29.85 dyne/cm, viscosity of 16,000–120,000 cps and pseudoplastic flow properties. Conclusion: The natural hair tonic shampoo formulas prepared with M. acuminata corm have good characteristics.
... 2) Henna: Lawsonia inermis, family ( lythraceae) (12). Lawsonia inermis, lythraceae family. ...
Objective: To formulate and evaluate herbal hair dye by using herbal ingredients such as Henna, Guava leaves extract, Amla and Hibiscus. Materials and Method: Herbal based hair dye was formulated by using different plans such as psidium guajava leaf, henna, hibiscus and amla. All collected ingredients in the powder form are mixed uniformly to prepare a homogeneous mixture of powder form of dye. Result; The formulation shows the formulation shows good appearance, pH, texture and solubility. Conclusion; As compared to synthetic cures natural cures are generally more effective and safe as they are more secure with negligible secondary effects when shown with the synthetic based items. Henna is the more popular natural hair dye plant. The use of henna increases color intensity. This natural hair dye has the benefit of causing no skin damage, erythema development, or edema. It is made entirely of water soluble plant elements. We made the beneficial qualities of the natural hair dye in our study.
... India has a deep-rooted tradition of herbal medicine that has been facilitated through several systems of medicine, namely Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, naturopathy, and homeopathy. In recent years, there has been great interest in understanding the scientific mechanisms responsible for many of the phytochemicals used in these different medical modalities, especially from an herbal cosmetics perspective [32][33][34][35][36]. For the sake of brevity, we only touch upon certain aspects of Ayurvedic medicine and the treatment of skin. ...
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There has been interest in the history of cosmetics for the last several decades. In part, this renewed curiosity is probably due to the revolutionizing natural movement in the cosmetic industry. In this article, we provide an overview of the historical aspects of the use of natural ingredients in cosmetics, which mostly come from botanical and mineral sources. We begin with an introduction to the art and science of cosmetics in the ancient world, which includes accounts of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, and Roman cosmetics as well as Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine. These dermatological and cosmetic practices, which were advanced for the time, paved the way for the current revolution of natural ingredients in cosmetic products. Without providing a comprehensive historical account, we surveyed selected cultures during different periods of time to provide some perspective of our current understanding of natural ingredients in cosmetics. Attention is also given to the rich contributions of body art by tribal societies to our knowledge base, especially in the areas of dyes and pigments. Finally, we offer some perspective of natural ingredient cosmetics in the Information Age.
... Naringi crenulata [7], Glycyrrhiza gabra L (Fabaceae) [8], Cucurbita pepo L [9], Centella asiatica, Cyperus rotundus and Emblica officinalis [10]. [11]. ...
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Traditional hair care using ingredients from plants has been practiced for a long time by local people in many countries, including Indonesia. However, biological-pharmaceutical scientific research has only flourished in the last two decades. This article presents the results of research conducted by students and researchers in Indonesia. There are dozens of types of plants in Indonesia that are known to have the potential to be developed as hair growth-promoting drugs. Even so, there are still many weaknesses in the research process that must be overcome so that the validity of the information on the efficacy of these plants in overcoming the problem of hair loss can be relied on.
... Some best natural products for hair care 26 Some best natural products for skincare [30][31][32][33][34] a. Ultraviolet rays are very much concerned with skin damage. Hence some natural products like αtocopherol that prevent ultraviolet A and B-induced glutathione loss and DNA damage. ...
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Students, mainly girl students, are the future of our society. Hence, it's most important to look into the critical aspects like health, education, self-respect, and earning opportunity. Women and children are the vulnerable sections worldwide. Data shows that young adolescent girls, including college students, usually suffer from anemia, hair and skin issues, obesity or underweight issues, and more. Additionally, urban girls are also psychologically affected due to their perception of body image and overall improper nutritional status. Our study is a survey-oriented study where a simple random sampling method has been used. The survey was conducted in a district girls' college in West Bengal for two days in October 2018. Two dietitians, two nutrition subject experts, and one homeopathic doctor were present with the pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires format duly filled by each respondent. 110 interested girl students studying graduation participated in the primary health cum nutrition screening. BMI calculation through height and weight measurements, screening of nails, hair, skin, tongue, dietary habits, and basic nutrition knowledge assessments were made on the spot. Altogether, data was collected through the dichotomous questionnaires based on nutrition, personal health, and hygiene, followed by subjective opinions and perceptions of the participants' body image. SPSS version-16 was applied for statistical analysis. Twelve attributes were used in the dichotomous questionnaires that found 67% were overweight cum obese. The study revealed 12% anemic, 13% excess hair loss, 62% skin conditioning issues, 65.4% acne or pimples,65% menstruation issues, and 4.5% depression. The study analyzed all the personal attributes to assess their image perception and nutritional status as well. Image complexion is not always essential, but some participants expressed their feeling about their improper appearance. Above all, everyone accepted that proper nutrition is always a significant factor for good health.
