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'Surfing on the ironing board' - the representation of women's entrepreneurship in German newspapers

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Abstract

Despite extensive attempts to enhance women's entrepreneurship in Germany, a gender gap continues to exist. This article sets out to analyse the representation of women's entrepreneurship in German media, by analysing how it is depicted in newspapers and how this changes over time. Images transported in media might regulate the nature of women's entrepreneurship, as they contain information about 'typical' and 'socially desirable' behaviour of women as well as of entrepreneurs. This article contributes to developing an understanding of the relevance of media representation of the entrepreneurship phenomenon for influencing the propensity towards entrepreneurial activity.

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... Given media's vital role in influencing what society thinks (Avraham and First, 2010;Entman, 2010;Price Schultz and Achtenhagen, 2013), its portrayal of women OMEs is bound to influence society's perceptions of their role in society. Media representations in the form of discourses and images play a part in perpetuating societal beliefs regarding gender roles and career choice (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Buysse and Embser-Herbert, 2004). Entrepreneurship has predominantly been constructed as a "manly" pursuit with women OMEs' activities being depicted as something other than the norm (Ahl, 2007;Smith, 2010). ...
... A critical analysis of how media discourses frame women OMEs' activities will therefore contribute to our understanding of media's role in influencing societal perception of women OMEs' managerial and leadership roles (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Price Schultz and Achtenhagen, 2013). However, the majority of current literature on women's representation in the media is domiciled in the North, with fewer studies being focused on the South (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Bell and Sinclair, 2016;Cukier et al., 2016;Kapasi et al., 2016;Tijani-Adenle, 2016). ...
... A critical analysis of how media discourses frame women OMEs' activities will therefore contribute to our understanding of media's role in influencing societal perception of women OMEs' managerial and leadership roles (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Price Schultz and Achtenhagen, 2013). However, the majority of current literature on women's representation in the media is domiciled in the North, with fewer studies being focused on the South (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Bell and Sinclair, 2016;Cukier et al., 2016;Kapasi et al., 2016;Tijani-Adenle, 2016). As discourses are culturally and temporally specific (Ahl and Nelson, 2015), they vary across societies and over different periods. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to critically analyze media discourses on women owner-managers/entrepreneurs (OMEs) in the Kenyan and Omani newspapers. Design/methodology/approach A critical discourse analysis is carried out on a total of 408 online media articles (174 articles from Omani newspapers and 234 articles from Kenyan newspapers) on women OMEs over the period 2010–2018. Articles are also classified based on their framing of women’s entrepreneurship. Findings Five main categories of media discourses are identified, i.e. discourses on government/institutional initiatives; women OMEs’ dependency; women OMEs’ femininity; women OMEs’ societal impact; and normalization of women OMEs. These gendered media discourses and underlying assumptions further perpetuate women OMEs’ subordinate position in society, weaken their social legitimacy and trivialize their roles as managers and leaders in society. Research limitations/implications The analysis was limited to online articles published in mainstream media. Future research could focus on offline print media from smaller media distributors or other distribution channels. Practical implications Policymakers and media houses need to pay greater attention to the subtle mechanisms reproducing gender stereotypes. Women OMEs should also take a more active role in constructing their identity in the media. Originality/value This paper highlights the underlying assumptions of media discourses regarding women’s empowerment that negatively impacts their social legitimacy. This paper also draws attention to media’s role in the trivialization of women OMEs’ leadership and managerial roles and subsequent marginalization of their social status.
... According to Gender Schema Theory (Bem, 1987), being male is associated with men, and masculinity; female is assumed to be associated with women and femininity. Men have to be involved in generating income in the public sphere for the family, and women have to be involved in the private sphere doing household chores and mostly complying with gendercongruent roles (Voitkane, 2018;Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011). The society will explain the masculinity and femininity behaviour (Koenig et al., 2011;Gupta et al., 2009). ...
... The Gender Schema Theory (Bem, 1987) assumes males are associated with men and masculinity, and females are assumed to be associated with women and femininity. Generally, men are expected to be involved in income-generating activities and the public sphere, and women are designated to the private sphere doing household chores and mostly complying with gender-congruent roles (Voitkane, 2018;Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011). Masculine to men and feminine to women are gender stereotypes that are according to the culture to define the level of masculinity and femininity (Koenig et al., 2011;Gupta et al., 2009). ...
... For example, not wearing a face mask in public areas is a high-risk behaviour in a pandemic environment, and is associated with masculinity and men. Another example is washing hands, which is associated with work at home, women and the private sphere (Voitkane, 2018;Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011), as well as following the rules and instructions. In Patriarchal Theory, men have more power against women (Sultana, 2010), and women must obey men in a family . ...
... Finally, the literature on EE and gender hypothesizes that this type of education may change the equation in two opposite ways. On the one hand, it may reproduce or reinforce the stereotype of the 'heroic male' entrepreneur (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). Particularly, when it presents female students with an image of entrepreneurship that is unlikely to fit their personality (Menzies and Tatroff, 2006) or when it does not take into account that there are gender differences in the manner in which self-beliefs and attitudes about entrepreneurship are processed and developed (Wilson et al., 2007). ...
... These two phenomena combined create a promising panorama for female entrepreneurship in this particular non-Western society. That said, the literature review also outlined how entrepreneurship education could reinforce male entrepreneurial stereotypes by emphasizing the importance of masculine behaviors or highlighting mostly male role models (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Westhead and Solesvik, 2016). It appears that the entrepreneurship courses from this sample addressed the particular expectations and needs of these female students (Petridou et al., 2009;Dhaliwal, 2010), creating an educational setting that is conducive for female entrepreneurship in the light of its particular socio-cultural structures and gender asymmetries (Roomi and Harrison, 2010). ...
... Furthermore, how this might have been done, remains unclear. Did the courses provide appropriate female role models (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011)? Was entrepreneurship presented in a way that would fit personality traits more often associated with women (Menzies and Tatroff, 2006)? ...
... The media can reflect and impact public perceptions of what is desirable and tolerated in a society and transports general attitudes and understandings in society about a phenomenon, like entrepreneurship (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Habermas, 1991;Ljunggren & Alsos, 2007). This might not only influence the way societal stakeholders think and learn about entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs (Anderson & Warren, 2011;Atherton, 2004) but also might determine how entrepreneurs perceive themselves. ...
... Moreover, it is shown how visual artefacts can influence the perception of entrepreneurs within a social context, which has so far only been attributed to written artefacts (e.g., Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Ljunggren & Alsos, 2007;Radu & Redien-Collot, 2008;Welter & Achtenhagen, 2006 Third, to dig deeper into the research area of study 2 and to provide a more detailed insight on the perception of female founders by journalists, the study in section 4 deals with the investigation of the media presentation of female entrepreneurs. ...
... This is because women are under-represented in entrepreneurship-although entrepreneurs are needed-but could provide potential economic gains while participating in entrepreneurship (Byrne, Fattoum, & Diaz Garcia, 2019;Carter, Mwaura, Ram, Trehan, & Jones, 2015). However, what is often ignored or underestimated in this regard is that the career decision to engage in entrepreneurial activity is greatly influenced by the prevailing images and public perceptions of female entrepreneurs in a society (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011). Research has shown that stereotypes of the masculine entrepreneurial hero predominate and that the prototypical image of a successful entrepreneur is usually dominated by masculine characteristics (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Baron, Markman, & Hirsa, 2001;Gupta, Turban, Wasti, & Sikdar, 2009;Nicholson & Anderson, 2005;Radu & Redien-Collot, 2008), meaning that female entrepreneurs might be perceived as inconsistent with the preconceived notion of what it takes to be a successful entrepreneur. ...
Thesis
Die Überzeugung, dass Unternehmertum entscheidend ist, um verschiedene wirtschaftliche und soziale Probleme wie Arbeitslosigkeit anzugehen, hat Unternehmertum weltweit in einen meist politischen Diskurs eingebettet. Was dabei jedoch oft unberücksichtigt bleibt, ist die Tatsache, dass Unternehmertum Unternehmer verlangt. Trotz des (wirtschaftlichen und sozialen) Beitrags von Unternehmertum ist zum Beispiel nur sehr wenig darüber bekannt, wie attraktiv Unternehmertum für Individuen ist, was jedoch von hoher Relevanz ist, da die Attraktivität von Unternehmertum bestimmt, wer sich dafür entscheidet, Unternehmer zu werden. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt sich auch die Frage, wie Unternehmertum und Unternehmer allgemein wahrgenommen und verstanden werden. Was „unternehmerisch“ ist, scheint für viele schwer definierbar, da verschiedene gesellschaftliche Akteure (z.B. Politiker, Kapitalgeber, Unternehmer oder die Gesellschaft als Ganzes) Dinge unterschiedlich sehen und wahrnehmen. Forschungsergebnisse zeigen, dass die bloße Existenz von Ressourcen nicht zum Wachstum des Unternehmertums in einer Wirtschaft an sich führt, da dies nicht bedeutet, dass Unternehmertum und Unternehmer auch von der Gesellschaft oder gesellschaftlichen Akteuren geschätzt und gefördert werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund befasst sich die vorliegende Dissertation mit der übergeordneten Forschungsfrage: Wie werden Unternehmer und Unternehmertum von verschiedenen Interessengruppen (und Unternehmern selbst) wahrgenommen?
