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Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the North Kennedy district of Queensland

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  • Australian Institute of Botanical Science

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Jobson, R.W. (2012). Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson, (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the North Kennedy district of Queensland. Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607. Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson, possibly endemic to the Minnamoolka area of northern Queensland, is described, illustrated, and differentiated from the local, and closely related African and South American species. Notes are provided on habitat and ecology, and conservation status. A key to Australian and related suspended aquatic species of Utricularia is provided.
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Accepted for publication 24 July 2012
Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae), a new
species from the North Kennedy district of Queensland
Richard W. Jobson
Summary
Jobson, R.W. (2012). Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson, (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from
the North Kennedy distr ict of Queensland. Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607. Utricularia corneliana
R.W.Jobson, possibly endemic to the Minnamoolka area of northern Queensland, is descr ibed,
illust rated, and dif ferentiated from the local, and closely relate d African and South Amer ican species.
Notes are provided on habit at and ecolog y, and conser vation st atus. A key to Australian and related
suspended aquatic species of Utricularia is provided.
Key Words: Lentibulariaceae, Utricularia, Utricularia corneliana, Australia ora, Queensland ora,
new species, taxonomy, bladderwort, aquatic
R.W.Jobson, Nat ional Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Bota nic Garden and Domain Trust, Mrs
Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia. Email: richard.jobson@rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au
Introduction
Utricularia L. (Lentibulariceae) is a
monophyletic genus of carnivorous
angiosperms containing at least 219
recognised species worldwide (Taylor 1989;
Gassin 1993; Lowrie 1998, 2002; Lowrie et
al. 2008; Jobson 2012), mostly distributed
in subtropical and tropical regions (Taylor
1989). In his monograph of Utricularia,
Taylor (1989) delimited the genus into the
following two subgenera: Polypompholyx
(Lehm.) P.Taylor (three species), including
two sections (Tridentaria P.Taylor and
Polypompholyx), and Utricularia (211
species), including 35 sectional groupings.
In line with the results of Jobson et al. (2003)
the genus has since been divided into three
subgenera, viz. Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria
S.Kurz and Utricularia (Reut & Jobson 2010).
Australia has c. 62 species (47 endemic), from
the subgenera Polypompholyx (c. 40 species),
Bivalvaria (13 species), and Utricularia (nine
sp ecie s).
Based on its suspended aquatic habit, and
morphological characters such as bladder-trap
form, the absence of bracteoles, the presence
of basixed bracts, and dehiscence of seed
via a circumscissile suture of the capsule,
the new species described here (Utricularia
corneliana, Figs. 1, 2A) is considered a
member of subgenus Utricularia section
Utricularia. This section consists mainly
of species with a fully suspended aquatic
habit (Taylor 1989; Jobson et al. 2003). In
the current paper, the distribution, habitat
and morphological differences between
U. corneliana and the other Australian
suspended aquatic species, U. aurea Lour.,
U. australis R.Br., U. gibba L., U. muelleri
Kamiénsk i, and U. stellaris L.f., are discussed.
Also provided is a comparative discussion of
the tropical African U. reexa Oliver and U.
raynalii P.Taylor, and the South American
U. warmingii Kamiénski, three species that
have several characters in common with U.
corneliana.
Methods and materials
This study is based on a single collection from
a single site. The specimen was divided into
two spirit preserved (70% ethanol) accessions
that are deposited at NSW and BRI.
The author examined suspended aquatic
species of Utricularia (U. aurea, U. australis,
U. gibba, U. muelleri and U. stellaris) that
are deposited at BRI and NSW, nding
no indication that wrongly identied U.
602 Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607 (2012)
corneliana had previously been collected.
Taxonomy
Utricularia corneliana R.W. J o b son , species
nova U. reexae similis sed limbo inferiore
quam superiore majore differt. Ty p u s:
Australia: Queensland. North keNNeDy
District: S of Mt Garnet, 9 June 2011,
R.W.Jobson 1281 (holo: NSW; iso: BRI).
Small perennial, suspended aquatic herb.
