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Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the North Kennedy district of Queensland

  • Australian Institute of Botanical Science

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Jobson, R.W. (2012). Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson, (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the North Kennedy district of Queensland. Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607. Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson, possibly endemic to the Minnamoolka area of northern Queensland, is described, illustrated, and differentiated from the local, and closely related African and South American species. Notes are provided on habitat and ecology, and conservation status. A key to Australian and related suspended aquatic species of Utricularia is provided.
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Accepted for publication 24 July 2012
Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson (Lentibulariaceae), a new
species from the North Kennedy district of Queensland
Richard W. Jobson
Jobson, R.W. (2012). Utricularia corneliana R.W.Jobson, (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from
the North Kennedy distr ict of Queensland. Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607. Utricularia corneliana
R.W.Jobson, possibly endemic to the Minnamoolka area of northern Queensland, is descr ibed,
illust rated, and dif ferentiated from the local, and closely relate d African and South Amer ican species.
Notes are provided on habit at and ecolog y, and conser vation st atus. A key to Australian and related
suspended aquatic species of Utricularia is provided.
Key Words: Lentibulariaceae, Utricularia, Utricularia corneliana, Australia ora, Queensland ora,
new species, taxonomy, bladderwort, aquatic
R.W.Jobson, Nat ional Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Bota nic Garden and Domain Trust, Mrs
Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia. Email:
Utricularia L. (Lentibulariceae) is a
monophyletic genus of carnivorous
angiosperms containing at least 219
recognised species worldwide (Taylor 1989;
Gassin 1993; Lowrie 1998, 2002; Lowrie et
al. 2008; Jobson 2012), mostly distributed
in subtropical and tropical regions (Taylor
1989). In his monograph of Utricularia,
Taylor (1989) delimited the genus into the
following two subgenera: Polypompholyx
(Lehm.) P.Taylor (three species), including
two sections (Tridentaria P.Taylor and
Polypompholyx), and Utricularia (211
species), including 35 sectional groupings.
In line with the results of Jobson et al. (2003)
the genus has since been divided into three
subgenera, viz. Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria
S.Kurz and Utricularia (Reut & Jobson 2010).
Australia has c. 62 species (47 endemic), from
the subgenera Polypompholyx (c. 40 species),
Bivalvaria (13 species), and Utricularia (nine
sp ecie s).
Based on its suspended aquatic habit, and
morphological characters such as bladder-trap
form, the absence of bracteoles, the presence
of basixed bracts, and dehiscence of seed
via a circumscissile suture of the capsule,
the new species described here (Utricularia
corneliana, Figs. 1, 2A) is considered a
member of subgenus Utricularia section
Utricularia. This section consists mainly
of species with a fully suspended aquatic
habit (Taylor 1989; Jobson et al. 2003). In
the current paper, the distribution, habitat
and morphological differences between
U. corneliana and the other Australian
suspended aquatic species, U. aurea Lour.,
U. australis R.Br., U. gibba L., U. muelleri
Kamiénsk i, and U. stellaris L.f., are discussed.
Also provided is a comparative discussion of
the tropical African U. reexa Oliver and U.
raynalii P.Taylor, and the South American
U. warmingii Kamiénski, three species that
have several characters in common with U.
Methods and materials
This study is based on a single collection from
a single site. The specimen was divided into
two spirit preserved (70% ethanol) accessions
that are deposited at NSW and BRI.
The author examined suspended aquatic
species of Utricularia (U. aurea, U. australis,
U. gibba, U. muelleri and U. stellaris) that
are deposited at BRI and NSW, nding
no indication that wrongly identied U.
602 Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607 (2012)
corneliana had previously been collected.
Utricularia corneliana R.W. J o b son , species
nova U. reexae similis sed limbo inferiore
quam superiore majore differt. Ty p u s:
Australia: Queensland. North keNNeDy
District: S of Mt Garnet, 9 June 2011,
R.W.Jobson 1281 (holo: NSW; iso: BRI).
Small perennial, suspended aquatic herb.