... This involves complex emotional labour (Hochschild, 1983) where affective relations (e.g. with partners, family, friends, peers and followers) are celebrated alongside more vulnerable expressions, revealing the inner struggles that women aspiring to 'have it all' endure (Duffy and Hund, 2015). The result tends to be an 'appropriately feminised' entrepreneurial identity (Lewis, 2013) that softens the image of women entrepreneurs (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Iyer, 2009) and restores what Bruni, Gherardi and Poggio (2004a: 408) refer to as the 'symbolic order of gender'. Notions of women's professional accomplishment in the business context are here rendered acceptable by their enactment of motherhood, social bondedness and a 'sexy' femininity (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Gill, 2008;Lewis, 2013). ...
... The result tends to be an 'appropriately feminised' entrepreneurial identity (Lewis, 2013) that softens the image of women entrepreneurs (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Iyer, 2009) and restores what Bruni, Gherardi and Poggio (2004a: 408) refer to as the 'symbolic order of gender'. Notions of women's professional accomplishment in the business context are here rendered acceptable by their enactment of motherhood, social bondedness and a 'sexy' femininity (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Gill, 2008;Lewis, 2013). In this way, authenticity and affective relations are gendered and commodified in digital spaces in order to increase the economic power of the entrepreneurial self (Brydges and Sjöholm, 2019;Genz, 2015). ...
... This study is positioned within a social constructionist epistemological paradigm that recognises the relational, contextual and discursive nature of social reality (Phillips and Hardy, 2002). From this perspective, identity is not understood as a stable, fixed 'self', but rather, as a performance that is fluid, malleable and constantly in the making (Bruni et al., (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Iyer, 2009). At the same time, we adopt an approach that recognises the discursive construction of entrepreneurship (Bruni et al., 2004b). ...
Article
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Critical scholarship has challenged traditional assumptions of entrepreneurship as a 'neutral' economic activity; demonstrating instead how entrepreneurship is a cultural phenomenon. In particular, enterprise culture has been exposed as fundamentally masculinist, so that women entrepreneurs are said to be measured against gendered values and ideals. What remains relatively unexplored, however, are the ways the identity performances of women entrepreneurs on social media reflect and reproduce inequalities that extend beyond gender. In this article, we examine how highly privileged Australian women entrepreneurs perform their identities on Instagram. In applying intersectionality theory, our study finds that the entrepreneurs produced idealised feminine identities by leveraging the intersections of white, elite class, heteronormative, able-bodied power within a broader neoliberal discourse. In doing so, our analysis points to how romanticised ideals of women's economic empowerment in digital spaces may obscure the perpetuation of systemic and structural oppression.
... Gendered asymmetry is the core of proceeding entrepreneurial literature culminating entrepreneurship 'by essence' a male phenomenon (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Bruni et al., 2004;Haus et al., 2013;Jafari-Sadeghi et al., 2021). Female entrepreneurs are mostly rated low while comparing with male entrepreneurs (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Baker et al., 1997;Mehtap et al., 2017). ...
... Gendered asymmetry is the core of proceeding entrepreneurial literature culminating entrepreneurship 'by essence' a male phenomenon (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Bruni et al., 2004;Haus et al., 2013;Jafari-Sadeghi et al., 2021). Female entrepreneurs are mostly rated low while comparing with male entrepreneurs (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Baker et al., 1997;Mehtap et al., 2017). An entrepreneur manage product, market, employee, resources, funding, networking, client, and multiple diverse range of exclusive and inclusive activities (Bhushan et al., 2020;Bodhi et al., 2022b;De Bruin et al., 2006;Verheul et al., 2006), but a female entrepreneur has to additionally take care about the family and other stakeholders along with business related commercial activities (Jafari-Sadeghi 2020; Koyuncu et al., 2012;Sharma & Kaur, 2019) that demands extra time and physical efforts which has no direct positive contribution in their entrepreneurial growth but indirectly affect entrepreneurial performance adversely. ...
... Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to explore indiscernible dimensions of comparison and performance evaluation of female entrepreneurs who are perceived underperformer in comparison to male entrepreneurs (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Bhushan et al., 2020;Yadav et al., 2019a). Even, studies revealing these aspects are very much limited. ...
Article
In entrepreneurial literature male and female entrepreneurs are compared frequently. Female entrepreneur’s contributions are significantly appreciated but still they are lagging behind male entrepreneurs, is concluded in numerous studies. Women entrepreneurs have diverse motives in comparison to male while engaging in business activities. This study builds on qualitative approach and responses of 22 female entrepreneurs belonging to different industries/domains of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India were collected through face to face in-depth interviews which were analyzed afterwards as per the identified themes. The outcome has concluded that undoubtedly women are made for entrepreneurship but their comparison with male entrepreneurs is completely unjustified; even if researchers are interested, a discrete and self-reliant framework incorporating all possible challenges faced especially by women entrepreneurs should be utilized for better in-depth evaluation of their performance and productivity. Further, the outcome can also be utilized by educational and training institutions, policymakers, researchers and other stakeholders to create a more conducive environment for female entrepreneurs in male-dominant entrepreneurial world.
... As Rehn (2008) detailed, dominant discourses often are presented as absolute facts and eventually become so accepted that they reflect ideas of an ideology rather than ideas of science. Entrepreneurship's distorted and optimistic image is rarely contested and deemed usual (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). Dey and Mason (2018, p. 85) label this widely accepted reality about entrepreneurship as 'orthodox social imaginary' and argue how such reality can help constraint people from conceiving a reality 'outside the realm of dominant imagination'. ...
... Sources of such analyses are mostly texts from media or policy documents. Analyzing media texts, Achtenhagen and Welter (2011), for instance, explored the representation of women in entrepreneurship in German media by examining how women entrepreneurs are represented across newspapers in Germany. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Entrepreneurship is generally reduced to the economic logic, wherein entrepreneurs are mainly venerated as protagonists of the national economy. Entrepreneurship is equated to job creation, enhanced competitiveness, and wealth creation. This persistent conception neglects other aspects of entrepreneurship, including its broader implications for society and its members. Reflecting on these considerations, this dissertation builds upon the critical entrepreneurship research tradition that has aimed to uncouple entrepreneurship from the dominant (economic) logic, to pave the way for a more comprehensive and nuanced view of entrepreneurship (e.g., Calás et al., 2009; Weiskopf and Steyaert, 2009; Verduijn and Essers, 2013). It adopts a critical stance to effectively generate yet more space for social and societal considerations of entrepreneurship and hereby puts entrepreneurship at work for generating new possibilities of living. The chapters are not crafted to discredit entrepreneurship from its economic gravity but are critical to reducing entrepreneurship when various alternative perspectives are relevant as well. As such, this dissertation contributes to a more nuanced portrayal of entrepreneurship, which acknowledges the phenomenon’s multifacetedness and serves as a foundation for new insights in entrepreneurship. The chapters in this dissertation thus take a critical stance to explore entrepreneurship alternatives, particularly related to social change. Chapter 1 establishes the critical approach of this dissertation and offers an introduction to affirmative critique. Critical work is deemed necessary to challenge common assumptions of entrepreneurship and open up to new perspectives of the phenomenon. However, critique is commonly enacted as a gesture of negativity and a position ‘against’ entrepreneurship (Dey and Steyaert, 2018). This limits the ability of current critical research to fully understand entrepreneurship against the established literature that equates the phenomenon to economic logic. The chapter adopts and builds on a different way of doing critique, emphasizing what alternatives of entrepreneurship can be enacted when departing from an affirmatively critical stance. This step is deemed necessary towards moving away from the hegemonic allure given to entrepreneurship such that it becomes possible to see how alternatives of entrepreneurship may be enacted. Chapters 2 and 3 offer reflections and insights about discursive patterns and their ideological workings. The critical discursive studies reveal how dominant entrepreneurship discourses, mainly produced and reflected by media and policy texts, lessen the space for alternatives by reducing the phenomenon to a (too) limited account. The findings show that entrepreneurship is mainly reduced to economic considerations, whereas social issues are hardly associated with the entrepreneurship discourse. A limited reflection of entrepreneurship’s multiple perspectives in media and policy texts may signal and result in a limited and distorted understanding of the phenomenon. Relatedly, instead of simply uncovering (and critiquing) discourses that manifest entrepreneurship’s liaison with the economic logic, chapter 4 further explores what is meant by entrepreneurship’s capacity to produce new possibilities of living. It offers insights into one possible alternative that may emerge when rethinking entrepreneurship beyond the dominant narratives that mainly reduce the phenomenon to economic logic, namely: how we can leverage entrepreneurship to put craft at work for the emancipation of marginalized communities so that actual social change can be enacted and sustained.