Rhizoids not present. Stolons liform 5–15
cm long, 0.3–0.5 mm thick, unbranched,
terete, sparsely hairy, internodes 6–8 mm
long. Leaves numerous, circular in outline, ±
amplexicaul, 3–5 mm long, slightly attened,
divided at the base into 2 primary segments,
with 3 further dichotomously divided
segments, the ultimate segments apically
and laterally setulose. Traps 1 (2) per leaf,
inserted in the angle between the rst and
second division segments, occasionally also
in the third, stalked, ovoid 2–2.6 mm long,
mouth lateral with two dorsal, setiform, often
recurved appendages 1–2 mm long, sometime
2 or 3 simple lateral setae. Internal glands
4-armed, narrowly cylindrical up to 90 µ long,
~5 µ in diameter (Fig. 2B). Inorescence
weakly erect, emergent, 2–3 cm long, arising
along the stolon from nodes at intervals of
c. 3.5 cm. Peduncle liform 0.5–0.6 mm
thick, terete, glandular, sparsely hairy on
lower portion, mostly glabrous above rst
bract. Scales and bracteoles absent. Bracts
basixed, amplexicaule, c. 1.3 mm long and
0.9 mm in diameter, apex rounded or truncate.
Flowers 1–3 on an elongated raceme axis;
pedicels liform, erect at anthesis, deexed in
fruit 3–5.5 mm long. Lowest ower probably
cleistogamous. Calyx lobes subequal, upper
lobe slightly longer, ovate 3–3.5 mm long,
2–2.2 mm in diameter. Corolla 4.5–9.3 mm
long, yellow, with few brown nerves on the
basal portion of the upper lip, densely covered
with ne multicellular hairs on dorsal surfaces;
upper lip broadly ovate with apex rounded
4–6.5 mm long, 3.8–5.5 mm in diameter, the
lower half of dorsal surface covered in hairs;
lower lip limb smaller, bilobed, with a single
prominent, slightly emarginate swelling at
the base; spur cylindrical at base, curved,
slightly attened and tapering mid-way with
apex rounded, almost as long as lower lip
(when lip is attened). Filaments curved c.
1.6 mm long. Ovary globose. Capsule 3.2–3.7
mm long, 2–3 mm in diameter, walls eshy,
circumscissile dehiscence. Seeds thinly
lenticular 0.8–1 mm in diameter, with a broad,
softly angled and translucent, mildly dentate
edged, marginal wing of irregular testa cells
with raised anticlinal walls (Fig. 2C). Pollen
17–18 colporate, 30 × 30 µ, Jobson 1281
(NSW). Fig. 1.
Distribution and habitat: Utricularia
corneliana is thus far, only known from a
single Swamp, south of Mt Garnet in the
Minnamoolka area. This ephemeral swamp
with a circumference of c. 4 km is fringed by
Eucalyptus platyphylla F. M u e l l . , E. sp., and
Melaleuca nervosa (Lindl.) Cheel woodland
(Fig. 3). Plants of the bladderwort were
infrequent in a single corner of the swamp
(c. 5 × 5 m), in water to c. 20 cm deep, with
Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., aquatic grasses,
Eleocharis sp., Marsilea mutica Mett.,
Myriophyllum simulans Orchard, Nympoides
indica (L.) Kuntze, Utricularia aurea, U.
gibba and U. stellaris. This black soil swamp
is based upon a basalt and sand substrate at an
elevation of c. 700 m.
Phenology: Flowers and fruits recorded
in June. Further research is required to
determine extent of owering season.
Notes: Utricularia corneliana is
geographically isolated and grows
sympatrically with three other suspended
aquatic Utricularia species; however,
morphologically it shares most characters
in common with U. reexa, a variable
species endemic to tropical Africa and
Madagascar (Taylor 1989: g. 194, p. 640).
Molecular phylogenetic data also support this
relationship (Jobson et al., in prep.) and negate
the possibility of a localised hybridisation
event. These two species share a bright yellow
corolla, similarly shaped bracts, bilobed
lower corolla lip, and have traps invariably
positioned at the angle between leaf segments
(Fig. 1).