Rhizoids not present. Stolons liform 5–15
cm long, 0.3–0.5 mm thick, unbranched,
terete, sparsely hairy, internodes 6–8 mm
long. Leaves numerous, circular in outline, ±
amplexicaul, 3–5 mm long, slightly attened,
divided at the base into 2 primary segments,
with 3 further dichotomously divided
segments, the ultimate segments apically
and laterally setulose. Traps 1 (2) per leaf,
inserted in the angle between the rst and
second division segments, occasionally also
in the third, stalked, ovoid 2–2.6 mm long,
mouth lateral with two dorsal, setiform, often
recurved appendages 1–2 mm long, sometime
2 or 3 simple lateral setae. Internal glands
4-armed, narrowly cylindrical up to 90 µ long,
~5 µ in diameter (Fig. 2B). Inorescence
weakly erect, emergent, 2–3 cm long, arising
along the stolon from nodes at intervals of
c. 3.5 cm. Peduncle liform 0.5–0.6 mm
thick, terete, glandular, sparsely hairy on
lower portion, mostly glabrous above rst
bract. Scales and bracteoles absent. Bracts
basixed, amplexicaule, c. 1.3 mm long and
0.9 mm in diameter, apex rounded or truncate.
Flowers 1–3 on an elongated raceme axis;
pedicels liform, erect at anthesis, deexed in
fruit 3–5.5 mm long. Lowest ower probably
cleistogamous. Calyx lobes subequal, upper
lobe slightly longer, ovate 3–3.5 mm long,
2–2.2 mm in diameter. Corolla 4.5–9.3 mm
long, yellow, with few brown nerves on the
basal portion of the upper lip, densely covered
with ne multicellular hairs on dorsal surfaces;
upper lip broadly ovate with apex rounded
4–6.5 mm long, 3.8–5.5 mm in diameter, the
lower half of dorsal surface covered in hairs;
lower lip limb smaller, bilobed, with a single
prominent, slightly emarginate swelling at
the base; spur cylindrical at base, curved,
slightly attened and tapering mid-way with
apex rounded, almost as long as lower lip
(when lip is attened). Filaments curved c.
1.6 mm long. Ovary globose. Capsule 3.2–3.7
mm long, 2–3 mm in diameter, walls eshy,
circumscissile dehiscence. Seeds thinly
lenticular 0.8–1 mm in diameter, with a broad,
softly angled and translucent, mildly dentate
edged, marginal wing of irregular testa cells
with raised anticlinal walls (Fig. 2C). Pollen
17–18 colporate, 30 × 30 µ, Jobson 1281
(NSW). Fig. 1.
Distribution and habitat: Utricularia
corneliana is thus far, only known from a
single Swamp, south of Mt Garnet in the
Minnamoolka area. This ephemeral swamp
with a circumference of c. 4 km is fringed by
Eucalyptus platyphylla F. M u e l l . , E. sp., and
Melaleuca nervosa (Lindl.) Cheel woodland
(Fig. 3). Plants of the bladderwort were
infrequent in a single corner of the swamp
(c. 5 × 5 m), in water to c. 20 cm deep, with
Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., aquatic grasses,
Eleocharis sp., Marsilea mutica Mett.,
Myriophyllum simulans Orchard, Nympoides
indica (L.) Kuntze, Utricularia aurea, U.
gibba and U. stellaris. This black soil swamp
is based upon a basalt and sand substrate at an
elevation of c. 700 m.
Phenology: Flowers and fruits recorded
in June. Further research is required to
determine extent of owering season.
Notes: Utricularia corneliana is
geographically isolated and grows
sympatrically with three other suspended
aquatic Utricularia species; however,
morphologically it shares most characters
in common with U. reexa, a variable
species endemic to tropical Africa and
Madagascar (Taylor 1989: g. 194, p. 640).
Molecular phylogenetic data also support this
relationship (Jobson et al., in prep.) and negate
the possibility of a localised hybridisation
event. These two species share a bright yellow
corolla, similarly shaped bracts, bilobed
lower corolla lip, and have traps invariably
positioned at the angle between leaf segments
(Fig. 1).
Jobson, Utricularia corneliana 603
There are two, perhaps closely allied
species, that also have traps positioned in
the angle between leaf segments; Utricularia
raynalii (tropical Africa) (Taylor 1989:
g. 195, p. 642), and U. warmingii (South
America) (Taylor 1989: g. 196, p. 644).
These two species differ from U. reexa and
U. corneliana by both possessing prismatic
shaped seeds; a rose pink corolla and spongy
lower leaf segments in the former and a light
yellow corolla and inated peduncles in the
latter (Taylor 1989).