... TOKBAEVA AND ACHTENHAGEN -9 career options. As outlined by Achtenhagen and Welter (2011) in a study of women entrepreneurs in Germany, public discourses as transmitted by mass media, and especially newspapers, can here play an important role. They argue that newspapers are powerful producers, reproducers, and circulators of public discourses on career choices, as they persuade "our consent to ways of talking about reality that are often regarded as normal and acceptable beyond the confines of media" (Macdonald, 1995, p. 3). ...
... These articles were downloaded without preselection of what was covered in them, so as to gain an impression of all instances in which women in IT were considered noteworthy in these publications (cf. Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011). ...
Article
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Sweden is known to be one of the most gender‐equal societies in the world. Thus, it remains an enigma why a large discrepancy continues to exist regarding the gender balance in career choice and progression in many professions. Drawing on Yvonne Hirdman's(1988) theory of gendered systems, in this paper we explore the role of career resilience in the career progression of women who choose to work in the male‐dominated IT sector. We draw attention to how the day‐to‐day process of practicing career resilience in a gendered workplacetends to evolve as women progress in their careers. Based on an interview study with 50 female IT professionals as well as a discourse analysis of 502 newspaper articles on women in this sector, we develop a process model of career resilience in gendered professions, outlining different coping strategies that allow women to develop and enhance such resilience over time. We conclude the paper by providing some practical recommendations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... When seeking gender equity, scholars need to discuss entrepreneurial work by looking at both masculinity and femininity to understand the reason behind women not engaging or showing less engagement in entrepreneurship (Ahl, 2006;Ngoasong and Kimbu, 2019;Poggesi et al., 2020). Young researchers need to give more attention to the heterogeneity of WEs and show more curiosity toward exploring how WEs and femininities are constructed (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). In the worldwide context (Figure 1), women are strengthening and recognizing their identity at the national and international levels, which is gradually becoming a vital pillar to empower the country through the promotion of women-owned enterprises (WOEs). ...
... Various researchers have studied the significant role of the environment on WOEs as the creation of enterprises and their performance highly depends on the location; mainly for the manufacturing, high-tech and small enterprises (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Hofstede, 1980). One of the environmental dimensions is culture (Ahl, 2006). ...
Article
Purpose Women-owned enterprises (WOEs) are one of the fastest-growing entrepreneurial sectors in the world. Therefore, this study aims to identify and develop the structural cause and effect relationship among the various strategic dimensions that affect the performance of WOEs in the Indian context. Design/methodology/approach With the help of the questionnaire survey, the data has been gathered. Further, the experts’ opinions are considered, which is followed by interpretative structural modeling and the impact matrix cross-reference multiplication applied to a classification (MICMAC) approach to explore the 13 dimensions associated with the development of WOEs such as work–life balance (WLB), entrepreneurial learning (EL), competencies, social identity (SI) and culture. Findings WLB and support of financial institutions are the dominant independent dimensions and EL and competencies have emerged as dominant dependent dimensions, which impact the development of WOEs. The other linkage dimensions are experience, entrepreneurship education and training, SI, government, non-government organizations, family, friends, culture, role models, etc. Research limitations/implications This conceptual model can be validated for any type of WOEs in India and in other countries. Practical implications Through this study, the academicians, decision-makers and policymakers must become aware of the importance of each dimension and their relatedness with each other, which provides the direction for designing and implementing appropriate policies to enhance the growth of WOEs. Originality/value This is the foremost research that provides an interpretive structural conceptual model to develop a map of the complex relationships and magnitude among the identified dimensions of WOEs.
... According to Bruni, Gherardi, and Poggio (2004), such a proposition remains under-studied in innovation. This may be attributed by the plethora of studies that have postulated how men and women possess distinctive entrepreneurial traits and have therefore generated divisive approaches to understanding the roles of gender in innovation (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Brush, de Bruin, & Welter, 2009;Lewis, 2006;Verheul, Van Stel, & Thurik, 2006;Wilson, Kickul, & Marlino, 2007). Rather, the research supports the notion for a more inclusive gender-neutral framing of innovation, as supported by other scholars (El Harbi, Anderson, & Mansour, 2009;Noguera, Alvarez, & Urbano, 2013). ...
Article
Rainbow looms, America's 2014 Toy of the Year, are associated with colourful rubber bands that can be weaved into intricate objects using a plastic loom. These sets are sold without any accompanying instructions, requiring users to develop personal skills through family, friends and online. This paper explores the participatory practices of rainbow looms within digital leisure, and how it facilitates spaces for innovative thinking and practice. The research showed that the enabling factors for innovation through rainbow looms were associated with a largely positive play culture, which developed intrinsic rewards such as self-confidence and value creation. These findings illuminate the intricate relations that digital media is not merely another avenue for leisure, but can trigger spirits of youth innovation. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Cromie (1987) indicates that men and women entrepreneurs are similar based on personality traits but differ in motive. Even in developed economies like Germany, women seem to be mostly motivated by push factors (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). Men's motivation is making more money, whereas women are dissatisfied with their previous jobs and careers and are seeking ways to balance their motherhood and work roles. ...
Article
People have started to question mainstream, supposedly gender-neutral, entrepreneurship definitions and perceptions with the confrontations of feminist perspective. Considering entrepreneurship as a gendered concept, in this study we handled gender as a lens in entrepreneurship. The purpose of this study is to portray gender specific characteristics and perceptions of entrepreneurship in Turkey. With this objective, we analyzed interviews with entrepreneurs in two Turkish entrepreneurship-focused business magazines and one popular business blog consisting of valuable startup and women entrepreneurs’ stories and interviews. We performed qualitative analysis on the content of these interviews to under- stand the perspectives of female and male entrepreneurs, and the differences between them as to their statements. We analyzed the choice of words and interviewees’ discourses. As to the findings, the most referred element of gendered entrepreneurship is family embeddedness based on stereotypical beliefs and norm systems. In addition, this finding shows how culturally embedded beliefs deeply effect women’s expectations/projections, barriers and needs concerning entrepreneurship. In Turkey, there is only a handful of studies concerning women entrepreneurship from the perspective of gender as a lens. Therefore, in this article, gender specific perceptions of entrepreneurship in Turkey as a developing and a masculine country were revealed.
... This latter set of implications essentially offers a "blame the victim" mentality and implies policy changes should be geared toward changing what women are doing rather than changing governmental approaches and programs. Some recommendations exist in the literature for enhancing women entrepreneurship; namely, increase access to SME financing (Ahmad and Muhammad Arif, 2015), gender-specific SME training and development support services (Byrne and Fayolle, 2010;Price and McMullan, 2012), one-stop access to hub for information, increase access to federal procurement (Orser et al., 2019), internationalization support (Ratten and Tajeddini, 2018) and promote entrepreneurship as a career option (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011), which address the issue and the solution from a single level point of view. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to provide a multi-level framework for exploring women entrepreneurship in Canada. The authors examine the Women Entrepreneurship Knowledge Hub (WEKH), a platform to advance women entrepreneurs from diverse backgrounds. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyze the major elements associated with the processes and strategies in WEKH through a case study approach. Findings The findings presented in this paper clearly show how creating an inclusive innovation ecosystem linking micro-, meso- and macro-level factors has the potential to advance women entrepreneurship Research limitations/implications This case study presented here is in the early phase and results are not yet available. Practical implications The lessons from WEKH provides a model for other countries. Social implications Entrepreneurship drives economic development and gender equality is a critical sustainable development goal. WEKH activities will advance opportunities for women by creating a more inclusive innovation ecosystem. Originality/value WEKH is a knowledge hub in Canada that aims to help foster women entrepreneurship in Canada related to the women entrepreneurship strategy national program.
... Women entrepreneurs also suffer from discriminatory verbal and non-verbal language, even unintentionally because language favours the emergence and persistence of gendered contexts. This is supported by research looking into the stereotypical representation of women's entrepreneurship in various media that highlights how contexts become gendered through words and images (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Ahl, 2004;Baker et al., 1997;Eikhof et al., 2013;Langowitz and Morgan, 2003). Welter (2011) andEttl et al. (2016), for example, show that and how the way women entrepreneurs are portrayed in media, through both content and language of articles, contributes to the overall social construction of women's entrepreneurship. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to illustrate the main contributions of the context-gender discussion in entrepreneurship research and its main developments over time to identify promising future research avenues. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds on the author’s extensive knowledge of the context-gender debate and on several recent overviews and reviews of the debate. It is written as essay, introducing its main themes through a personal reflection and complemented by a selective review of research on gendered contexts and women’s entrepreneurship. Findings The context-gender discussion has moved forward. The first wave of context-gender studies contextualized gender, considering the impact of contexts on women’s entrepreneurship. Nowadays, studies are conducted on how contexts are gendered and how they are constructed in gendered ways through, for example, words, images, cognitions, as well as how women entrepreneurs can impact on and enact their contexts. Originality/value This paper contributes novel insights into contextualizing gender and gendering contexts. It is unique in suggesting that a perspective on gendering contexts will allow to explore the diversity of entrepreneurship and further develop theories related to contexts and gender.
