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Media Discourse in Entrepreneurship Research

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Abstract

This chapter introduces discourse analysis, focusing on its application for analyzing entrepreneurship discourses in the printed media. After introducing the topic (section 1), and outlining the basics of discourse analysis as well as its epistemological background (section 2), we present a number of discourse studies that have been conducted in the field of entrepreneurship using different print media (section 3). Section 4 summarizes the discussion and sketches entrepreneurship research questions where discourse analysis could be fruitfully employed. In the final section 5, we suggest selected further readings.

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... In the case of entrepreneurship research, the context is both proximate and distal, indicating the systemic (economic) and substantive (political and cultural) embeddedness of entrepreneurship (Johannisson et al. 2002) which is reflected in the overall institutional setting, norms, and values, and the entrepreneur's political and social environment. Linking this to notions of context as discussed in discourse analysis, the proximate context and the distal context will reflect the entrepreneur's respective micro-and macro-environments (Achtenhagen and Welter 2007). ...
... The localized entrepreneur and social media Contemporary regional policy is increasingly interested in encouraging latent localized innovation potential in the (intentional and/or effective) entrepreneurial projects carried 1 Instagram was launched in October 2010 as a mobile photo-sharing application. It is a social network that offers its users a way to upload photos, apply different manipulation tools ('filters') in order to transform the appearance of the images, and share them instantly with 'friends' (using Instagram's application or other social networking sites such as Facebook, Foursquare, Twitter, etc.). ...
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We propose a novel set of social network analysis, firm level and communication-based algorithms for mining the web to identify emerging entrepreneurial projects. These algorithms are implemented in a hybrid theoretical framework and tested in an on-line environment. The algorithms take account of: entrepreneurship as the relational capability for innovation and learning, the central role of computer-mediated communication, the construction of 'dynamic' semantic networks, and the temporal computation of network centrality measures. The temporal calculation of betweenness of concepts allows us to extract and predict long-term trends for entrepreneurial projects. We illustrate our approach by considering the nodes in a network (based on our previous empirical analysis) as localized potential entrepreneurs in the cultural and creative context, and the inherent Instagram community, and analyzing the semantic networks emerging from sharing hashtags.
... Despite the fact that people often start businesses in industries where they have previous experience (Shane, 2000), there are qualitative studies indicating that men are becoming entrepreneurs to a greater extent than their representation among the industry's employees would predict (Kovalainen, 1993; Sundin, 1997; Sundin and Tillmar, 2010). The researchers' interpretations are based on the idea that man is the norm of entrepreneurship and thus " entrepreneurship " is labelled male (Ahl, 2002; Sundin, 2002; Achtenhagen and Welter, 2005). This view is based on analyses of the entrepreneur as a hero (Berglund, 2007); the " economic man " rationality (Foss, 2010); stereotyping of male attributes and behaviours (Ahl, 2004; Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011); the working tasks which are labelled male; and the fact that women are invisible in the official statistics and are seen as a minority among entrepreneurs. ...
... From a socialist-feminist perspective, this is both a consequence and an expression of the gender system/order (Hirdman, 1990, Connell, 2009). More specifically, women's under-representation among the entrepreneurs, even in female-dominated industries, can be understood from the male gender labelling of entrepreneurship (Ahl, 2002; Sundin, 2002; Achtenhagen and Welter, 2005). This phenomenon has been previously observed in qualitative studies (Lewis, 2006; Sundin and Rapp, 2006; Sundin and Tillmar, 2010; Achtenhagen and Welter, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of New Public Management. The propositions are constructed based on liberal- and socialist-feminist perspectives, and discussed in light of the empirical results. Design/methodology/approach – We report from a longitudinal quantitative study of female-dominated welfare industries. Data, available from Statistics Sweden, include the total population of entrepreneurs available on the individual level. However, the level of analysis that was used in the study was in accordance with the industry level. Data were processed from an aggregated level to the most detailed level of classification. Findings – The findings reveal resilience in the prevailing gender order. The order is being reproduced in the entrepreneurship context, in most of the industries that were studied. Practical implications – The results may potentially have profound impact on entrepreneurship policy, equality policy and public sector restructuring. Originality/value – This quantitative longitudinal study shows a complex pattern on the detailed industry level, which can be understood in terms of male gender labelling of entrepreneurship. The results thus support previous qualitative studies that have observed this phenomenon. Methodologically, this paper contributes to the field by showing that without breaking down the analysis into the different female-dominated industries on a five-digit level, the various results of the public sector reforms and the attendant gendered effects would not have been revealed.
... For example, Cohen and Musson (2000) explored how individuals working in a small business were infuenced by and reproduced the overarching public enterprise discourse. Others have applied discourse analysis to examine texts on women's entrepreneurship (Ahl, 2002), media discourses around women entrepreneurs (e.g., Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007;Ljunggren & Alsos, 2001) or around entrepreneurship in general (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007), analyzing the imagery of entrepreneurship as portrayed by media discourses that in turn contribute to the general perception of entrepreneurship in our societies. Again, as noted in Part II of this book, some research combines discourse and linguistic analysis; for example, by analyzing the role of metaphors in creating contextualized meanings of entrepreneurship at individual, regional or country levels (for an overview of related studies, see . ...
... For example, Cohen and Musson (2000) explored how individuals working in a small business were infuenced by and reproduced the overarching public enterprise discourse. Others have applied discourse analysis to examine texts on women's entrepreneurship (Ahl, 2002), media discourses around women entrepreneurs (e.g., Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007;Ljunggren & Alsos, 2001) or around entrepreneurship in general (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007), analyzing the imagery of entrepreneurship as portrayed by media discourses that in turn contribute to the general perception of entrepreneurship in our societies. Again, as noted in Part II of this book, some research combines discourse and linguistic analysis; for example, by analyzing the role of metaphors in creating contextualized meanings of entrepreneurship at individual, regional or country levels (for an overview of related studies, see . ...
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As the breadth and empirical diversity of entrepreneurship research have increased rapidly during the last decade, the quest to find a "one-size-fits-all" general theory of entrepreneurship has given way to a growing appreciation for the importance of contexts. This promises to improve both the practical relevance and the theoretical rigor of research in this field. Entrepreneurship means different things to different people at different times and in different places and both its causes and its consequences likewise vary. For example, for some people entrepreneurship can be a glorious path to emancipation, while for others it can represent the yoke tethering them to the burdens of overwork and drudgery. For some communities it can drive renaissance and vibrancy while for others it allows only bare survival. In this book, we assess and attempt to push forward contemporary conceptualizations of contexts that matter for entrepreneurship, pointing in particular to opportunities generating new insights by attending to contexts in novel or underexplored ways. This book shows that the ongoing contextualization of entrepreneurship research should not simply generate a proliferation of unique theories – one for every context – but can instead result in better theory construction, testing and understanding of boundary conditions, thereby leading us to richer and more profound understanding of entrepreneurship across its many forms. Contextualizing Entrepreneurship Theory will critically review the current debate and existing literature on contexts and entrepreneurship and use this to synthesize new theoretical and methodological frameworks that point to important directions for future research. Open Access Link: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/contextualizing-entrepreneurship-theory-ted-baker-friederike-welter/10.4324/9781351110631
... In this case, the focus is on university degrees, since the process of choosing a degree is influenced by one's family, the media and the stereotypes in the world of work (Solesvik, 2013;Susanj et al., 2015); so much so that studies by Achtenhagen and Welter (2003) speak of degrees and professions that are correct for one's sex. A recent development has been made in gender equality; however, further corroboration is required (Eurostat, 2017;GEM, 2017). ...