There are several characters that
differentiate Utricularia corneliana from
U. reexa, namely a lack of rhizoids in the
former; an upper corolla lip that is longer
than the lower, with an upper lip rear surface
sparsely hairy only on the lower half (Fig. 1),
versus an entirely hairy surface in U. reexa
(Taylor 19 89: g. 194, p. 640); internal trap
quadrid gland arms that are 14 versus 30
times as long as they are wide (Fig 2B, versus
Taylor 1989: g. C, p. 17); at lenticular
shaped seeds (c. 1 mm in diameter) (Fig. 1,
2C), versus disc shaped seeds (0.4–0.8 mm in
diameter) that are 2–3 times wider than thick
(Taylor 1989: g. 194, p. 640).
Conservation status: After a search along
the circumference of the type locality swamp
(Fig. 3), plants were not observed anywhere
else. Two nearby swamps (c. 10 and 15 km
away respectively) were also examined with
no other sightings.
Considering the limited geographic
distribution of Utricularia corneliana and its
low frequency at the collection site, it is likely
that this plant is extremely rare. The collection
site is on leasehold land and is therefore not
If Utricularia corneliana is more
widespread than appears, the question
remains as to why it had not been collected
before this study? One possible answer is that
the owers of U. corneliana resemble those of
other local Utricularia species (U. aurea, U.
gibba, and U. stellaris) in the general shape
and colour (yellow), blending in with these
more common species.
It could also be the case that habitat
destruction, erosion, weed infestation, and
associated eutrophication of swamps and
lagoons, early on in the agricultural history
of the region, has reduced the population size
of Utricularia corneliana. An example of a
local disappearance of a fellow suspended
aquatic species is that of U. tubulata F.Muell.,
the type specimen of which (Armit 222
[MEL1513562]) was collected in 1875 on
‘Cashmere’ (now ‘Glen Ruth’ and ‘Goshen’
stations), about 15 km E of the U. corneliana
site. Armit recorded the plant as “oating in
swamps and lagoons” on “Cashmere”, but
it has not since been collected anywhere in
Queensland, except for a single site in the far
north-west corner of the state (Jacobs 1465
A more intensive survey of this area
of Queensland is warranted to determine
presence and extent of both the above
species; although it is likely that Utricularia
corneliana has mostly suffered the same early
fate as that of the local U. tubulata. At present
the conservation status of U. corneliana
should be regarded as Data Decient.
Etymology: The specic epithet is in honour
of Cornelia M. Jobson, the author’s wife and
eld assistant.
I thank Roderick Fensham and Peter
Bostock (BRI) for providing information on
specimens. I also thank Catheri ne Wardrop for
providing the detailed illustrations presented
in this paper, Peter Wilson for preparing the
Latin diagnosis, Marco Duretto for providing
helpful comments on the manuscript (all
NSW), Lubomir Adamec (Czech Republic)
for supplying plant material, and Cornelia
Jobson for help with eldwork. Scientic
Purposes permits were obtained through the
Queensland Department of Environment and
Resource Management (WITK08454010,
WISP08454110). This work was partly
supported by ABRS grant RFL212-45.
604 Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607 (2012)
Key to Australian and related suspended aquatic species of Utricularia (modied from
Taylor 1989)
Abbreviations: NSW (New South Wales), Qld (Queensland), NT (Northern Territory), SA
(South Australia), Tas (Tasmania), WA (Western Australia)
1 Leaves verticillate; peduncle inated; corolla very pale pink with a very
slender spur 1.5–2 cm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. tubulata (Qld , NT, WA)
1. Leaves not verticillate (some semiverticillate); peduncle not inated;
corolla yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Peduncle with whorl of usually inated leaf-like structures at or above
base; primary segments of leaves 3–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Peduncle without a whorl of inated leaf-like organs; primary segments of
leaves 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
3 Inated leaf-like organs fusiform, arising from base, or near base
of peduncle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. aurea (NSW, Qld, NT, WA)
3. Inated leaf-like organs ellipsoid, arising some distance above base
of peduncle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Inated leaf-like organs sessile with capillary segments arising from
distal half only; seeds disk shaped, angular (not winged); calyx about
equal in length to capsule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. stellaris (NSW, Qld, NT, WA)
4. Inated leaf-like organs stipitate with capillary segments arising from
distal half and from base; seeds lenticular, narrowly winged; calyx
much shorter than capsule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. muelleri (Qld, N T, WA)
5 Corolla externally pubescent; traps always inserted at angle between leaf segments . . . . 6
5. Corolla externally glabrous; traps lateral on leaf segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
6 Corolla upper lip longer than lower; seed at, lenticular . . . . . . . . . U. corneliana (Qld)
6. Corolla upper lip equal to or shorter than lower; seed thick, disk-
shaped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. reexa (tropical Africa, Madagascar)
7 Leaves with ultimate segments few (2–8); upper corolla lip larger than
lower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. gibba (All states except SA, Tas)
7. Leaves with ultimate segments numerous (20–80); upper corolla lip
smaller than lower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .U. australis (All states)
Jobson, Utricularia corneliana 605
Fig. 1. Utricularia corneliana. A. habit ×5.5. B. leaf segments with traps ×7. C. bladder-trap in lateral view ×10. D.