... CES offer insight into how entrepreneurial discourses have multiplied by expanding into new contexts (such as social entrepreneurship, see Ziegler, 2011), where entrepreneurship benefits values over and above economic values, where an understanding of entrepreneurship as socially constituted is shaped (Fletcher, 2006;Jack et al., 2008;Korsgaard, 2011) and where entrepreneurs "other" than the stereotypical western world self-made middle-aged man, are given a voice (Banerjee and Tedmanson, 2010;Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011;Essers and Tedmanson, 2014;Ozkazanc-Pan, 2014). Critical scholars continuously testify to how entrepreneurship continues to pervade many areas of not only economic life but also social life, including the world of school (Berglund et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose Following the example of the critical management education tradition, the purpose of this paper is to argue whether we should keep EE vital by disturbing it, in particular by interrogating that which has seemingly become “untouchable” from interrogation. Design/methodology/approach This paper takes inspiration from Paolo Freire’s work by proposing a pedagogical approach to entrepreneurship education which builds on an iterative and interactive process, oscillating between deconstructing and reconstructing entrepreneurship, creating space for invention in the classroom. The paper provides exemplary contributions in developing suggestions as to ways forward. Findings The ways forward being proposed in this paper include entrepreneurship educators engaging students as co-learners, and evoking their curiosity to pose new questions about the phenomenon; “grounding” students in their own creativity and supporting them to build the confidence needed to develop alternative understandings of how entrepreneurship can function – for themselves, in their future organizations and for society as a whole; and challenging our own teaching positions, and adopting a pedagogical process of invention, stimulating curiosity, co-creation, thought-provoking questions and entrepreneurial action. Originality/value This paper provides ways forward in keeping EE “fresh”, by sketching how we need to teach about entrepreneurship, adopting the critical insights emerging in the field. The paper argues how we do not only need other models and approaches to understand entrepreneurship, but also to understand learning and education.
... Most studies adopted the main research themes from the general women entrepreneurship studies and applied them in the context of female academic entrepreneurship (see Goel et al., 2015). They often assumed that male and female entrepreneurs were essentially the same; hence, what was learned about men applied equally to women, and thus, the latter did not require separate investigation (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Bruni et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Based on information from a large sample of German researchers and using business ownership and nascent entrepreneurship as alternative indicators of academic entrepreneurship, we use mediation analysis to analyze the direct effects of researchers' entrepreneurship attitudes, age, gender, and citizenship as well as the related indirect influences. Industrial cooperation, industry consulting, and patenting are used as alternative mediator variables. Focusing first on the overall drivers of academic entrepreneurship, the results show differences in the drivers of business ownership and nascent entrepreneurship. With regard to age, we find positive and significant indirect effects; they are negative for females; and positive for German citizens. The identification of direct and indirect channels of influence on academic entrepreneurship is the main contribution of this work.
... Kalden, Cunningham, and Anderson 2017). To date, media coverage of entrepreneurs has done little to reconsider the traditional stereotypes of entrepreneurs (Achtenhagen and Welter 2011). Without first-hand experience or access to entrepreneurship to confirm or contradict the prevailing societal judgements of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs, societal perceptions will remain uncorrected (Nicholson and Anderson 2005). ...
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The positive evaluation by society of entrepreneurs as a social group is hugely important because it determines that group's legitimacy. However, researchers have tended to neglect the role of society in social evaluations and also that constructing them is a multilevel process. This knowledge gap has prompted us to investigate how entrepreneurs are perceived and evaluated (1) from the societal perspective, (2) from the entrepreneurs' own perspective on entrepreneurial identity, and (3) from the entrepreneurs' perspective on society's views on them. We contribute to the literature by proposing a model that connects entrepreneur identities and the social evaluations of entrepreneurs. The multilevel and cross-level analysis of the evaluations of entrepreneurs linked to the individual and social entrepreneur identities reveal inconsistencies and potential trade-offs. We base this analysis primarily on a sorting study of visual representations of entrepreneurs published in the media. Although the entrepreneurs perceive the entrepreneurial identity more positively and seriously than society in general, they do not construct visual representations to convey this positive identity to the public. Finally, the results underscore the usefulness of visual analyses in revealing stereotypes.
... Women entrepreneurs tend to have different behavioral styles in terms of how they start and build business ventures (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Fischer & Reuber, 2003;P. Lewis, 2006). ...
... Today, social media platforms have gained a prominent role as the new, digital public sphere. Gendered images and 'doing' gender related to management, organizations and work have been studied on the arena of mass media and the business press (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Kelan, 2013;Krefting, 2002;Lämsä & Tiensuu, 2002;Lang & Rybnikova, 2016;Tienari, Holgersson, Meriläinen, & Höök, 2009) as well as in online media (Tienari & Ahonen, 2016;Vanhala, Pesonen, & Nokkonen, 2010). According to Tienari and Ahonen (2016), online commentary serves to produce portrayals of gender and particularly those that naturalize gender differences, thereby justifying inequalities. ...
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In this paper, we aim to contribute to research on social media as an arena for gender relations and inequality by elucidating how social media and hyper‐masculine work cultures are interconnected. We focus empirically on the fiery social media commentary #MeToo sparked on Wall Street in New York. While the possibility of this movement backfiring has received relatively little research attention, we argue that online reactions illustrate the unpredictable nature of social media movements and their reception in organizations. Our analysis shows how they work to naturalize gender differences and polarize opinions, often with highly suspect humor. Focusing on interconnections of hyper‐masculine work cultures, on the one hand, and popular misogyny gaining ground online, on the other, offers ways to critically explore the constitutive role of social media as a medium in shaping contemporary workplaces and society. More research on social relations and technology is needed in organizations that are less obviously hyper‐masculine but deeply gendered nevertheless.
... Studies analysing the images of women entrepreneurs as represented in the German public media (for example, newspapers) show how traditional role models are reinforced by positioning the work-family balance as a "women-only" topic (Ettl, Welter and Achtenhagen, 2016), and by showing women entrepreneurs as mothers first, and entrepreneurs second, with entrepreneurial success subordinated to the image of a good family person (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). In the past, Germany has introduced a number of programmes or other means that promote women entrepreneurs as role models. ...
Technical Report
This report aims to provide momentum on discussions about the design, delivery, scope and effectiveness of women-focused entrepreneurship policies and the gendered implications of mainstream policies and programmes. This work also identifies limitations with current policy approaches and points the way to more effective policy. The report highlights long-standing issues that policy makers need to address to better support and promote women’s entrepreneurship. Many of these issues have been underlined and exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which erupted during the preparation of this report. Governments have attempted to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus with measures that have restricted economic and social activities, with severe consequences for many entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs have been hit harder than other entrepreneurs, in part reflecting the fact that women entrepreneurs are more likely to be operating businesses in the service sectors. Women are also disproportionately impacted by isolating at home with family measures. In addition, they often have greater difficulties accessing emergency liquidity measures because their businesses do not meet threshold criteria or are involved in ineligible activities. They are also less likely to use external finance, so government credit extensions and suspensions of payments to entrepreneurs have had less impact. Collectively, these issues threaten to reverse the progress that has been made in closing the gender gap in entrepreneurship over the past several decades. The report presents a collection of 27 policy insight notes on women’s entrepreneurship policy that were prepared by members of the Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy Research Project (Global WEP – www.globalwep.org) – a network of established researchers from over 30 counties – in collaboration with the OECD. This partnership leverages the knowledge, experience and perspectives of the individual country-based scholars who prepared the collection of policy insight notes. While the collection of policy insight notes has been reviewed by the OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship, the notes were prepared by independent researchers and do not necessarily reflect the views of the OECD or its Member Countries.
... Our aim is therefore to take a process perspective and explore how firms grow. To address 'growing' as process, we take a social constructionist approach (Fletcher 2004(Fletcher , 2006, believing that growth is likely first understood, made sense of and then enacted (Achtenhagen and Welter 2011;Lindgren and Packendorff 2009). In contrast to perspectives where growth is assumed as universal and unproblematic, the meanings of growth, especially respondents' understandings, take a central place here, informing our research question. ...
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... Instead, our findings imply that it is more appropriate to re-construe women as being just as likely as men to possess accurate perceptions of their venture creation knowledge and ability. Being as precise as possible in our discourse about women's entrepreneurial confidence is of utmost importance for countering persistent perceptions (Gupta et al., 2009;Gupta et al., 2019) and portrayals (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Ahl & Nelson, 2015) of entrepreneurship as a stereotypically "male" endeavor. ...
... Instead, our findings imply that it is more appropriate to re-construe women as being just as likely as men to possess accurate perceptions of their venture creation knowledge and ability. Being as precise as possible in our discourse about women's entrepreneurial confidence is of utmost importance for countering persistent perceptions (Gupta et al., 2009;Gupta et al., 2019) and portrayals (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Ahl & Nelson, 2015) of entrepreneurship as a stereotypically "male" endeavor. ...