... In conclusion, other factors could be incorporated into the TPB model, as suggested by Shapero's (1982) model and Krueger and Brazael's (1994) model. Regardless, the contributions found to be the most interesting are the influence on the level of employability linked to each university degree (Kolvereid, 1996;Kolvereid and Isaksen, 2006;Tkachev and Kolvereid, 1999) and the specific situation for the female collective given that the literature reviewed recognises that choice of degree subject is a strategic decision that is very much conditioned by whether one is male or female (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2003). It is precisely these issues that should be at the forefront of future research. ...
Article
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Purpose -The purpose of this paper is to determine how and why differences in gender affect Entrepreneurial Intention (EI). Although there are many studies in this area, scholars have yet to reach a consensus. Design/methodology/approach-This study uses a survey of students at Malaga University in two stages to introduce a new perspective that links gender and university degree subject with the predisposition toward business creation. Structural Equation modelling is applied (SEM). Findings- Comparing the explanatory power of an additive model and a multiplicative model, this paper confirms that socialisation conditions both men and women in their choice of university studies. Consequently, gender and university degree subject choice are shown to be linked and both affect EI. Research limitations/implications -These findings provide a starting point for closing the information gap in the literature; but deeper analysis is required to combine other factors, such as international variations and the influence of different education systems on entrepreneurship. Practical implications-These results are of special value to universities interested in fomenting entrepreneurship in their graduates, allowing them to better propose educational policies and communication campaigns reducing the effect of gender on degree choice. Originality/value -The contribution of this research is the development of introducing university degree subjects as tied to gender. The study forms one construct together, and not a descriptive variable of the sample selected or as two independent exogenous variables, as is the case in most of the literature in this area.
... At the intersection of corpus linguistics and discourse analysis, the concept of "discourse strand" is implemented here as the thematic subset of a substantial corpus representing the discourse on integration, allowing me to capture the dynamics of the specific "discursive shift" (Krzyżanowski 2013) to be investigated. Discourse strands are defined as topical threads within discourses (Jäger 2001;Wodak 2002aWodak , 2002bAchtenhagen and Welter 2008); ideally, such strands can be investigated through subsets of data within a corpus representing the discourse they are part of. In brief, discourse strands are distinguished by topical continuity and boundedness, strong intertextual links (often explicit) and temporal proximity between its textual elements, an often limited group of social actors (focused social field), and high keyness values (for distinctive elements in the subcorpus, using the total corpus as reference). ...
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More than five years have passed since former British Prime Minister David Cameron delivered a much acknowledged and controversial speech on 23 January 2013, in respect to the British relationship with the European Union (EU). Europe and the EU are now, of course, facing different challenges than five years ago. The contrasting national and transnational identities which emerge in the so-called "Bloomberg Speech" (BS) imply a nationalistic body-politics which constructs the United Kingdom and England as separate entities contrasted to "the continent", i.e. Europe. Hence, the BS oscillates between two extremes in its attempt to alternatively observe maximum distance to the EU and some proximity to its economic policies. Moreover, both the topoi of urgency and threat/ danger are appealed to - warning the EU that it would suffer under the loss of the United Kingdom, but also warning British voters that Brexit would damage their future and prosperity. This speech can be perceived as the starting point for the referendum on 23 June 2016, which resulted in a tiny majority wanting to leave the EU ("Brexit"). Of course, there is no clear causal connection between the BS and Brexit, but many arguments of the "Remain and Leave campaigns" can be traced to the BS, as well as the huge ambivalence framing Cameron's position towards the EU.
... In the context of women's entrepreneurship, both the societal and scholarly dimensions of entrepreneurship are crucial and the use of mixed methods would be conducive to cognizance of these two dimensions. Also fruitful could be drawing on some of the less " accepted " methods of doing research such as content and discourse analysis (Ahl, 2006; Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007); ethnographic study (Bruni et al., 2004), or narrative approaches (Campbell, 2005; Petterson, 2005). In this connection, it is encouraging to note that in September 2007, the JBV, a journal which traditionally has been dominated by quantitative methodologies, devoted a special issue to entrepreneurial narrative. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to offer a new gender‐aware framework to provide a springboard for furthering a holistic understanding of women's entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach The paper builds on an existing framework articulating the “3Ms” (markets, money and management) required for entrepreneurs to launch and grow ventures. Drawing on institutional theory, it is argued that this “3M” framework needs further development and “motherhood” and “meso/macro environment” are added to extend and mediate the “3Ms” and construct a “5M” framework to enable the study of women's entrepreneurship in its own right. Findings It was found that “Motherhood” is a metaphor representing the household and family context of female entrepreneurs, which might have a larger impact on women than men. The meso/macro environment captures considerations beyond the market, such as expectations of society and cultural norms (macro), and intermediate structures and institutions (meso). Practical implications For the women entrepreneur, this analysis has implications for understanding the sources of the challenges they face by providing insights on the importance of the interplay of both individual and societal factors that impact on their enterprise. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for an integrated approach for fostering female entrepreneurs that is not blind to overarching institutionalised social structures and gender asymmetries. Originality/value The framework helps lay a foundation for coherent research on women's entrepreneurship. It is unique in making explicit the social embeddedness of women entrepreneurs and considers the multiple levels of influence on their entrepreneurial actions.
... Die Diskursmethodik ist von den Autorinnen für den Bereich der Gründungsforschung in Bezug auf Medienanalysen angepasst worden (Achtenhagen und Welter, 2006 ...
... The initial search located thousands of articles, many of which used the term only as a brief identifier and did not provide much in the way of meaning (see Nicholson & Anderson, 2005). Because my intention was to locate and describe, but not quantify, the discourse (Jager, in Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007), I limited the search to articles that used the search terms seven or more times. This provided me with a manageable amount of data that also seemed appropriate for the study because it included numerous lengthy cover stories as well as shorter profiles, editorials, and even letters to the editor. ...
Article
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Throughout much of the twentieth century, the image of the organization man dominated the cultural imagination and undergirded capitalist organizing. Yet, in the last 20 years, there has been a signal shift away from the organization man and toward the entrepreneur as an ideal. Although scholars have suggested that entrepreneurship in the new economy is rooted in neoliberal ideology, I argue that neoliberalism alone does not account for the ease with which entrepreneurialism has become a dominant discourse. By critically examining entrepreneurial discourse as communicated through US business periodicals from 2000 to 2009, I present a case for the “entrepreneurial man” as formed at the partial inclusion and/or rejection of aspects of the self made man, organization man, and neoliberalism. Ultimately, this analysis critiques the entrepreneurial man archetype as a rejection of the social contract and the embracing of a privatized, entrepreneurial American dream.
... Using entrepreneur and its variants (entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial, etc.) as search terms, my initial search located thousands of articles, many of which included minor descriptive uses of the term (Nicholson and Anderson, 2005). In that my goal was only to surface themes, the requisite amount of data is somewhat arbitrary (Jager, in Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007). After considering ways to limit the search, I eventually gathered articles that used the search terms seven or more times. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship is commonly talked about in the West as a freely chosen, optimistic occupational choice. Yet, as an ideological construct, entrepreneurship is ultimately shaped in ways that legitimize some entrepreneurs while marginalizing others. Taking cues from scholarship that has unpacked the gendered and raced dimensions of entrepreneurial discourse, this article examines the classed dimensions of such discourse. Illuminating the ideological contradiction between American dream promises of class mobility and enterprise initiatives, I argue that the hegemonic allure of entrepreneurial discourse stems in large part from the (re)production of class hierarchies around notions of exceptional capitalist ownership, action and innovation and opportunity recognition.