bract with pedicel base in situ ×10. E. sepals with exposed ovary ×7. F. ower in frontal view ×5.5. G. ower in rear
view ×5.5. H. ower in lateral view ×5.5. I. fruiting capsule with caly x ×7. J. stamen ×20. K. seed ×40. A–K from
Jobson 1281 (NSW).
606 Austrobaileya 8(4): 601–607 (2012)
Fig. 2. Utricularia corneliana. A. habit. B. Internal quadrid gland of bladder trap. C. at lenticular seed. A–C from
Jobson 1281 (NSW).
Jobson, Utricularia corneliana 607
Fig. 3. Shallow swamp habitat holding the observed population of Utricularia corneliana. Insert is a topographic map
of northern Queensland showing vicinity of collection site (red box).
loWrie, a., coWie, I.D. & coNra N, J.G. (2008). A
new species and section of Utricularia
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Tel ope a 12: 31–46.
reut, M. & JoBsoN, R.W. (2010). A phylogenetic study
of subgenus Polypompholyx: a pa rallel radiation
of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) throughout
Australasia. Australian Systematic Botany 23:
152 –161.
taylor, P. (1989). The genus Utricularia. Kew Bulletin
Additional Series XIV. HMSO: London.
GassiN R.J. (1993). Utricularia beaugleholei
(Lentibulariaceae: subgenus Utricularia:
section Pleiochasia), a new species f rom south-
eastern Australia. Muelleria 8: 37– 42.
JoBsoN, R.W. (2012). A new species of Utricularia
(Lentibulariaceae) from northern Queensland,
Australia. Telo pea 14: 49 –-5 7.
JoBsoN, R.W., PlayforD, J., caMeroN, K.M. &
alBert, V.A. (2003). Molecular phylogeny
of Lentibulariaceae inferred f rom rps16 and
trnl-f chloroplast gene regions: implications
for character evolution and biogeography.
Systematic Botany 2 8: 157 –171.
loWrie, A. (1998). A new species of Utricularia
(Lentibulariaceae) from the south-west of
Western Australia. Nuytsia 12 : 37– 41.
—— (20 02). Utricularia petertaylorii
(Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the
south-west of Wester n Australia. Nuytsia 14:
40 5 410.
... Of these six species, U. corneliana R.W.Jobson is endemic, U. gibba L. is pantropical, U. aurea Lour. and U. muelleri Kamienski extend across Asia or Papua New Guinea respectively, U. australis R.Br. is distributed across Asia and into Europe, while U. stellaris L.f. is distributed across southern Asia and into Africa (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012;Jobson et al. 2018). The three species U. aurea, U. muelleri and U. stellaris develop spongy float-like rhizoids; in the latter two species they arise near the middle of the peduncle, while in the former they arise at or near the base of the peduncle (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012). ...
... and U. muelleri Kamienski extend across Asia or Papua New Guinea respectively, U. australis R.Br. is distributed across Asia and into Europe, while U. stellaris L.f. is distributed across southern Asia and into Africa (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012;Jobson et al. 2018). The three species U. aurea, U. muelleri and U. stellaris develop spongy float-like rhizoids; in the latter two species they arise near the middle of the peduncle, while in the former they arise at or near the base of the peduncle (Taylor 1989;Jobson 2012). ...