Jobson, Utricularia corneliana 603
There are two, perhaps closely allied
species, that also have traps positioned in
the angle between leaf segments; Utricularia
raynalii (tropical Africa) (Taylor 1989:
g. 195, p. 642), and U. warmingii (South
America) (Taylor 1989: g. 196, p. 644).
These two species differ from U. reexa and
U. corneliana by both possessing prismatic
shaped seeds; a rose pink corolla and spongy
lower leaf segments in the former and a light
yellow corolla and inated peduncles in the
latter (Taylor 1989).
There are several characters that
differentiate Utricularia corneliana from
U. reexa, namely a lack of rhizoids in the
former; an upper corolla lip that is longer
than the lower, with an upper lip rear surface
sparsely hairy only on the lower half (Fig. 1),
versus an entirely hairy surface in U. reexa
(Taylor 19 89: g. 194, p. 640); internal trap
quadrid gland arms that are 14 versus 30
times as long as they are wide (Fig 2B, versus
Taylor 1989: g. C, p. 17); at lenticular
shaped seeds (c. 1 mm in diameter) (Fig. 1,
2C), versus disc shaped seeds (0.4–0.8 mm in
diameter) that are 2–3 times wider than thick
(Taylor 1989: g. 194, p. 640).
Conservation status: After a search along
the circumference of the type locality swamp
(Fig. 3), plants were not observed anywhere
else. Two nearby swamps (c. 10 and 15 km
away respectively) were also examined with
no other sightings.
Considering the limited geographic
distribution of Utricularia corneliana and its
low frequency at the collection site, it is likely
that this plant is extremely rare. The collection
site is on leasehold land and is therefore not
protected.
If Utricularia corneliana is more
widespread than appears, the question
remains as to why it had not been collected
before this study? One possible answer is that
the owers of U. corneliana resemble those of
other local Utricularia species (U. aurea, U.
gibba, and U. stellaris) in the general shape
and colour (yellow), blending in with these
more common species.
It could also be the case that habitat
destruction, erosion, weed infestation, and
associated eutrophication of swamps and
lagoons, early on in the agricultural history
of the region, has reduced the population size
of Utricularia corneliana. An example of a
local disappearance of a fellow suspended
aquatic species is that of U. tubulata F.Muell.,
the type specimen of which (Armit 222
[MEL1513562]) was collected in 1875 on
‘Cashmere’ (now ‘Glen Ruth’ and ‘Goshen’
stations), about 15 km E of the U. corneliana
site. Armit recorded the plant as “oating in
swamps and lagoons” on “Cashmere”, but
it has not since been collected anywhere in
Queensland, except for a single site in the far
north-west corner of the state (Jacobs 1465
[NSW]).
A more intensive survey of this area
of Queensland is warranted to determine
presence and extent of both the above
species; although it is likely that Utricularia
corneliana has mostly suffered the same early
fate as that of the local U. tubulata. At present
the conservation status of U. corneliana
should be regarded as Data Decient.
Etymology: The specic epithet is in honour
of Cornelia M. Jobson, the author’s wife and
eld assistant.
Acknowledgements
I thank Roderick Fensham and Peter
Bostock (BRI) for providing information on
specimens. I also thank Catheri ne Wardrop for
providing the detailed illustrations presented
in this paper, Peter Wilson for preparing the
Latin diagnosis, Marco Duretto for providing
helpful comments on the manuscript (all
NSW), Lubomir Adamec (Czech Republic)
for supplying plant material, and Cornelia
Jobson for help with eldwork. Scientic
Purposes permits were obtained through the
Queensland Department of Environment and
Resource Management (WITK08454010,
WISP08454110). This work was partly
supported by ABRS grant RFL212-45.