... feminist discursive theorists illuminate how the discussion of entrepreneurship assumes the masculine ideal type, as it is based on the male mentality, experience, imagery, and perceptual lens ( Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007;De Bruin et al., 2006;Bruni et al., 2004). Importantly, these scholars turn the lens back on the researcher and discipline, noting how the very research practices we engage in, even if intending to close the gender gap, may end up perpetuating the dominant masculine model by reproducing social reality ( Ahl, 2002Ahl, , 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Guided by feminist perspectives, we critique existing approaches to the study of women’s entrepreneurship on epistemological grounds and suggest that the entrepreneurship field needs to recognize gendered assumptions in theorizing. Deploying a feminist framework, we suggest that understanding the ‘gender gap’ in entrepreneurship requires focus on institutional and structural barriers women entrepreneurs face. Existing studies of women entrepreneurs often compare women with men without considering how gender and gender relations impact the very concepts and ideas of entrepreneurship. We propose, therefore, a conceptualization of entrepreneurship that illuminates gender bias and calls attention to the interrelated individual, institutional, and structural barriers in the entrepreneurial process that arrive out of societal and cultural gender norms. Through praxis or engaged practice, we redirect scholarship in the entrepreneurship field, while proposing ways that can promote gender equality in entrepreneurial activities. In all, our gender integrative conceptualization of entrepreneurship contributes to the entrepreneurship field by recognizing and addressing a more expansive realm of influential factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem that have previously been researched separately. Keywords: Women entrepreneurs, gender, feminist, ecosystem
... Several authors argue that constraints on women entrepreneurs 1 can hinder their firms' development (Minniti, 2009). Thus, social roles involving domestic and family responsibilities assigned to women in most cultures are a major barrier to accessing resources (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007;Lituchy et al., 2003). Furthermore, women's roles and positions in the labour market and society at large as well as the stereotypes associated with women's entrepreneurial behaviour differ from predominant business norms. ...
Article
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This paper investigates the relationship between business contacts and innovativeness in women-owned firms and how women entrepreneurs’ perception of gender stereotypes affects this relationship. Data were collected through a survey of 107 women entrepreneurs in Spain. The results show that maintaining close contacts with managers/entrepreneurs in different industries and with customers is significant in explaining innovativeness in women-owned firms. The stronger the women entrepreneurs’ perception of stereotypes that deviate from the masculine profile of the entrepreneur, the stronger the influence of these two types of close contact on innovativeness. Copyright © 2015 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.RésuméCet article examine la relation entre les contacts professionnels et l'inventivité au sein des firmes appartenant aux femmes. Il se penche également sur la façon dont la perception que les femmes entrepreneuses ont des stéréotypes sexuels influence cette relation. Les données utilisées proviennent d'une enquête réalisée auprès de 107 femmes entrepreneuses en Espagne. Les résultats montrent que le maintien des relations étroites avec des managers/entrepreneurs de différentes industries et avec les clients est un facteur important permettant d'expliquer l'inventivité dans les firmes appartenant aux femmes. Plus la perception des femmes entrepreneuses vis-à-vis des stéréotypes s'éloigne du profil masculin de l'entrepreneur, plus forte est l'influence de ces deux types de contacts étroits sur l'inventivité. Copyright © 2015 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Die Diskursmethodik ist von den Bearbeiterinnen für den Bereich der Gründungsforschung angepasst worden (Achtenhagen und Welter, 2003a, 2003b, 2006 und erweist sich für eine Analyse des Mediendiskurses als geeignetes Instrument. 2 Im Rahmen dieser Expertise wird ein repräsentativer Querschnitt der überregionalen deutschen Presse betrachtet. Dazu gehören die Berliner Zeitung, die Bild-Zeitung (Bild), Welche Veränderungen lassen sich hier im Untersuchungszeitraum erkennen? 2 Zu vergleichbaren Analysen für die USA siehe Baker et al. (1997) sowie Langowitz und Morgan (2003). ...
... feminist discursive theorists illuminate how the discussion of entrepreneurship assumes the masculine ideal type, as it is based on the male mentality, experience , imagery, and perceptual lens (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007; De Bruin et al., 2006; Bruni et al., 2004). Importantly, these scholars turn the lens back on the researcher and discipline, noting how the very research practices we engage in, even if intending to close the gender gap, may end up perpetuating the dominant masculine model by reproducing social reality (Ahl, 2002Ahl, , 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Guided by feminist perspectives, we critique existing approaches to the study of women’s entrepreneurship on epistemological grounds and suggest that the entrepreneurship field needs to recognize gendered assumptions in theorizing. Deploying a feminist framework, we suggest that understanding the ‘gender gap’ in entrepreneurship requires focus on institutional and structural barriers women entrepreneurs face. Existing studies of women entrepreneurs often compare women with men without considering how gender and gender relations impact the very concepts and ideas of entrepreneurship. We propose, therefore, a conceptualization of entrepreneurship that illuminates gender bias and calls attention to the interrelated individual, institutional, and structural barriers in the entrepreneurial process that arrive out of societal and cultural gender norms. Through praxis or engaged practice, we redirect scholarship in the entrepreneurship field, while proposing ways that can promote gender equality in entrepreneurial activities. In all, our gender integrative conceptualization of entrepreneurship contributes to the entrepreneurship field by recognizing and addressing a more expansive realm of influential factors within the entrepreneurial ecosystem that have previously been researched separately.
... A qualitative discourse analysis strategy was used to analyze the text contained within the 69 articles that compose the sample. While there is precedence for applying qualitative discourse analysis to the study of entrepreneurship research text (Ahl, 2004;Ogbor, 2000), there is no one universal design for doing so (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007). Here, a thematic design (Fereday & Muir-Cochrane 2006;Sarantakos, 2013) that includes both deductive and inductive analytical strategies was developed and applied. ...
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This study used qualitative discourse analysis to explore how researchers use the concept of ingenuity to understand the everyday work of social entrepreneurs. Data were drawn from a sample of 69 research articles published across 41 academic journals between 1998 and 2018. The findings showed ingenuity to be an underdeveloped concept in the social entrepreneurship literature and revealed a paucity of research on the everyday work performed by social entrepreneurs. A framework for studying the work of social entrepreneurs at the ‘scale of the everyday’ through the lens of ingenuity is proposed and recommendations for future research are provided.
... These studies, inter alia, highlight how the homogenous conceptualisation of 'the entrepreneur' can lead to exploitation and ideological hegemony (i.e. Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007;Calás et al., 2009;Da Costa & Silva Saraiva, 2012;Jones & Murtola, 2012;Ogbor, 2000;Verduijn, Dey, Tedmanson & Essers, 2014) and that insights can be gained from reframing entrepreneurship as largely an economic activity with possible social outcomes, to entrepreneurship as a social activity with several possible outcomes (Calás et al., 2009:553). However, none of these critical studies acknowledges the EDA phenomenon, and it is thus not explicitly included in the rich, ongoing debate around development, alternative development and post-development. ...
Article
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The current theoretical framing of entrepreneurship includes several diverse phenomena under the same conceptual umbrella, yet the terms are often conflated and used interchangeably. Based on the assumption that anything included under this conceptual umbrella contributes to economic development and job creation, entrepreneurship has become appropriated as a development tool in the Global South, where poverty and unemployment are rife. This study introduces the term ‘entrepreneurship as a development apparatus’ (EDA) that is defined as the implementation of entrepreneurship support interventions (such as training, incubation and funding) in economically marginalised communities, based on the assump- tion that these interventions lead to economic development and job creation. EDA is then taken out from under the conceptual entrepreneurship umbrella, and placed in a post- development theory context, showing that insight can be gained when the critical debate on entrepreneurship is moved beyond the constraints of the mainstream entrepreneurship paradigm. Drawing from the development debate this article argues that the current theoretical entrepreneurship paradigm has proven unable to provide answers to the failure of EDA, and thus calls for the rejection of the entire notion of EDA as a form of entrepreneurship.