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Skeptical of prevailing depictions and recommendations regarding the gender gap in entrepre-neurial self-efficacy (ESE), our aim is to raise and examine alternative interpretations and inferences. We question the common belief that women are under-confident with respect to entrepreneurship and whether this is a "problem" that needs fixing. The findings from two distinct datasets indicate, instead, that women are as likely as men to possess accurate entrepreneurial confidence, which is less likely than over-confidence to be associated with proclivities potentially detrimental to business venturing. Our analysis therefore calls for revised portrayals of-and suggestions for-the ESE of both women and men.
... Instead, our findings imply that it is more appropriate to re-construe women as being just as likely as men to possess accurate perceptions of their venture creation knowledge and ability. Being as precise as possible in our discourse about women's entrepreneurial confidence is of utmost importance for countering persistent perceptions (Gupta et al., 2009;Gupta et al., 2019) and portrayals (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2011;Ahl & Nelson, 2015) of entrepreneurship as a stereotypically "male" endeavor. ...
... Studies analysing the images of women entrepreneurs as represented in the German public media (for example, newspapers) show how traditional role models are reinforced by positioning the work-family balance as a "women-only" topic (Ettl, Welter and Achtenhagen, 2016), and by showing women entrepreneurs as mothers first, and entrepreneurs second, with entrepreneurial success subordinated to the image of a good family person (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). In the past, Germany has introduced a number of programmes or other means that promote women entrepreneurs as role models. ...
Technical Report
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This report aims to provide momentum on discussions about the design, delivery, scope and effectiveness of women-focused entrepreneurship policies and the gendered implications of mainstream policies and programmes. This work also identifies limitations with current policy approaches and points the way to more effective policy. The report highlights long-standing issues that policy makers need to address to better support and promote women’s entrepreneurship. Many of these issues have been underlined and exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which erupted during the preparation of this report. Governments have attempted to contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus with measures that have restricted economic and social activities, with severe consequences for many entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs have been hit harder than other entrepreneurs, in part reflecting the fact that women entrepreneurs are more likely to be operating businesses in the service sectors. Women are also disproportionately impacted by isolating at home with family measures. In addition, they often have greater difficulties accessing emergency liquidity measures because their businesses do not meet threshold criteria or are involved in ineligible activities. They are also less likely to use external finance, so government credit extensions and suspensions of payments to entrepreneurs have had less impact. Collectively, these issues threaten to reverse the progress that has been made in closing the gender gap in entrepreneurship over the past several decades. The report presents a collection of 27 policy insight notes on women’s entrepreneurship policy that were prepared by members of the Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Policy Research Project (Global WEP – www.globalwep.org) – a network of established researchers from over 30 counties – in collaboration with the OECD. This partnership leverages the knowledge, experience and perspectives of the individual country-based scholars who prepared the collection of policy insight notes. While the collection of policy insight notes has been reviewed by the OECD Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship, the notes were prepared by independent researchers and do not necessarily reflect the views of the OECD or its Member Countries.
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Despite the tremendous growth in research on gender stereotyping in the context of entrepreneurship, scholarly understanding of this phenomenon is far from complete. Accordingly, the overarching goal of this paper is to stimulate greater attention to topics that warrant fuller consideration. Of the many paths worth pursuing, we focus on those that we term “Investigating Intersectionalities”, “Mapping Masculinities”, and “Revealing Rationales”. In our coverage of each, we describe the recommended route’s essence and intellectual origins, summarize extant work within the entrepreneurship literature, and raise illustrative questions for future research. We hope our efforts to demarcate these paths encourage their pursuit.
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This study combines the concept of trigger points, events preceding bursts of growth, with a linguistic approach to show how firm growth unfolds through a process of translation. By marrying theories and methods rooted in the linguistic turn with firm growth theories, this study brings new insights on growth contributing to both the advancement of the trigger point concept and the wider understanding of entrepreneurial activities as complex and contextually bound processes dependent on human interaction. In doing so, the study also adheres to the current demand for advancing firm growth theory by relaxing the outcome-focussed approach and static life-cycle paradigm, and complementing it with alternative theoretical and methodological perspectives.
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Over the past three decades, research on entrepreneurial identity (EI) has grown particularly rapidly, yet in seemingly disparate directions. To lend structure to this fragmented field of inquiry, our systematic integrative review maps and integrates EI research based on antecedents, content, outcomes as well as their relationships. In so doing, we reveal that the field revolves around two primary conceptualizations of EI as Property or Process. We suggest future avenues for examining the interplay between EI and temporal, socio-cognitive, and spatial contexts, and for investigating and theorizing overlooked mechanisms of reconstructing and losing EI.
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Much emphasis is placed on the “male centric” ideology of entrepreneurship; and on the heroic male entrepreneur when entrepreneurs patently operate within long-term relationships. Their wives play a central part in their unfolding entrepreneurial identity and narrative. We examine academic literature and media representations and in particular gendered social constructions of the “Entrepreneurs wife” as a distinctive, entrepreneurial identity. Indeed, the heroic entrepreneur story is shared with their partners. The qualitative methodology used consists of a blend of netnography and media analysis techniques. From an interrogation of the literature and publically available representations, salient themes and typologies emerged. This research develops our understanding of gendered entrepreneurial identities and narratives as socially constructed. Developing a better understanding of the personal sides of entrepreneurial couples is helpful to policymakers in understanding the entrepreneurial personality more holistically because of the financial stability that a long-term partnership brings to an entrepreneurial venture. This study illuminates an under-researched area of entrepreneurial identity and narrative shedding new light on the topic.
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Female role models are increasingly used in enterprise support to encourage women to open businesses. Although varied in detail, their public narratives generally follow a limited number of plots where hard work overcomes all obstacles and leads to emotionally fulfilling, rewarding careers while societally enabled resource accumulation and financial returns are rarely mentioned. This autoethnographic inquiry critically examines one such publicly disseminated role model narrative, the author’s own, and contrasts it with an alternative, unspoken story. Using a narrative approach, performative lens, and insights from the role model literature, it offers a theoretically informed analysis of these contrasting accounts exploring how the relationship between individual agency and social context is occluded in role model narratives. It theorizes a performative paradox where, in order to meet the politically charged imperative to “inspire and empower” disadvantaged aspirants, role models simultaneously perform shared social identity and deny its impact. Implications for enterprise support are discussed.
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We examine how female migrant entrepreneurs overturn disadvantage through social resourcing. We argue they are disadvantaged by the intersectionality of their identities; that social constructions and ensuing entrepreneurial expectations are a poor fit with their ascribed identity, that they are marginalised by their ‘otherness’. However, entrepreneurship is not only socially situated, but also socially enacted. We studied their entrepreneurial social enactment and found they had used agency to mobilise their identity. The shared identity of marginality as cultural strangers fostered a sense of togetherness as social capital. In turn, this produced group social responsibility, a socialised obligation to help each other. The entrepreneurs used this intangible resource to first establish their businesses then as a platform for wider engagements. We found that when the entrepreneurial self became superimposed on intersectional identity, disadvantage almost disappeared. Respondents reported confidence in themselves through their entrepreneurial achievement, paradoxically empowered by a negative social identity.
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Literature on the creation of organizations is often cast within a masculine gender framework. This paper draws from three theoretical perspectives to develop a new perspective that broadens the view of organizational creation by encompassing the relative balance of feminine and masculine perspectives in the entrepreneur's venture start-up process and new venture attributes. We elaborate the relatively less visible feminine and personal perspective and compare this with the traditional or masculine perspective. Important to the discussion is the distinction between biology (sex: male and female, man and woman) and socialized perspectives (gender: masculine and feminine). While research and the general public often use the concept of gender loosely to signify sex, we follow a more precise feminist distinction. The paper advances new concepts of gender-maturity (an individual difference) and gender-balance (an organizational quality).
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Die Konturen von Machtverhältnissen werden in hohem Maße von patriarchalen Geschlechtersystemen bestimmt. Um zu kennzeichnen, wie Geschlechtersysteme in konkreten Gesellschaften wirksam werden (Hirdman 1998) und um die Struktur der Geschlechterverhältnisse in verschiedenen Staaten kategorisieren und vergleichen zu können (Duncan 1998; Pfau Effmger 1993; Gottfried 2000a) wird in zunehmendem Maße das Konzept des Geschlechtervertrags herangezogen. Die Literatur lenkt die Aufmerksamkeit auf eine historische Form des Geschlechtervertrages, nämlich auf den des männlichen Familienernährermodells. Dieses Modell privilegiert eine männliche Arbeitsbiographie, die in enger Verbindung zum sogenannten Normalarbeitsverhältnis steht. Seit den späten sechziger Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts ist das männliche Familienernährermodell zwar durch das Aufkommen eines individualistischeren Familien- und Geschlechtermodells abgewandelt, und in einigen Fällen auch entkräftet worden. Das Vermächtnis des männlichen Familienernährermodells bleibt jedoch bestehen und ist nach wie vor in die Regeln, Routinen und Verpflichtungen eingebettet, die das allgemeine Verständnis von der Ordnung der Geschlechter und die an sie gestellten Erwartungen prägen.