... Składnik aktywny (lawson) skoncentrowany jest w liściach, sproszkowane, suszone liście używane do barwienia nazywa się zwyczajowo henną. Zabarwienie powstaje w wyniku reakcji Maillarda polegającej na łączeniu się lawsonu z grupami aminowymi aminokwasów [5,6]. ...
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Introduction. Henna (powdered leaves or extract from Lawsonia inermis) is a popular mean for colouring hair and skin. It is often used as an addition to other colouring agents. It is known that a number of inorganic cations change the effect of colouration. Water used for washing is often contaminated with metal ions that tend to accumulate in the hair. This indicated the possibility of the obtaining different shades depending on degree and type of water pollution.
Hair is a thread-like structure numerously found in vertebrates. It is also considered as one of the symbols of beauty in humans. In this expeditious world, many problems associated with face (on the skin, eyebrows, lips) nails, hair etc. are seen. The provided information emphasizes on various herbal ingredient that owns numerous benefits for hairs and related hair complications in humans. Among various problems, people are experiencing many hairs related problems such as hair loss, split ends, dandruff, increased sebum production, hair thinning. Thus, people are looking for ways to increase hair conditions, prevention for hair associated problems and advanced care. The synthetic or the chemical products causes side effects and adverse effects when used, thus now people have high approach towards organic natural and herbal formulations that tends to show minimum side effects. Generally, herbal preparations are known for its “no side effects” property. Utilization of herbal components is extending progressively. Herbs acts as a source of medicinal properties, foods and supplements since ages. Several cosmetic products are present for hair care prepared from herbal and other natural origin. In contrast, synthetic products, herbal or organic formulations are good alternate that possess no/minimum side effects. In this review, various medicinal plants that own hair care properties are summarized accompanying their biological sources, active chemical constituents having hair care property and their uses.
Hair oils are used all over the world since time immemorial; however, their exact effect on the hair and scalp remains obscure. They are usually easily accessible and are inexpensive. A wide variety of oils have been used and newer ones are coming up every day. The primary function of most of the hair oils is to act like an emollient but the unique characteristics of various hair oils suggests its action just more than emollient action. This article focuses on the different types of hair oils and their possible beneficial effects on the hair. Dermatologists need to be aware of the effects of hair oils and their usage.
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Sweet lime (Citrus limetta), known as ’Mousambi’ or ’Mosambi’ in India, is one of the best citrus fruits regarding its nutrient contents. Its bioactive compounds (BAC) are exclusively used for multiple clinical applications considering many therapeutic benefits not only in Asian countries but also in the western world. The fruit pulp and juice are the best sources of ascorbic acid, B-vitamins, amino acids, and other secondary metabolites. Specifically, polyphenols such as flavanones, hesperetin, naringenin, and chlorogenic acid are highly rich in the fruit. The nutrients in sweet lime altogether provide significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective effects. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze the inhibitory and complementary therapeutic effects of sweet lime’s pulp and juices to inhibit the virulence caused by RNA viruses, mainly SARS-CoV-2. This review study was designed based on extensive online searches of relevant open-access literature available in the best quality and reliable databases by using specific keywords and boolean operators. After a rigorous review, we found that flavanones in the fruit can alter or inhibit the polyproteins (pp1a and pp1b) responsible for viral replication. Therefore, sweet lime has potentialities to provide an inhibitory and a complementary therapeutic effect against RNA viruses, mainly SARS-CoV-2. About the antiviral activities, more clinical trials are needed to prove its efficacy; however, reviewing current knowledge, Citrus limetta is one of the potent antioxidant, inflammatory fruits available and affordable almost worldwide.