... Institutional theory is widely accepted as a suitable frame of reference for addressing the external context that shapes women's entrepreneurial activity, especially when cultural conditions create additional barriers for women. This is particularly true when considering that women are still defined primarily through their domestic roles and family obligations within many societies (Achtenhagen and Welter 2007;Marlow 2002). A framework drawing on institutional theory aims to close the gender gap in academic research (Brush et al., 2009). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the impact of social institutions, and, in particular, of national culture, on business success, further considering how these institutions influence entrepreneurial decisions around partnership structure and networking strategies, for instance. It additionally examines how the female entrepreneur finds her way around these institutions to help her business succeed, evaluating whether this success is a culture-independent phenomenon that can be achieved through using similar, potentially advantageous strategies regardless of national context or whether adjustments are required before entering a foreign market. Design/methodology/approach The data were collected through a survey study from 240 established female entrepreneurs with 120 from each country. Two existing surveys were used to create the questions. The target sample group was comprised of successful female businesses within northwest England and western Turkey. These regions were selected due to their convenience and accessibility. Only successful businesses or, in other words, established entrepreneurs were accepted to this study. The business success criteria were: age of business (>5 years); stability or growth recorded on profitability; sales volume; and number of employees within the last financial year. Findings The findings showed significant differences between the two groups of established female entrepreneurs in their demographic characteristics, networking pattern, work pattern, business structure and perceived impediments at different stages of business venturing. The findings assert that the cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism have the most significant impact upon the established female entrepreneurs’ business strategies. Originality/value To date, limited studies have examined the country-specific factors, which may account for variance in women entrepreneurs’ behaviour and subsequent outcomes. This study attempts to close this gap through taking a closer look at the country-specific sociocultural factors creating differences in established female entrepreneurs’ business strategies within the context of Turkey and the UK. Should any female business strategy have become successful in one country, then policymakers and women support organisations can work on developing ways for benchmarking. Moreover, this study aims to guide female entrepreneurs to develop feasible international market entry strategies to ensure survival in today’s global market.
... S druge strane, preuzimamo i dekonstruktivistički ili poststrukturalistički analitički aparat kojim nastojimo propitati diskurzivne prakse koje upravljaju naracijom o poduzetništvu, a posebice o ženskom poduzetništvu kao još jednom području ženske podređenosti (usp. Ogbor 2000;Baxter 2003;Achtenhagen i Welter 2007). Premda se ove dvije epistemološke struje često međusobno sukobljavaju, smatramo da su obje relevantne za one aspekte problema na koji smo usmjerene -svakodnevne poslovne prakse poduzetnica. ...
Article
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U radu se propituju rodno uvjetovane prepreke za uspješno poslovanje poduzetnica, posebice u segmentu ravnoteže privatnog i poslovnog života (work-life balance), rodno uvjetovane podjele kućanskih poslova unutar šireg problema socijalne reprodukcije u patrijarhalnim društvima te u segmentu stila vođenja poslovanja. Primijenjena je kvalitativna metodologija karakteristična za etnografska istraživanja - pomoću metode polustrukturiranog intervjua provedeni su razgovori s 24 poduzetnice, dok teorijski okvir pripada feminističkoj kritici roda i diskurzivnoj analizi. Istraživanje je provedeno u Bosni i Hercegovini, Hrvatskoj, na Kosovu i u Srbiji. Ključni nalazi pokazuju da specifične politike i mjere za bolje uključivanje žena u svijet poduzetništva nisu dovoljne ako isključuju širu kritiku patrijarhata, a time i prevladavajućeg koncepta poduzetništva, kroz rodno osviještene međusektorske politike. Novost koju ovo istraživanje donosi odnosi se na neformalne prakse koje žene prakticiraju u svojim formalnim i neformalnim poslovima, a koje imaju potencijala postati jednakovrijedni model poduzetničkog ponašanja.
... Achtenhagen and Welter (2007:199) observed that '…a typical discourse in entrepreneurship research draws heavily on the need for job creation focused in the social and political discourses (to legitimize its existence)', even if its role in job creation has not been confirmed. In line with Achtenhagen and Welter (2007), it is thus proposed that: ...
... This allowed us to abductively (Mantere and Ketokivi, 2013) arrive at categories of content and discursive norms. To analyze our data, we adhered to techniques and principles for qualitative data analysis (Miles and Huberman, 1994; see also Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007). First, one author conducted a phase of open coding (e.g., Mantere et al., 2013) to encompass all text segments relevant to our research question and labeled them with in vivo codes (Strauss and Corbin, 1990), i.e., with characteristic quotes. ...
Article
Being open about failure as an entrepreneur is an increasingly common practice in and beyond startup communities, for example by proactively and strategically crafting public statements to frame subsequent failure conversations. Combining an impression management perspective with an analysis of communicative genres of failure narratives, we empirically investigate postmortem statements of failed entrepreneurs. Shifting the discourse from the (content of the) failure narratives towards considering its broader communicative context, we show how genres emerge from patterns of failure narratives and impression management strategies. Our analysis suggests that subgenres of postmortem statements represent different forms of openness about failure, and some subgenres in particular contribute to establishing an ‘organizational afterlife’ as a potentially long-lasting impression management strategy.
... Institutional theory is widely accepted as a suitable frame of reference for addressing the external context that shapes women's entrepreneurial activity, especially when cultural conditions create additional barriers for women. This is particularly true when considering that women are still defined primarily through their domestic roles and family obligations within many societies (Achtenhagen and Welter 2007;Marlow 2002). A number of studies have attempted to explain variation in the level of entrepreneurship among women through analysing the cultural factors influencing entrepreneurial activities (such as Srivastava 2017; Itani et al. 2011 andLi et al. 2016 for Chinese context for entrepreneurship). ...
... Our study builds on the limited research interrogating gendered media representations of women managers and leaders (Mavin et al., 2016) by carrying out a critical discourse of 408 articles on women OMEs in the Omani and Kenyan newspapers during the period 2010-2018. Our analysis focused on identifying gender stereotypes, trivializations and underlying assumptions in media discourses (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007;Tijani-Adenle, 2016) that could influence societal perceptions of women OMEs' managerial and leadership roles. We identify five main categories of media discourses. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to critically analyze media discourses on women owner-managers/entrepreneurs (OMEs) in the Kenyan and Omani newspapers. Design/methodology/approach A critical discourse analysis is carried out on a total of 408 online media articles (174 articles from Omani newspapers and 234 articles from Kenyan newspapers) on women OMEs over the period 2010–2018. Articles are also classified based on their framing of women’s entrepreneurship. Findings Five main categories of media discourses are identified, i.e. discourses on government/institutional initiatives; women OMEs’ dependency; women OMEs’ femininity; women OMEs’ societal impact; and normalization of women OMEs. These gendered media discourses and underlying assumptions further perpetuate women OMEs’ subordinate position in society, weaken their social legitimacy and trivialize their roles as managers and leaders in society. Research limitations/implications The analysis was limited to online articles published in mainstream media. Future research could focus on offline print media from smaller media distributors or other distribution channels. Practical implications Policymakers and media houses need to pay greater attention to the subtle mechanisms reproducing gender stereotypes. Women OMEs should also take a more active role in constructing their identity in the media. Originality/value This paper highlights the underlying assumptions of media discourses regarding women’s empowerment that negatively impacts their social legitimacy. This paper also draws attention to media’s role in the trivialization of women OMEs’ leadership and managerial roles and subsequent marginalization of their social status.