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The purpose of this article is to question the foundations and structure of entrepreneurs' social representation in the French press. Social representations are the result of a perceptive and cognitive construction of reality, which transforms social objects (people, contexts, situations) into symbolic categories (values, beliefs, ideologies), therefore providing a collective significant system for the regulation of cognitions and actions (Ljunggren and Alsos, 2001).Within the consensual reality through which the social world is created and experienced, the press can be emphasized as an entrepreneurial `Greek chorus' (Kets deVries, 2000) playing a key role in the diffusion and transformation of entrepreneurial culture at the local and national levels.We conducted a discourse analysis of 962 articles, from 2001 to 2005, in order to study the press's potential impact on entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility beliefs.We identified three main categories of discourses — the legitimacy discourse, the normativity discourse, and the accessibility discourse, which may impact readers' desirability and feasibility beliefs. This is the first attempt to assess the role of the public discourse in fuelling entrepreneurial intentions in the French context.
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We examine a paradox: gains in women's business ownership in the USA have been extraordinary, whereas popular press coverage has actually declined, and academic articles on women owners are also exceedingly rare. We offer three simple explanations for this: (1) the media no longer consider women's business 'news'; (2) scholars are not interested in women's firms because they are mostly small and relatively unimportant; and (3) documented differences between men and women owners are few and thus reporters and scholars no longer look for them. Two dissenting voices, however, complicate the picture: small but significant gender differences have been found in studies of social behaviour and leadership; and, advocacy groups have strongly asserted that women owners possess unique advantages. Why haven't these voices been heard? We argue that androcentrism has clouded our perceptions of gender differences and blinded journalists and academics in two ways: (1) women's distinctive contributions have been muted as they have adapted to institutions of business that were already gendered, and (2) the search for distinctive contributions by women owners has been thwarted by assumptions that traditional ways of doing business are 'natural'.
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Purpose – The purpose of this article is to develop a social constructionist approach to entrepreneurship and to discuss its consequences for entrepreneurship research. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a review of current methodological debates in the entrepreneurship field concerning the need and implications of explicit references to basic scientific assumptions in research texts, a social constructionist perspective is outlined and its theoretical and methodological consequences are discussed. Findings – A social constructionist perspective may contribute to the development of entrepreneurship research both through opening up possibilities for the inclusion of new theoretical fields, and through the demands on new methodological approaches following such theoretical inclusions. Originality/value – Based on an identified lack of research literature discussing underlying scientific assumptions within entrepreneurship, the paper provides a thorough discussion and summary of existing and future social constructionist developments.
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Der Beitrag diskutiert das institutionelle Umfeld für Gründerinnen und Unternehmerinnen in Deutschland. Darunter werden sämtliche rechtliche, (wirtschafts-)politische, förderpolitische und gesellschaftliche Einflüsse verstanden, die Umfang und Ausprägungen weiblichen Unternehmertums bestimmen (können). Politische und wirtschaftliche Regelungen üben großen Einfluss auf die Opportunitätsfelder für weibliche Unternehmer aus, während kulturelle Normen gängige Frauenbilder und Rollenverteilungen, die den Umfang häuslicher Arbeit beeinflussen, sowie die Wertschätzung einer Gesellschaft zur Erwerbstätigkeit von Frauen beinhalten. In dieser Hinsicht zeigt sich die deutsche Gesellschaft heute zwar aufgeschlossener für Unternehmerinnen (dazu beigetragen haben auch die vermehrten Anstrengungen, Gründerinnen und Unternehmerinnen über Preise und Auszeichnungen sichtbarer zu machen), aber sie ist immer noch stark gebunden an ein traditionelles Bild der Geschlechterrollen. Gleichzeitig üben die derzeitigen steuer- und familienpolitischen Regelungen einen restriktiven Einfluss auf Gründerinnenpotenziale aus. Traditionelle Einstellungen gegenüber Gründerinnen und Unternehmerinnen finden sich auch noch in vielen wirtschaftsnahen Organisationen, obschon der Trend der 1990er Jahren zu eigenen Frauennetzwerken sowie die zunehmende Betonung einer institutionellen Sensibilisierung in der Gründerinnenförderung vielerorts einen Sinneswandel angestoßen hat.
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In contrast to structurally-determinist and cognitive/agency-oriented views of opportunity recognition, it is argued that opportunity formation is relationally and communally constituted — an insight that is not recognized in descriptive or linear process models of opportunity recognition. To arrive at this claim, use is made of social constructionist ideas. These ideas have been frequently applied in entrepreneurship studies but less attention has been given to the relational aspects of social constructionist thinking particularly with regard to opportunity formation processes. To aid this line of enquiry an analysis is undertaken of a sibling-autobiographical account of a high-profile business venture, Coffee Republic. This account has been crafted by the sibling partnership with a particular audience in mind (the would-be entrepreneur) with guidelines and principles on how ‘anyone can do it’. However, it is not utilized here as a good specimen of business venturing to be probed for particular (hidden) meanings. Instead, the account is evaluated in order to illustrate how individualistic statements about opportunity discovery can be reconceptualized as relationally and communally constituted – an emphasis which is important for widening our theoretical understanding of the activities that we label entrepreneurship.
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Research articles on women's entrepreneurship reveal, in spite of intentions to the contrary and in spite of inconclusive research results, a tendency to recreate the idea of women as being secondary to men and of women's businesses being of less significance or, at best, as being a complement. Based on a discourse analysis, this article discusses what research practices cause these results. It suggests new research directions that do not reproduce women's subordination but capture more and richer aspects of women's entrepreneurship.
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Uses the neologism "entrepreneur mentality" - paying implicit homage to Foucault's govermentality - to highlight how an entrepreneurial discourse is mobilized as a system of thinking about women entrepreneurs which is able to make some form of that activity thinkable and practicable, namely: who can be an entrepreneur, what entrepreneurship is, what or who is managed by that form of governance of economic relations? Discourses on women entrepreneurs are linguistic practices that create truth effects. Argues that social studies of women entrepreneurs tend to reproduce an androcentric entrepreneur mentality that makes hegemonic masculinity invisible. They portray women's organizations as "the other", and sustain social expectations of their difference, thereby implicitly reproducing male experience as a preferred normative value. Taking a deconstructive gaze on how an entrepreneur-mentality discourse is gendered, reveals the gender sub-text underpinning the practices of the scientific community that study women entrepreneurs and, in so doing, open a space to question them.(Publication abstract)
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The validity of entrepreneurship scholars' tendency to regard opportunities as concrete realities waiting to be discovered by entrepreneurs is questioned. Based on economics literature, the "opportunity discovery" perspective, embraced by so many scholars, emphasizes the importance of observation and information asymmetries. However, it may ignore important characteristics of opportunity as a phenomenon.In this study, written responses from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED), a national longitudinal survey of nascent entrepreneurs, were analyzed to determine how the original idea for starting their businesses was developed. The responses suggest that many entrepreneurs entertain an "opportunity enactment" perspective. In other words, opportunities only become apparent through the ways that entrepreneurs make sense of their experiences. Although they may talk about "discovering" opportunities because academic scholars describe opportunities as discoverable, entrepreneurs actually imagine opportunities through their actions and their interactions with others. Rather than preexisting, then, opportunities emerge from the individual entrepreneur's imagination. The favorable circumstances that entrepreneurs are likely to recognize are the product of their own initiative.(SAA)
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Traditional literature and research on entrepreneurship relies on a model of economic rationality alleged to be universal and agendered. This article presents a description of the processes that position people as ‘men’ and ‘women’ within entrepreneurial practices and as ‘entrepreneurs’ within gender practices, relying on an ethnographic study carried out in small enterprises in Italy. Our analysis shows how gender and entrepreneurship are enacted as situated practices and how the codes of a gendered identity are kept, changed and transgressed by constantly sliding between different symbolic spaces. In particular we highlight five processes of the symbolic construction of gender and entrepreneurship: managing the dual presence, doing ceremonial and remedial work, boundary-keeping, footing and gender commodification. We then propose a final metaphor which conveys a summary image of these processes. In concluding, we link our analysis to the original purpose of our investigation, highlighting not only how entrepreneurship is equated with the masculine, but also how alternative and possible forms of entrepreneurship exist, in the same way as different forms of gender.