604 Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607 (2012)
Key to Australian and related suspended aquatic species of Utricularia (modied from
Taylor 1989)
Abbreviations: NSW (New South Wales), Qld (Queensland), NT (Northern Territory), SA
(South Australia), Tas (Tasmania), WA (Western Australia)
1 Leaves verticillate; peduncle inated; corolla very pale pink with a very
slender spur 1.5–2 cm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. tubulata (Qld , NT, WA)
1. Leaves not verticillate (some semiverticillate); peduncle not inated;
corolla yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Peduncle with whorl of usually inated leaf-like structures at or above
base; primary segments of leaves 3–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Peduncle without a whorl of inated leaf-like organs; primary segments of
leaves 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
3 Inated leaf-like organs fusiform, arising from base, or near base
of peduncle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. aurea (NSW, Qld, NT, WA)
3. Inated leaf-like organs ellipsoid, arising some distance above base
of peduncle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Inated leaf-like organs sessile with capillary segments arising from
distal half only; seeds disk shaped, angular (not winged); calyx about
equal in length to capsule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. stellaris (NSW, Qld, NT, WA)
4. Inated leaf-like organs stipitate with capillary segments arising from
distal half and from base; seeds lenticular, narrowly winged; calyx
much shorter than capsule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. muelleri (Qld, N T, WA)
5 Corolla externally pubescent; traps always inserted at angle between leaf segments . . . . 6
5. Corolla externally glabrous; traps lateral on leaf segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
6 Corolla upper lip longer than lower; seed at, lenticular . . . . . . . . . U. corneliana (Qld)
6. Corolla upper lip equal to or shorter than lower; seed thick, disk-
shaped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. reexa (tropical Africa, Madagascar)
7 Leaves with ultimate segments few (2–8); upper corolla lip larger than
lower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. gibba (All states except SA, Tas)
7. Leaves with ultimate segments numerous (20–80); upper corolla lip
smaller than lower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. australis (All states)
Jobson, Utricularia corneliana 605
Fig. 1. Utricularia corneliana. A. habit ×5.5. B. leaf segments with traps ×7. C. bladder-trap in lateral view ×10. D.
bract with pedicel base in situ ×10. E. sepals with exposed ovary ×7. F. ower in frontal view ×5.5. G. ower in rear
view ×5.5. H. ower in lateral view ×5.5. I. fruiting capsule with caly x ×7. J. stamen ×20. K. seed ×40. A–K from
Jobson 1281 (NSW).
606 Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607 (2012)
Fig. 2. Utricularia corneliana. A. habit. B. Internal quadrid gland of bladder trap. C. at lenticular seed. A–C from
Jobson 1281 (NSW).
Jobson, Utricularia corneliana 607
Fig. 3. Shallow swamp habitat holding the observed population of Utricularia corneliana. Insert is a topographic map
of northern Queensland showing vicinity of collection site (red box).
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of subgenus Polypompholyx: a pa rallel radiation
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Australasia. Australian Systematic Botany 23:
152 –161.
taylor, P. (1989). The genus Utricularia. Kew Bulletin
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alBert, V.A. (2003). Molecular phylogeny
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loWrie, A. (1998). A new species of Utricularia
(Lentibulariaceae) from the south-west of
Western Australia. Nuytsia 12 : 37– 41.
—— (20 02). Utricularia petertaylorii
(Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the
south-west of Wester n Australia. Nuytsia 14:
40 5 410.
... Of these six species, U. corneliana R.W.Jobson is endemic, U. gibba L. is pantropical, U. aurea Lour. and U. muelleri Kamienski extend across Asia or Papua New Guinea respectively, U. australis R.Br. is distributed across Asia and into Europe, while U. stellaris L.f. is distributed across southern Asia and into Africa (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012;Jobson et al. 2018). The three species U. aurea, U. muelleri and U. stellaris develop spongy float-like rhizoids; in the latter two species they arise near the middle of the peduncle, while in the former they arise at or near the base of the peduncle (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012). ...
... and U. muelleri Kamienski extend across Asia or Papua New Guinea respectively, U. australis R.Br. is distributed across Asia and into Europe, while U. stellaris L.f. is distributed across southern Asia and into Africa (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012;Jobson et al. 2018). The three species U. aurea, U. muelleri and U. stellaris develop spongy float-like rhizoids; in the latter two species they arise near the middle of the peduncle, while in the former they arise at or near the base of the peduncle (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012). ...
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