... In the case of entrepreneurship research, the context is both proximate and distal, indicating the systemic (economic) and substantive (political and cultural) embeddedness of entrepreneurship (Johannisson et al. 2002) which is reflected in the overall institutional setting, norms, and values, and the entrepreneur's political and social environment. Linking this to notions of context as discussed in discourse analysis, the proximate context and the distal context will reflect the entrepreneur's respective micro-and macroenvironments (Achtenhagen and Welter 2007). Based on selected social theories and semantic social network analysis (as a specific type of discourse analysis), we draw on the highly interconnected world of social networking platforms (Instagram 1 ) to conduct an empirical exploration of a localized entrepreneurial project. ...
Research
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We propose a novel set of social network analysis, firm level and communication-based algorithms for mining the web to identify emerging entrepreneurial projects. These algorithms are implemented in a hybrid theoretical framework and tested in an on-line environment. The algorithms take account of entrepreneurship as the relational capability for innovation and learning, the central role of computer-mediated communication, the construction of ‘dynamic’ semantic networks, and the temporal computation of network centrality measures. The temporal calculation of betweenness of concepts allows us to extract and predict long-term trends for entrepreneurial projects. We illustrate our approach by considering the nodes in a network (based on our previous empirical analysis) as localized potential entrepreneurs in the cultural and creative context, and the inherent Instagram community, and analyzing the semantic networks emerging from sharing hashtags.
... Representations of entrepreneurs in the media have a significant effect on entrepreneurial intentions (Radu & Redien-Collot, 2008). Acknowledging this relationship, various scholars discuss how media representations of female entrepreneurs influence the society's perceptions of female entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial capabilities (Achtenhagen & Welter, 2007). The representation of women in media influences the perception of women of business ownership. ...
Book
Starting a business of one’s own might provide women with important career opportunities and contributes significantly to economic growth, enhanced family and community well-being. The number of women entrepreneurs is growing rapidly worldwide, however, women are still less likely than men to exhibit entrepreneurial intentions and start a new business. Two factors influencing this are barriers (inhibitors) and drivers (motivators), however, the understanding of how their interaction affects women’s entrepreneurial intention, specifically across different contexts, is lacking. Accordingly, this research focused on two environmental settings, European regions and countries. It further seeks to understand whether it is the barriers or (and/or) drivers that most impact women’ entrepreneurial intention and how the regional or national context influences this. The empirical analysis is based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2015 the nation-wide survey which contains questions about entrepreneurial perceptions of the countries’ population. From the original dataset, four “lead” countries within Europe provided a sample of 7,096 responses. The results show that there is a significant difference in the entrepreneurial barriers and drivers that affect women’s entrepreneurial intention in the European regions. Furthermore, different barriers and drivers were found to significantly affect the four lead countries. With barriers and drivers being able to provide a good explanation of women’s entrepreneurial intention in Germany, Spain, and Sweden, there was a more limited explanation of entrepreneurial intention by Polish women. The research contributes to the literature of contextual entrepreneurship and to the understanding of factors influencing women’s entrepreneurial intentions.
... Using mass media to feature entrepreneurs, treating entrepreneurs with great respect, and viewing entrepreneurship as an attractive career choice has a long-lasting and positive impact on people's entrepreneurial motives (Fernández-Serrano and Romero, 2014;Ferri and Urbano, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011). In the extant literature, female entrepreneurship is less proficient and thriving than male entrepreneurship; research publications, newspapers, and business media are responsible for this (Achtenhagen and Welter, 2007). Thus it can be hypothesized that: ...
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Prior research conducted on budding female entrepreneurship did not highlight the transition nations such as Asia experiencing relatively faster economic growth and socioeconomic transformation. The role of contextual environment and motivation type in female entrepreneurship has not been adequately researched. This exploratory study of the association between the cognitive, social, and normative determinants of nascent female entrepreneurship activities in the two transition economies of India and Vietnam. This comparative study used the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) database of 2015 for data collection. Data analysis of individual surveys from the database was conducted for selected categorical variables by using nonparametric tests of association for cross-tabulation (Chi-square test). The results show that the cognitive, social, and normative factors have a significant role in nascent female entrepreneurial levels in India and Vietnam. Socio-cultural influences play a dominant role in influencing and shaping women's entrepreneurial career choices to start a business. Moreover, women's entrepreneurial intentions is a product of the dynamic interaction of cognitive, social, and cultural factors at the individual (micro), social (meso), and cultural (macro) levels. This comparative country study of two middle-income transition South Asian economies Chhabra et al. 1013 creates insight into the gender and motivation specific contextualized roles of cognitive and normative factors associated with nascent entrepreneurship at the country level. No prior other study has evaluated the contextualized role of women entrepreneurship's cognitive and social determinants by comparing two countries with similar economic and socio-cultural environments. The findings of the study can be used by policymakers to make better-informed decisions to promote women entrepreneurs by curating context-specific policies.
Article
Current entrepreneurship theory is organised around three basic constructs, namely market, money and management. Specifically, to launch and grow a venture, an entrepreneur needs to have access to markets, money (financial resources) and management (human and organizational capital). Drawing on institutional theory, this paper argues that in order to study women's entrepreneurship, this '3M' framework needs to be modified by including motherhood and the meso as well as the macro environments. 'Motherhood' represents the micro household/family context, which might have a larger impact on women than men, thus highlighting the embeddedness of female entrepreneurs. The meso environment includes the factors which concern intermediate structures and institutions such as occupational networks; all of which in turn affect the access of women to 'money' and 'market'. The macro environment includes considerations beyond the market, such as expectations of society and cultural norms, national strategies and initiatives. This new '5M' perspective (with meso/macro considered as one additional M) offers a 'gender adequate' framework that allows the study of women's entrepreneurship in its own right, and also brings into focus appropriate approaches for its study. As a foundation for this framework, we review academic publications on women's entrepreneurship using the 5M approach. We elaborate this framework and suggest future research directions for women's entrepreneurship. For the academic research community, the 5M framework developed in this paper helps lay a foundation for coherent research on women's entrepreneurship because it takes into account the social embeddedness of women entrepreneurs and considers the multiple levels of influence on their entrepreneurial actions. For the woman entrepreneur, this analysis has implications for understanding the sources of the challenges they face by providing insights on the importance of the interplay of both individual and societal factors that impact on their enterprise. For policy makers, it turns the spotlight on the need for an integrated approach for fostering female entrepreneurs that is not blind to overarching institutionalised social structures and gender asymmetries.
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact gendered media representations of entrepreneurs may have on the reality of female entrepreneurship. It analyses the representation of women entrepreneurs in a women's magazine. Media representations influence, firstly, whether women perceive entrepreneurship as desirable and attainable, and thus impact the strength and direction of their entrepreneurial aspirations. Secondly, media representations shape how key stakeholders such as bankers or clients view and interact with female business owners, thereby impacting women entrepreneurs' business relations and opportunities. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The paper reviews research on media representations of women entrepreneurs, gender inequalities in entrepreneurial activity and work before presenting an in-depth qualitative analysis of a magazine series reporting on female entrepreneurs. Findings ‐ The authors' analysis reveals how the woman's magazine in question portrays female entrepreneurship as focused on traditionally female activities and pursuits and as domestically-centred. Relating these findings to evidence on gender inequalities in entrepreneurial activity, the paper raises important questions about the impact of media representations of women entrepreneurs. Originality/value ‐ The paper demonstrates the benefits of understanding entrepreneurial activity as work and includes analytical perspectives from the sociology of work in the analysis of media representations of entrepreneurship.