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Botanicals have been an important source of medicines in the past. Most of the botanicals that have been explored for medical use happen to be potentially poisonous ones. Even today, ethnopharmacology provides a valuable source for new pharmaceuticals. However, understanding of strengths and limitations of 'Little Traditions' and 'Great Traditions' give more possibility of selecting medicinal materials in contrast to poisonous ones. Ancient medical systems like Ayurveda and Chinese have this potential. Ayurveda is a Science of Life, has a strong logical, philosophical basis. Ayurveda is not only limited to body or physical symptoms but also gives a comprehensive knowledge about spiritual, mental and social health. Ayurveda practices the theory of balance of TriDosha: Kapha, Pitta and Vata. It is possible that the Ayurvedic database of knowledge about patient, disease, diagnosis, pharmacology and therapeutics will be extremely useful not only for a comprehensive and holistic treatment but also will play a vital role in creating 'Designer' Medicines. The ancient knowledge put to the test of modern science will lead to emergence of the Future Modern Medicine.
A review is presented which shows the vegetable kingdom as an almost inexhaustible reservoir of potential drugs. Some historical aspects about the use of plants and their constituents in medicine are dealt with. A number of problems connected with the search for new prototype drugs of biological origin is reported as well as modern methods used in this promising research. Some examples are given concerning recent results of investigations of plants used in traditional and modern medicine in China. Special attention is paid to the present role of natural products in therapy: as biologically active compounds as such, as starting materials for (semi)synthetic drugs and, last but not least, as source of inspiration or as models for the synthesis of new drugs with better therapeutic, chemical or physical properties than the original compounds.
Natural products have served as a major source of drugs for centuries, and about half of the pharmaceuticals in use today are derived from natural products. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the continuing central role of natural products in the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. In this context, selected examples of important natural product-derived drugs are cited, focusing on some of the most recent introductions to the clinical setting, and a brief overview of some of the important recent developments and remaining challenges in the process of discovering and developing bioactive natural products is provided. Interest in natural products research is strong and can be attributed to several factors, including unmet therapeutic needs, the remarkable diversity of both chemical structures and biological activities of naturally occurring secondary metabolites, the utility of bioactive natural products as biochemical and molecular probes, the development of novel and sensitive techniques to detect biologically active natural products, improved techniques to isolate, purify, and structurally characterize these active constituents, and advances in solving the demand for supply of complex natural products. Opportunities for multidisciplinary research that joins the forces of natural products chemistry, molecular and cellular biology, synthetic and analytical chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology to exploit the vast diversity of chemical structures and biological activities of natural products are discussed.
Glaxo PLC has had a significant involvement with Natural Product Source Materials for all of its commercial history and, most recently, has pursued this interest by use of such materials as templates for new lead discovery. Through the expertise and facilities in its Natural Products Discovery Department, Glaxo extracts relatively small quantities of plant material (typically 200-250 g dry weight) and cultures microorganisms from environmental samples (typically 10-50 g). Extracts and fermentation broths are screened in order to detect bioactive principles (BPs). If the potency, selectivity and specificity of the BP is acceptable, isolation, purification and structural elucidation follows. It is most unlikely, in our experience, that the BP itself will become a drug; it is much more likely that we shall need to initiate a medicinal chemistry synthesis program in order to try to produce a molecule that has both the essential biological and desirable chemical properties to become a drug development candidate. This synthetic process is often a long one and our confidence that such a process is worth undertaking is greatly improved if the BP is novel. An essential component of any medicinal chemistry strategy is that it allows us to obtain secure intellectual property rights through patents. Acquisition of product claim protection, the strongest form of patent protection, is of great importance. Safety testing and clinical development of the candidate drug can take 7-10 years, and often more, during which patent protection is constantly eroding. Recognizing that acquisition of Natural Products Source Materials is an issue of growing concern, Glaxo Research and Development Ltd. (GRD), in the early part of 1992, implemented a policy for plant supply. This policy was subsequently modified to embrace source materials such as environmental, soil and marine samples from which fungi, micro- and microorganisms may be obtained. As a direct consequence of this policy, Natural Product Source Materials supply agreements are only concluded with national and international organizations who possess the expertise to identify and collect the samples. It is equally important that our suppliers have the authority, which must be provided to GRD in writing, to collect such materials and to provide them to GRD for extraction and screening purposes. Such materials must be from sustainable and accessible sources. We will not seek to collect any endangered species. Though ethnomedical information can be helpful, it is not essential. Plants must be taxonomically classified. We reimburse the supplying institute for their efforts and their expertise, and recognize an obligation to offer a royalty to the institute in the event that drug discovery, with subsequent commercialization, owes its origin, however indirectly, to a material that it provided. In discussions with the institute, we insist that "a fair proportion' (>40%) of that royalty be used for the direct benefit of the people in the collection source area. In this context, GRD recognizes the importance of local training and education.