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This article is Restricted Access. It was published in the journal, Organization [© Sage]. The definitive version is available at: http://org.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/1/31 The central focus of this paper is an analysis of the enterprise discourse and how it is articulated by individuals working in small business environments, to construct and reconstruct material practices and psychological identities. The core argument is that, even if people do not take the enterprise culture seriously, even if they feel unaffected by its values and claims, they are inevitably reproducing it through their involvement with the daily practices which are imbued with the notion of enterprise (du Gay and Salaman, 1992). As such, the paper takes a social constructionist perspective which seeks to illustrate how individuals are constituted by the discourse of enterprise, and to provide some empirical evidence of the processes and practices which both reflect and construct that experience. Restricted access
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Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 29 countries this study investigates the (differential) impact of several factors on female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. These factors are derived from three streams of literature, including that on entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation and on female entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the methodological aspects of investigating (female) entrepreneurship by distinguishing between two measures of female entrepreneurship: the number of female entrepreneurs and the share of women in the total number of entrepreneurs. The first measure is used to investigate whether variables have an impact on entrepreneurship in general (influencing both the number of female and male entrepreneurs). The second measure is used to investigate whether factors have a differential relative impact on female and male entrepreneurship, i.e., whether they influence the diversity or gender composition of entrepreneurship. Findings indicate that - by and large - female and male entrepreneurial activity rates are influenced by the same factors and in the same direction. However, for some factors (e.g., unemployment, life satisfaction) we find a differential impact on female and male entrepreneurship. The present study also shows that the factors influencing the number of female entrepreneurs may be different from those influencing the share of female entrepreneurs. In this light it is important that governments are aware of what they want to accomplish (i.e., do they want to stimulate the number of female entrepreneurs or the gender composition of entrepreneurship) to be able to select appropriate policy measures.
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We extend the concept of celebrity from the individual to the firm level of analysis and argue that the high level of public attention and the positive emotional responses that define celebrity increase the economic opportunities available to a firm. We develop a theoretical framework explaining how the media construct firm celebrity by creating a "dramatized reality" in reporting on industry change and firms' actions. Firms contribute to this process by taking nonconforming actions and proactively seeking to manage impressions about themselves. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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The paper proposes the value of theatricality as an addition conceptual tool to aid analysis and understanding of the entrepreneurial process. It explores the application of dramatism and dramaturgy and argues that the application is a useful addition to our repertoire. In particular, the idea of spanning the boundaries of space and time, of truth and fiction, the liminality, of entrepreneurship lends itself to such theatrical analysis. This allows a fuller appreciation of the entrepreneurial act in the duality of concepts of the world as stage and the world as staged. The metaphors of theatricality offer an alternative medium for understanding.
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Der überwiegende Teil der Quellen, die zur Erforschung der internationalen Beziehungen herangezogen werden, ist in sprachliche Form gekleidet, sei es in Bild, Schrift oder mündlicher Äußerung: Fernseh-, Presseberichterstattung, Verträge, Reden, Memoiren oder Antworten, die Außenpolitiker im Rahmen einer wissenschaftlichen Befragung geben. Die Untersuchung dieser Texte (darunter verstehen wir auch optische Zeichen wie Fotographien und Filme) kann nun nach dem hermeneutischen Modell der Interpretationskunst des einzelnen Forschers überlassen bleiben, oder aber systematisch, intersubjektiv nachvollziehbar mit Hilfe operationalisierter Kategorien erfolgen. Im zweiten Fall spricht man von IA (content analysis). Darunter sollen hier nur solche Verfahren zur Texterhebung und -auswertung verstanden werden, die die Zuverlässigkeit (Reliabilität) und Gültigkeit (Validität) der Instrumente nachweisen und die in diesem Sinne als „emprisch“ gelten. Das Ziel einer solchen methodisch kontrollierten Analyse kann z.B. sein, das Weltbild eines Politikers oder den Zweck einer außenpolitischen Aktion zu rekonstruieren, soweit dies im untersuchten Textmaterial zum Ausdruck kommt.
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This study examined women's perceptions of the sex-role stereotypic characteristics of the successful entrepreneur. Women in female-headed companies gave greater weight to feminine attributes than women who worked in companies headed by men. However, both groups assigned more weight to masculine attributes in the profile of the successful entrepreneur.
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This article explores how people in the European schools' environment understand entrepreneurship, by tapping into the metaphors that they employ to describe entrepreneurs. Metaphors, where the characteristics of one thing are attributed creatively to another, have previously been shown to be a rich repository of socially constructed meanings.We find that across the European Schools' environment, the entrepreneur is a conflicted social archetype, simultaneously perceived as an aggressor and a winner, a victim and an outsider. Most transnational homogeneity existed in relation to the perception of the entrepreneur as a predatory aggressor, while positive constructions of the entrepreneur were more likely to be diverse between the six countries studied.These social constructions within European schools must be taken seriously if enterprise education is to be effective.We must take account of national divergence in understandings of the entrepreneur, as well as recognizing the pan-European suspicion of their predatory potential.
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The number of women starting and owning their own businesses has grown dramatically over the past decade. Concurrent with this trend, there has been an increase in the number of research studies focusing on or including women business owners in their samples. This paper reviews empirical research studies on women business owners and their ventures, classifies the studies in a framework, and summarizes trends emerging from this research. To guide future research, a new perspective on women-owned businesses is proposed and research questions, methods, and implications are discussed.
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Through a paired comparison between Japan and Germany, we suggest that the legacy of the strong male-breadwinner model creates particular pressures on socially conservative welfare states in a period of restructuring. These countries are reregulating gender relations in different ways. We relate differences between Germany and Japan to contrasting state-society relations: specifically the role of the Japanese state in trying to stem both economic and demographic decline on the one hand and the role of the social partners in Germany to stimulate employment growth and reduce unemployment on the other. In addition, we point to the impact of the European Union (EU) on the matters of labor market and equality regulations in our analysis of Germany.
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IN THE PAST RESEARCH THERE HAS BEEN continued controversy over the definition of entrepreneurship and the identification of entrepreneur. By combining the ideas of entrepreneurship and linguistics, this paper takes a new approach to examining the definitions. An exploratory analysis of entrepreneurial metaphors and concepts is conducted to achieve this goal. In a quantitative analysis of entrepreneurial concepts respondents defined the terms 'entrepreneur' and 'entrepreneurship' with suggested conceptual equivalents. In an analysis of metaphor, informants formed metaphoricalexpressions of entrepreneurship. The sample consisted of 751 respondents from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Canada and Australia. Entrepreneurs perceived the concepts more positively than other respondents. The same applied to differences between females and males respectively. In a cross-cultural comparison, the Scandinavians held more favourable views than their English-speaking counterparts. This might reflect the current, very positive socio-economic climate in Northern Europe towards entrepreneurial activities. As to the entrepreneurial metaphors, they were grouped into following semantic categories: 'Machine (ry) and other PhysicalObjects', 'Warfare and Adventure', 'Sports andGames', 'Creativity and Activity', 'Nature', 'Disease', Food Items', and 'Special Features'. The metaphorical statements revealed the paradoxical nature of respondents' perceptions of entrepreneurs and their ventures. A majority of the metaphors contained very positive, even idealistic images. Especially in the Finnish sample they seemed to conjure up glorifying images of entrepreneurs as some kind of modern day heroes whose independent and industrious actions are of priceless value to society. At the same time, there were numerous metaphors with negative, cynical or downgrading undertones. The critical observations often highlighted egotistic qualities associated with entrepreneurs.
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This paper explores the complex processes of identity construction of female ethnic minority entrepreneurs. Informed by discursive approaches to identity, we make an intersectional analysis of five life stories of female entrepreneurs of Moroccan or Turkish origin in the Netherlands. Being female, Turkish or Moroccan, and entrepreneur at the same time requires various strategies to negotiate identities with different constituencies. These strategies of identity work vary in the degree of conformity: one type is to mainly adhere to conventional images of femininity, a second one is to denounce femininity and/or ethnicity situationally, and the third is to resist the masculine connotation of entrepreneurship by disconnecting it from masculinity. Our focus on this hitherto neglected group of entrepreneurs makes for a situated contribution to the deconstruction of the entrepreneurial archetype of the white male hero. It furthers the understanding of the micropolitics of identity construction in the workplace in relation to the social categories of gender, ethnicity and entrepreneurship.
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Discourse is a popular term used in a variety of ways, easily leading to confusion. This article attempts to clarify the various meanings of discourse in social studies, the term's relevance for organizational analysis and some key theoretical positions in discourse analysis. It also focuses on the methodological problem of the relationship between: a) the level of discourse produced in interviews and in everyday life observed as `social texts' (in particular talk); b) other kinds of phenomena, such as meanings, experiences, orientations, events, material objects and social practices; and, c) discourses in the sense of a large-scale, ordered, integrated way of reasoning/ constituting the social world. In particular, the relationship between `micro and meso-level' discourse analysis (i.e. specific social texts being the primary empirical material) and `grand and mega-level' discourse (i.e. large-scale orders) is investigated.
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A grounded cultural model of US entrepreneurship is developed by analysing the metaphors that entrepreneurs use to give meaning to entrepreneurship in their life-and-business narratives. The resultant cultural model is coherent and internally consistent, and is helpful in providing stronger insights into entrepreneurs' own perspectives, aspirations, and cognition of the entrepreneurial process. Close to Schumpeter's conception of the entrepreneur, it nevertheless contains elements that are markedly American, and can be contrasted both with European mental models of entrepreneurship, and metaphorically derived models of organisational behaviour.
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Preface. Acknowledgements. Introduction: What is Social Constructionism? Where Do You Get Your Personality From? Does Language Affect the Way We Think? What is a Discourse? What Does it Mean to Have Power? Is There a Real World Outside Discourse? Can Individuals Change Society? What Does it Mean to be a Person? 1. The Person as Discourse-user. 2. The Self as Constructed in Language. 3. Subject Positions in Discourse. What Do Discourse Analysts Do? Glossary. Bibliography. Name Index. Subject Index.