Article
This article explores the political signification of the term entrepreneur in UK parliamentary debates over the past forty years. Following a review of the literature, a need is identified to understand the construction of the entrepreneur in political discourse. Concern here is not with the prosaic cataloguing of policies or definitions, but with exploring shifts in the discursive constructs of the entrepreneur that underlie political practice. To explore these constructions a large longitudinal dataset is systematically condensed, while maintaining sensitivity to the nuances of meaning. A corpus-based linguistics approach is undertaken. This combines the computational analysis of significant collocates, that is important words (concepts) that surround the term entrepreneur, with the richness of qualitative analysis. Patterns of reification, agency and structure are identified in the portrayed entrepreneurial constructs. The philosophical and practical implications of these patterns are discussed and proposals are made for using corpus techniques in international comparative analyses.
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to approach women's entrepreneurship from a social psychological perspective, with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the entrepreneurial phenomena and to its development as a field of research. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The gender aspect of entrepreneurship is essentially socio-psychological in nature. First, the authors define the social psychology research scope and present a selection of social psychology theories that are particularly relevant to the domain of women's entrepreneurship. Concepts such as stereotypes, stereotype threat and role models are introduced. Second, the authors instantiate how the social psychology experimental method can address core questions in the women's entrepreneurship field, such as women's under-representation in entrepreneurial positions. Findings ‐ The conclusion of this paper is twofold: on the one hand, social psychology theories can address crucial issues in women's entrepreneurship and on the other hand, experimentation as a research methodology enables us to determine causal relationships. However, given the specificities of both social psychology and women's entrepreneurship, we strongly recommend collaborative research between researchers in the two areas. Research limitations/implications ‐ The authors propose concrete though non-exhaustive areas of study in women's entrepreneurship research, where social psychological theories can be successfully employed. Social implications ‐ Using applied social psychology research, the authors suggest practical ways to reject negative stereotypes that prevent women from being entrepreneurs. Originality/value ‐ Although women's entrepreneurship is a social psychological phenomenon, this field of study still rarely makes reference to social psychology as a discipline for theorizing the relationship between gender and entrepreneurship.
Chapter
This chapter revisits research on a discursive shift during a political debate over demands for ‘punitive’ laws against migrants deemed ‘unwilling to integrate’. The original study found that the term became normalized in Austrian media through that debate. Interested in Mediatization politics, the study focused on the argumentative structure of Resolution 3237/6, which sparked the debate, and the representation of migrants in related reporting. The revised study addresses this narrow empirical focus on a short-term discursive shift in one social field, adding corpora of parliamentary debates, court rulings, and legislation over 20 years. It finds prior usage of the term ‘unwillingness to integrate’, complicating the account of its normalization. It also extends argumentation analysis to the media, showing that normalization did not apply to all arguments equally.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibilities of narrative fiction use in understanding the entrepreneurial role in Croatia in the second half of the 19th century. We find the theoretical foundations in integrated theory of entrepreneurship, institutional theory and literary theory. On the basis of available scientific works of Croatian authors we detect the main attributes of entrepreneurs and the basic characteristics of entrepreneurship in the period of emergence of modern bourgeois society and market economy in Croatia. As a complementary tool in analysis of entrepreneurial role we use literary narrative, the novel Melita written by Croatian writer Josip Eugen Tomić. By using explication and explanation we make analysis and interpretation of the role of Croatian institutional entrepreneur as a driver of changes in economy and society. Text analysis indicates the lack of entrepreneurial capacity but also a certain progress despite the lack of entrepreneurial and financial capital which corresponds with the findings of Croatian historians.
Book
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The present study examines how the daily press in Germany contributes to presenting and spreading role models for women entrepreneurs. Therefore we analyzed six of the biggest nationwide newspapers in the space of time 2004-2013. For comparison we furthermore included selected Swedish print media. Our results show that women entrepreneurs get more and more visible in the press discourse, but traditional stereotypes and role models are still presented in several of the articles. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Presseberichterstattung über Unternehmerinnen insbesondere mit Blick darauf, welches Bild von Unternehmerinnentum in den Presseberichten vermittelt wird. Zu diesem Zweck wurden Artikel in sechs ausgewählten überregionalen deutschen Tageszeitungen im Zeitraum 2004-2013, sowie ausgewählte Artikel aus schwedischen Printmedien ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Berichterstattung zunehmend vielfältiger wird und die Sichtbarkeit von Unternehmerinnen zunimmt. Allerdings werden auch heute noch klassische Stereotype und traditionelle Rollenbilder durch die Berichterstattung transportiert. Ettl, K.; Welter, F.; Achtenhagen, L. (2016): "Das 21. Jahrhundert ist weiblich" – Unternehmerinnen in der Presse , IfM Bonn: IfM-Materialien Nr. 249, Bonn. Free download: http://www.ifm-bonn.org/publikationen/ifm-materialien/publikationendetail/?tx_ifmstudies_publicationdetail%5Bpublication%5D=572&cHash=f170ee257df3c390a1ee11e3723b8e6e
Chapter
The unprecedented Covid-19 pandemic crisis has put entrepreneurship at bay. Scholars swiftly started investigating the impact of the pandemic on entrepreneurship in all possible manners. However, there is a distinct entrepreneurial agent; displaced migrant entrepreneurs (DME) are often understudied and underrepresented in the entrepreneurship literature. Against this background, this study explores the influence of the Covid-19 pandemic on the displaced migrant entrepreneurship. Two research questions were raised in this study: i) What are the challenges faced by displaced migrant entrepreneurs during the Covid-19 pandemic? and ii) How are displaced migrant entrepreneurs dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic? To answer these research questions, this qualitative study conducted 10 in-depth interviews with DME in developing countries and identified three distinct mechanisms: i) Disconnectedness from their homeland, ii) Rootlessness in host county, and iii) Reassessing the resource in hand. The study findings reveal that DME have a double disadvantage, unlike other migrant entrepreneurs, since it is hard for them to use the host and home country resources. It also demonstrates that DME show resilience during the pandemic by utilising the resource at hand. This study contributes to the discussion on DME by exploring the unique context and highlighting the DME responses during the pandemic.
Article
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The need to contextualize research in entrepreneurship has become an important theme during the last decade. In this monograph we position the increasing prominence of "contextual entrepreneurship" research as part of a broader scholarly wave that has previously washed across other fields. The challenges and promises we face as this wave carries us forward are similar in many ways to the challenges faced by researchers in other fields. Based on a review of the current context debate among entrepreneurship scholars and a selective review of other disciplines, we outline and discuss issues in theorizing, operationalising and empirically studying contexts in entrepreneurship research. Researchers have made rapid and substantial - though uneven - progress in contextualizing their work. Unsurprisingly, there is healthy disagreement over what it means to contextualize research and how it should be done, which we see as expressions of competing implicit theories of context. We argue that no overarching theory of what context is or what it means is likely to be very successful. Instead, we suggest briefly that it may be useful to adopt and develop what we label a "critical processapproach" to contextualizing entrepreneurship research.