About 30% of the worldwide sales of drugs are based on natural products. Though recombinant proteins and peptides account for increasing sales rates, the superiority of low-molecular mass compounds in human diseases therapy remains undisputed mainly due to more favorable compliance and bioavailability properties. In the past, new therapeutic approaches often derived from natural products. Numerous examples from medicine impressively demonstrate the innovative potential of natural compounds and their impact on progress in drug discovery and development. However, natural products are currently undergoing a phase of reduced attention in drug discovery because of the enormous effort which is necessary to isolate the active principles and to elucidate their structures. To meet the demand of several hundred thousands of test samples that have to be submitted to high-throughput screening (HTS) new strategies in natural product chemistry are necessary in order to compete successfully with combinatorial chemistry. Today, pharmaceutical companies have to spend approximately US $350 million to develop a new drug. Currently, approaches to improve and accelerate the joint drug discovery and development process are expected to arise mainly from innovation in drug target elucidation and lead finding. Breakthroughs in molecular biology, cell biology, and genetic engineering in the 1980 s gave access to understanding diseases on the molecular or on the gene level. Subsequently, constructing novel target directed screening assay systems of promising therapeutic significance, automation, and miniaturization resulted in HTS approaches changing the industrial drug discovery process drastically. Furthermore, elucidation of the human genome will provide access to a dramatically increased number of new potential drug targets that have to be evaluated for drug discovery. HTS enables the testing of an increasing number of samples. Therefore, new concepts to generate large compound collections with improved structural diversity are desirable.
In the prebiblical Ayurvedic origins, every creation inclusive of a human being is a model of the universe. In this model, the basic matter and the dynamic forces (Dosha) of the nature determine health and disease, and the medicinal value of any substance (plant and mineral). The Ayurvedic practices (chiefly that of diet, life style, and the Panchkarama) aim to maintain the Dosha equilibrium. Despite a holistic approach aimed to cure disease, therapy is customized to the individual's constitution (Prakruti). Numerous Ayurvedic medicines (plant derived in particular) have been tested for their biological (especially immunomodulation) and clinical potential using modern ethnovalidation, and thereby setting an interface with modern medicine. To understand Ayurvedic medicine, it would be necessary to first understand the origin, basic concept and principles of Ayurveda.
This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. We are in the midst of a public health experiment that much of academic medicine has failed to acknowledge until recently. In spite of the greatest health and longevity in history in the United States and Europe, millions are turning back to traditional herbal medicines in order to prevent or treat a host of illnesses. Thus, the review by De Smet (pages 2046–2056) and the accompanying Sounding Board article by Marcus and Grollman (pages 2073–2076) in this issue of the Journal are very timely. Both articles identify serious problems with the overall quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal products. In . . . Stephen E. Straus, M.D. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20892
On the Centella asicatica trail. Soap, Perfumery and Cos-metics Asia
  • Ac Dweck
Dweck AC. On the Centella asicatica trail. Soap, Perfumery and Cos-metics Asia. October/November 1996; 1: 41–42.
Ayurveda Revisited, Popular Prakashan, Mum-bai 3rd edn
  • S Dahanukar
  • Thatte
Dahanukar S, Thatte U. Ayurveda Revisited, Popular Prakashan, Mum-bai 3rd edn. 2000