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In one of the first studies of its kind, all the wire stories used and all those rejected by a non-metropolitan newspaper over a seven-day period are classified by content, and the reasons given by the telegraph editor for his choices are analyzed. Dr. White is research professor of journalism at Boston University.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how the business and research context influences how female entrepreneurs construct their identities. Design/methodology/approach – Focussing specifically on the care work sector, the analysis of interview transcripts explores how participants struggle to establish a positive identity through reconciling the contradictory subject positions produced at the intersection of entrepreneurialism and caring. Findings – The accounts reveal a silencing of the participants entrepreneurial identity and an embracing of their female identity, reflected in the mobilisation of a number of highly gendered “selves”. This is explained in terms of the participants' desire for legitimacy and integrity, principally in the eyes of their employees, something which is itself prompted by the precariousness of their position as female business owners in this sector. Research limitations/implications – The identity work is theorised at a structural level, reinforcing the need for future accounts of identity work to consider how this is always embedded in broader material conditions. Practical implications – Presents an alternative way of enacting entrepreneurship and thus broadens normative notions of what it is to be an entrepreneur. Originality/value – The paper complements existing post-structuralist accounts of entrepreneurship and also illustrates the role of both broader structural and local contextual factors which both constrain and enable the identity work enacted.
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In spite of the progress made in the last decades, women still face difficulties in being accepted and recognised as managers. The manager’s role has been perceived as masculine, and the gender stereotypes are therefore, a barrier to women’s access to management. With the aim to explore the relationship between gender stereotypes and management characteristics and discuss its implications for the discrimination of women in management a study was conducted among Portuguese undergraduate management students. The findings indicate that students of both sexes tend to perceive the “manager” category as closer to the masculine stereotype than to the feminine stereotype. Additionally, for male students the “man manager” and “manager” are more similar to each other than the “woman manager” and “manager” categories. However, the image of “woman manager” appears not to distance itself considerably from the “manager” stereotype as a result of her masculinisation. This paper discusses the implications of this asymmetric gender social representation that ultimately hinders the acceptance of women as a social group in the management context.
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The emphasis in research on female entrepreneurship remains focused on the impact of gender on women’s experience of business ownership, often demonstrated through comparisons of male and female entrepreneurs. By contrast, this article explores the differences and divisions between women business owners who are silent about gender issues and those who are not. The main data drawn on in the article are e-mails conducted through a web-based entrepreneurial network set up to promote and support women in business, supplemented with interview material derived from an interview study of 19 women business owners. By considering the way in which some women business owners not only treat entrepreneurship as gender-neutral, but also seek to conceal its gendered nature, we can see how some female entrepreneurs are trying to avoid being identified as different from the masculine norm of entrepreneurship.
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Researchers should shift the focus of entrepreneurship studies from the individual entrepreneur to entrepreneurial action.This shift in focus involves defining the entrepreneur as the medium of entrepreneurship and the context of entrepreneurial behavior as the message at the heart of entrepreneurship.Much of entrepreneurship research operates on the male myth of the entrepreneur as conquering hero and rule-breaker.Such research generates a narrow, inaccurate representation of what is involved in entrepreneurship by excluding "unconventional" entrepreneurs (such as women and minorities), entrepreneurship in forms other than business creation, and temporary entrepreneurship. In order to understand entrepreneurship as a process rather than as an act inextricable from the individual actor, researchers must define entrepreneurial action in terms that do not presuppose the agent in a specific form. They must, in other words, view entrepreneurship as the novel combining of resources in order to create, expand, or build.An action-oriented definition of entrepreneurship enables a richer, more complex understanding of the phenomenon since action is not bound to certain actors or outcomes. (SAA)
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Current entrepreneurship theory is organised around three basic constructs, namely market, money and management. Specifically, to launch and grow a venture, an entrepreneur needs to have access to markets, money (financial resources) and management (human and organizational capital). Drawing on institutional theory, this paper argues that in order to study women's entrepreneurship, this '3M' framework needs to be modified by including motherhood and the meso as well as the macro environments. 'Motherhood' represents the micro household/family context, which might have a larger impact on women than men, thus highlighting the embeddedness of female entrepreneurs. The meso environment includes the factors which concern intermediate structures and institutions such as occupational networks; all of which in turn affect the access of women to 'money' and 'market'. The macro environment includes considerations beyond the market, such as expectations of society and cultural norms, national strategies and initiatives. This new '5M' perspective (with meso/macro considered as one additional M) offers a 'gender adequate' framework that allows the study of women's entrepreneurship in its own right, and also brings into focus appropriate approaches for its study. As a foundation for this framework, we review academic publications on women's entrepreneurship using the 5M approach. We elaborate this framework and suggest future research directions for women's entrepreneurship. For the academic research community, the 5M framework developed in this paper helps lay a foundation for coherent research on women's entrepreneurship because it takes into account the social embeddedness of women entrepreneurs and considers the multiple levels of influence on their entrepreneurial actions. For the woman entrepreneur, this analysis has implications for understanding the sources of the challenges they face by providing insights on the importance of the interplay of both individual and societal factors that impact on their enterprise. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for an integrated approach for fostering female entrepreneurs that is not blind to overarching institutionalised social structures and gender asymmetries.
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This article discusses the effects of ideological control in conventional entrepreneurial discourses and praxis. Following postmodernist, deconstructionist and critical theory traditions, the ideas expressed about the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, and its contiguous notions and concepts, are deconstructed to reveal the dysfunctional effects of ideological control both in research and in praxis. It is shown that the concept of entrepreneurship is discriminatory, gender-biased, ethnocentrically determined and ideologically controlled, sustaining not only prevailing societal biases, but serving as a tapestry for un- examined and contradictory assumptions and knowledge about the reality of entrepreneurs.
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This paper describes a social construction of entrepreneurship by exploring the constructionalist building blocks of communication, myth and metaphor presented in the Independent newspaper. We argue that the sensemaking role of figurative language is important because of the inherent problems in defining and describing the entrepreneurial phenomena. Myth and metaphor in newspapers create an entrepreneurial appreciation that helps define our understanding of the world around us. The content analysis of articles published in the Independent newspaper revealed images of male entrepreneurs as dynamic wolfish charmers, supernatural gurus, successful skyrockets or community saviours and corrupters. Finally, the paper relates the temporal construction of myth and metaphor to the dynamics of enterprise culture.
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This paper seeks to explore and to reflect upon the iniplications of how to conceive entrepreneurship when considered its it societal rather than an economic phenomenon. To conceive and reclaim the space in which entrepreneurship is seen at work in society, we point at the geographical, discursive and social dimensions from where we develop three crucial and connected questions that can reconstruct the future research agendas of entrepreneurship studies and that can guide us towards a geopolitics of everyday entrepreneurship: what spaces/discourses/stakeholders have we privileged in the study of entrepreneurship and what other spaces/discourses/stakeholders could we consider?
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There is progress in entrepreneurship research. Important works in entrepreneurship increasingly appear in highly respected, mainstream journals (see Busenitz et al., forthcoming; Davidsson, Low, & Wright, 2001). There is conceptual development that attracts attention (e.g. Shane & Venkataraman, 2000) and handbooks are compiled, providing the field with more of a common body of knowledge (Acs & Audretsch, 2003a; Westhead & Wright, 2000; Shane, 2000a). Further, there is evidence of methodological improvements (Chandler & Lyon, 2001) and accumulation of meaningful findings on various levels of analysis (Davidsson & Wiklund, 2001). Moreover, due to time lags in publication the reported improvements are likely to be underestimated. This author’s experience as organizer, reviewer and participant in core entrepreneurship conferences on both sides of the Atlantic (e.g., Babson; RENT) suggests that much of the lower end of the quality distribution has either disappeared from the submissions or is screened out in the review process. Much more than used to be the case a few years back we find among the presented papers research that is truly theory-driven; research on the earliest stages of business development, and research that employs methods suitable for causal inference, i.e., experiments and longitudinal designs.
Article
It is often assumed that in the historical transformation to modern industrial society, the integration of women into the economy occurred everywhere as a three-phase process: in pre-modern societies, the extensive integration of women into societal production; then, their wide exclusion with the shift to industrial society; and finally, their re-integration into paid work during the further course of modernization. Results from the author's own international comparative study of the historical development of the family and the economic integration of women have shown that this was decidedly not the case even for western Europe. Hence the question arises: why is there such historical variation in the development and importance of the housewife model of the male breadwinner family? In the article, an explanation is presented. It is argued that the historical development of the urban bourgeoisie was especially significant for the historical destiny of this cultural model: the social and political strength of the urban bourgeoisie had central societal importance in the imposition of the housewife model of the male breadwinner family as the dominant family form in a given society. In this, it is necessary to distinguish between the imposition of the breadwinner marriage at the cultural level on the one hand, and at the level of social practice in the family on the other.