Chapter
In the context of mediatised politics in general and of recent shifts toward populist agendas in European politics in particular, publicly performed policy changes warrant close analysis. From a discourse-historical perspective, the notion of discourse strands conceptualises such discursive shifts to be studied with corpus-linguistic and qualitative methods. Austrian populist discourse in early 2015 provides a striking example of the normalisation of far-right demands and associated rhetoric with calls for punishing migrants identified as "unwilling to integrate". Shifting the discussion from (usually assimilationist) criteria to a speculative "willingness", mediatised politics thus forced public attention on an issue of terminology. Beyond media, this chapter traces the history of associated terms in specialised discourses of legislation, jurisprudence, parliamentary debates and extreme-right agitation.
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Critical discourse analysis In recent decades critical discourse analysis (CDA) has become a well-established field in the social sciences. However, in contrast with some branches of linguistics, CDA is not a discrete academic discipline with a relatively fixed set of research methods. Instead, we might best see CDA as a problem-oriented interdisciplinary research movement, subsuming a variety of approaches, each with different theoretical models, research methods and agenda. What unites them is a shared interest in the semiotic dimensions of power, injustice, abuse, and political-economic or cultural change in society. CDA is distinctive in a) its view of the relationship between language and society, and b) its critical approach to methodology. Let us take these in turn by first exploring the notions of ‘discourse’ and ‘critical’. The term ‘discourse’ is used in various ways across the social sciences and within the field of CDA. In the most abstract sense, ‘discourse’ ...
Article
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A properly sociological definition of the concept of discourse does not exist because the notion has never been detached from the linguistic sphere. Not only linguists and semiologists, but also sociologists, use the word primarily as a linguistic category. This article attempts to define the concept of discourse sociologically. It is argued that a sociologically defined notion should be dissociated from the linguistic realm. As a linguistic category, 'discourse' is either used as a synonym for language or text, or is closely associated with one of these notions. 'Discourse' in a sociological sense should refer to a class of texts. This definition confers upon the concept of discourse an intertextual dimension. Defined in this way, the category can not only become an operative sociological concept, but it also becomes autonomous and is no longer reducible to linguistic or paralinguistic conceptual entities, such as text or language. No longer confined to the linguistic realm, the concept can designate a particular entity which possesses its own existence. Discourse can become a thing in itself. The argument is presented in three parts. The first is a critique of the current definitions of the concept 'discourse'. The second proposes, as an alternative, a sociological definition of discourse. Finally the third part applies this new definition in a sociological analysis of journalism.
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We examine a paradox: gains in women's business ownership in the USA have been extraordinary, whereas popular press coverage has actually declined, and academic articles on women owners are also exceedingly rare. We offer three simple explanations for this: (1) the media no longer consider women's business 'news'; (2) scholars are not interested in women's firms because they are mostly small and relatively unimportant; and (3) documented differences between men and women owners are few and thus reporters and scholars no longer look for them. Two dissenting voices, however, complicate the picture: small but significant gender differences have been found in studies of social behaviour and leadership; and, advocacy groups have strongly asserted that women owners possess unique advantages. Why haven't these voices been heard? We argue that androcentrism has clouded our perceptions of gender differences and blinded journalists and academics in two ways: (1) women's distinctive contributions have been muted as they have adapted to institutions of business that were already gendered, and (2) the search for distinctive contributions by women owners has been thwarted by assumptions that traditional ways of doing business are 'natural'.
Article
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This paper presents a reflection on the process of doing critical discourse research. Examples from a current project on the discursive construction of 'older worker' identity are used to illustrate how major challenges inherent in undertaking discourse research can be addressed. These involved initial justifications of discou rse theory as a research framework, research design and the selection of a research site, data collection, data analysis and framing key findings in order to contribute to broader debates about age, gender and unemployment. The research was intended to contribute to existing knowledge by investigating an under-researched topic in the discourse literature - age identity and its implications in employment. Yet in the research process a number of additional contributions emerged. Firstly, applying a variety of methods permitted a greater understanding of the complexity of processes of social construction of identity and its implications for power relations between different groups in a specific socio-economic context. Secondly the sampling approach adopted led to an exploration not only of the discursive processes of construction of social identity, but also of its suppression in discourse. By tracing these processes over time and adopting a critical orientation, it was possible to show the implications of this suppression for different (gendered) groups in the labour market. Thirdly, the study illustrated the value of using discourse analysis to research the processes involved in the development of government policy which had implications for the amount of public recognition and government attention and assistance certain groups would receive.
Conference Paper
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For many years, different voices have lamented the rather low level of entrepreneurial spirit in Germany. Even though federal and state governments put much effort into fostering entrepreneurship, cultural and societal issues continue to be mentioned as reasons why the entrepreneurial spirit would be hesitant to leave the bottle. In the discussion of potential business founders, female entrepreneurs are often classified as an untapped resource. Here, the discourse on female entrepreneurship plays an important role in structuring our impression of the entrepreneurial reality. Discourses are embodied in texts, but exist beyond the individual texts that compose them. Newspapers are an important medium to transmit cultural values and ideas, as well as socio-political ideologies. Thus, a discourse analysis of newspaper texts appears to be an ideal research methodology to investigate how female entrepreneurship is reflected in media, thus potentially influencing the level of female entrepreneurship in Germany. We therefore conducted an analysis of the use of key female entrepreneurship terms in major national newspapers in Germany over the period of 1995 to 2001. We analyze the discourse for the key term 'Unternehmerin' as presented in two prominent German newspapers, the Welt as a conservative paper and the Süddeutsche Zeitung as a more leftist paper, employing a longitudinal perspective, as changes in culture and society are usually rather slow. Moreover, we linked the development of the use of the female entrepreneurship-related terms to the analysis of the potential and institutional environment for female entrepreneurs.
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The validity of entrepreneurship scholars' tendency to regard opportunities as concrete realities waiting to be discovered by entrepreneurs is questioned. Based on economics literature, the "opportunity discovery" perspective, embraced by so many scholars, emphasizes the importance of observation and information asymmetries. However, it may ignore important characteristics of opportunity as a phenomenon.In this study, written responses from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED), a national longitudinal survey of nascent entrepreneurs, were analyzed to determine how the original idea for starting their businesses was developed. The responses suggest that many entrepreneurs entertain an "opportunity enactment" perspective. In other words, opportunities only become apparent through the ways that entrepreneurs make sense of their experiences. Although they may talk about "discovering" opportunities because academic scholars describe opportunities as discoverable, entrepreneurs actually imagine opportunities through their actions and their interactions with others. Rather than preexisting, then, opportunities emerge from the individual entrepreneur's imagination. The favorable circumstances that entrepreneurs are likely to recognize are the product of their own initiative.(SAA)
Chapter
Seit einiger Zeit ist in der gesellschaftlichen und politischen Öffentlichkeit von ‚Diskursen‘ die Rede. Damit werden meist (mehr oder weniger) öffentliche, geplante und organisierte Diskussionsprozesse bezeichnet, die sich auf je spezifische Themen von allgemeinem gesellschaftlichen Belang beziehen. In der Verwendung dieses Begriffs kommt eine gesteigerte Aufmerksamkeit für die gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von Kommunikations- und Argumentationsprozessen sowie der sprachvermittelten Wahrnehmung bzw. Konstruktion von Wirklichkeit zum Ausdruck. Auch in den Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften nimmt der Begriff des Diskurses seit einigen Jahren einen prominenten Platz ein, womöglich speist sich sein popularisierter öffentlicher Gebrauch sogar von daher. Interdisziplinär ausgerichtete wissenschaftliche Zeitschriften wie ‚Discourse & Society‘ und Buchreihen wie die seit Mitte der 90er Jahre erscheinenden ‚SAGE Studies in Discourse‘, die von Teun van Dijk herausgegeben werden, oder die von Norman Fairclough bei der Edinburgh University Press editierte Critical Discourse Analysis Series, mehrere Einführungsbücher, aber auch eine Vielzahl eigenständiger Monographien mit diskurstheoretischem und diskursanalytischem Hintergrund u.a.m. sind in diesem Zusammenhang deutliche Indikatoren.
Chapter
Unter Diskursiver Psychologie versteht man die Anwendung diskursanalytischer Perspektiven auf zentrale Themen und Gegenstände der Psychologie. Es handelt sich dabei nicht um eine Psychologie der Sprache, sondern um eine Herangehensweise an Sprache und Psychologie, für die sowohl der Aspekt der Handlungsorientiertheit von Diskursen als auch die in Diskursen stattfindenden Prozesse der Realitätskonstruktion grundlegend sind. Im Unterschied zum kognitiven Paradigma der Psychologie, das Verhalten auf der Grundlage der Informationsverarbeitung von Wahrnehmungs-Inputs darstellt (z.B. Fiske/Taylor 1991), zielt das Narrativ der Diskursiven Psychologie auf die Aktivitäten, die durch Diskurse — als Bestandteile situierter Praktiken — vollzogen werden (Edwards/Potter 1992). Während die kognitionsbezogenen Theorien und Methoden von der Voraussetzung einer Realität ‚dort draußen‘ ausgehen, die den Input für kognitive Operationen liefert, konzentriert sich die Diskursive Psychologie darauf, wie Akteure, die ihren unterschiedlichen praktischen Aufgaben nachgehen, dabei sowohl ‚Realität‘ als auch ‚Bewußtsein‘ (mind)2 sprachlich-begrifflich konstruieren.3 Sie lehnt den Einsatz von Experimenten, Umfragen sowie der meisten Interviewformen ab und präferiert die genaue empirische Analyse von Aufzeichnungen natürlicher Interaktionen.
Article
The Field of Discourse Analysis The Field of Discourse Analysis Laclau and Mouffe's Discourse Theory Critical Discourse Analysis Discursive Psychology Across the Approaches Critical Social Constructionist Research
Article
This article takes the linguistic turn, or turns, in the social sciences as its point of departure and discusses the implications for methodology, empirical research, and field practices in social and organizational studies. Various responses can be identified: grounded fictionalism, giving up the hope of making substantive, empirical claims in terms of research texts capturing social phenomena; data-constructionism, where the ambiguous and constructed nature of empirical material gives space for a more relaxed, freer, and bolder way of interacting with empirical material; and discursivism, in which the researcher concentrates on the details of empirical material that lends itself to representations in the form of language, for example, conversations and texts. The article develops some ideas for a more reflective way of dealing with language issues in empirical social research. It argues for a more discourse-near but not discourse-exclusive approach to organizational research and refers to this as discursive pragmatism.
Article
Discourse is a popular term used in a variety of ways, easily leading to confusion. This article attempts to clarify the various meanings of discourse in social studies, the term's relevance for organizational analysis and some key theoretical positions in discourse analysis. It also focuses on the methodological problem of the relationship between: a) the level of discourse produced in interviews and in everyday life observed as `social texts' (in particular talk); b) other kinds of phenomena, such as meanings, experiences, orientations, events, material objects and social practices; and, c) discourses in the sense of a large-scale, ordered, integrated way of reasoning/ constituting the social world. In particular, the relationship between `micro and meso-level' discourse analysis (i.e. specific social texts being the primary empirical material) and `grand and mega-level' discourse (i.e. large-scale orders) is investigated.
Article
Because newspapers are believed to have the potential to influence the entrepreneurial spirit in Germany, the public discourse on the entrepreneurial spirit, and its relationship to economic activities and infrastructure, are analyzed. A total of 146 articles covering the notion of "entrepreneurial spirit" were identified in a major German newspaper, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) from the years 1997-2001.As well, data on business start-ups and trends in entrepreneurship policies and support were compiled to provide a context. At the macro level, the focus of the articles was categorized as economic, political or cultural.More than half of the articles discuss entrepreneurship as an economic phenomenon. Between 1997 and 2001, the focus on political or cultural aspects decreased from 52% to 34% of the articles.A decrease in entrepreneurial activity also occurred during this period, suggesting a possible lack of social embeddedness of the discourse -- i.e., to reach the desired goal of increasing entrepreneurial activity, influences such as the public discourse may need to grow. An analysis on the country focus of the discourse shows that the discourse has an international dimension, with the United States showing great entrepreneurial spirit and Germany lacking. At the meso level, the discourse on entrepreneurial spirit is discussed in terms of grammar. For example, verbs indicate what the entrepreneurial spirit does -- 'creates jobs,' 'acts self-dependently.'From these findings, different streams in the discourse can be identified:(1) the entrepreneurial spirit as a medium of entrepreneurial behavior, (2) success stories of individual entrepreneurs representing the entrepreneurial spirit as a learnable trait, and (3) the connection of the entrepreneurial spirit to regions or countries.Additionally, there seems to be a gap between the public discourse on entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurship research results.(NEE)
Article
This article discusses the effects of ideological control in conventional entrepreneurial discourses and praxis. Following postmodernist, deconstructionist and critical theory traditions, the ideas expressed about the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, and its contiguous notions and concepts, are deconstructed to reveal the dysfunctional effects of ideological control both in research and in praxis. It is shown that the concept of entrepreneurship is discriminatory, gender-biased, ethnocentrically determined and ideologically controlled, sustaining not only prevailing societal biases, but serving as a tapestry for un- examined and contradictory assumptions and knowledge about the reality of entrepreneurs.
Book
Das Buch gibt im ersten Teil einen interdisziplinären Überblick über den aktuellen Stand der Diskursforschung und erläutert die wichtigsten diskurstheoretischen Grundlagen. Im zweiten Teil wird das forschungspraktische Vorgehen bei sozialwissenschaftlichen Diskursanalysen - von der Entwicklung der Fragestellung über die Auswahl von Daten, deren Analyse bis hin zur Interpretation und Präsentation der Ergebnisse - detailliert beschrieben. Mit seiner didaktisch aufbereiteten Darstellung wendet sich das Buch an Studierende und Lehrende der Soziologie, der Politik- und Geschichtswissenschaften und angrenzender Disziplinen, die sich im Rahmen der Methodenausbildung, von Studienprojekten und Abschlussarbeiten mit Diskurskonzepten auseinandersetzen wollen sowie allgemein an SozialwissenschaftlerInnen, die bezüglich der Konzeption und Durchführung eigener Forschungsvorhaben an Grundlagen und Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten der Diskursforschung interessiert sind.
Die Rahmenanalyse politischer Diskurse
  • P R Donati
Donati, P.R. (2001) Die Rahmenanalyse politischer Diskurse. In: Handbuch Sozialwissenschaftliche Diskursanalyse, Band 1: Theorien und Methoden, edited by R.
Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 113-144. [Handbook of discourse analysis in the social sciences
  • A Keller
  • W Hirseland
  • W Schneider
  • Viehöver
Keller, A. Hirseland, W. Schneider and W. Viehöver. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 113-144. [Handbook of discourse analysis in the social sciences, volume 1: theories and methods]
Die Ordnung des Diskurses. Frankfurt: Fischer. [German translation of L'ordre du discours
  • M Foucault
Foucault, M. (1972/1991) Die Ordnung des Diskurses. Frankfurt: Fischer. [German translation of L'ordre du discours]
Organizational Discourse: Of Diversity, Dichotomy and Multi-disciplinarity
  • D Grant
  • T Keenoy
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