Full-text available
Australia has seven species in Utricularia L. section Utricularia, with the habit for all members of either affixed or suspended aquatic. Of the six recognised Australian species, one is endemic, one is pantropical, three are also distributed across Asia or Papua New Guinea - with U. australis R.Br. extending into Europe, and one other, U. stellaris L.f. into Africa. We present a molecular phylogeny based on two plastid and the nuclear ITS sequences for members of the subgenus Utricularia representing U. aurea Lour. and closely allied species from across each of their distributions. The molecular phylogeny provides strong support for recognition of a new species Utricularia adamsii R.W.Jobson & Davies-Colley (Lentibulariaceae), here described as new member of section Utricularia. This taxon was previously included within U. aurea, however, our molecular phylogeny and morphology supports a sister relationship with U. muelleri Kamienski. We provide a revised concept of U. aurea, and a description of the new species. The morphological differences between U. adamsii, U. muelleri, U. aurea and closely related species are here discussed, and an identification key provided. Distributions and habitat preferences of these taxa are discussed.
... Utricularia reflexa is a highly variable suspended aquatic species restricted to Africa which, together with other species from this section, represents a group mostly composed of species from Americas and Europe. According to our estimate (Figs. 6 and 7), the lineage of U. aurea, U. inflexa and U. reflexa possibly reached the African continent from Tropical Asia very recently, around 3 mya, which would be strongly supported if U. corneliana (Jobson, 2012) was indeed U. reflexa (Fleischmann, 2015). ...
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There is an enormous diversity in the structure of the flower palate of the carnivorous rootless genus Utricularia. This study aims to examine the structure of the palates in Utricularia bremii Heer and U. minor L of the Utricularia sect. Utricularia, which have a glandular palate type. In both species, the palate has only one type of glandular trichomes. Because of the occurrence of cell wall ingrowths in its glandular cells, any exudation may be transported via eccrinous secretion. It was proposed that the palate trichomes of the examined species act as scent glands and that the palate may play a role as an unguentarium. Both U. bremii and U. minor are of an open flower type. Thus, U. bremii and U. minor flowers can be penetrated by small, weak insects, which then easily have access to their generative structure. Small Hymenoptera (member of families Mymaridae and Braconidae) were observed as flower visitors of the male-sterile species Utricularia bremii.
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Utricularia blackmanii R.W.Jobson from igneous regions in northern Queensland (Australia) is described as new and is considered to be a member of Utricularia subg. Polypompholyx section Pleiochasia. The distribution and habitat preferences of this species are described and the morphological differences between U. blackmanii and species with which it was confused previously are discussed. Specifically, this new species is distinguished from U. dichotoma Labill., U. hamiltonii F.Lloyd, U. fistulosa P.Taylor, U. singeriana F.Muell., U. terrae-reginae P.Taylor, U. triflora P.Taylor, and U. tubulata F.Muell. by means of a diagnostic key.
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Phylogenetic relationships among 26 of the 37 recognised taxa of Utricularia subgenus Polypompholyx sensu Müller & Borsch were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron. We also examined the placement of the recently described U. simmonsii (sect. Minutae), which was reported to share some morphological characters with subgenus Polypompholyx. We found strong jackknife support for a monophyletic subgenus Polypompholyx lineage; however, our strict consensus tree shows an unresolved relationship between the sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia. Within the section Pleiochasia, we found two supported clades, generally differing in a more northern or southern distribution. Despite high levels of morphological heterogeneity and convergence, we found some clade-specific character homogeneity within these two clades, particularly that of growth and bladder-trap form, and floral structure. Bladder-trap form corresponds most strongly with terrestrial v. aquatic habits. The evolution of filiform corolla appendages corresponds with floral colour, and is possibly associated with sexual mimicry, with those of the upper corolla arising twice independently. Furthermore, we found that U. monanthos and U. novae-zelandiae remain synonyms of U. dichotoma, and that U. simmonsii is not included in the subgenus Polypompholyx, but instead is allied with sections Stomoisia and Enskide of subgenus Bivalvaria.
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Phylogenetic relationships among 75 species of Lentibulariaceae, representing the three recognized genera, were assessed by cladistic analysis of DNA sequences from the plastid rps16 intron and the trnL-F region. Sequence data from the two loci were analyzed both separately and in combination. Consensus trees from all analyses are congruent, and parsimony jackknife results demonstrate strong support for relationships both between and within each of the three demonstrably monophyletic genera. The genus Pinguicula is sister to a Genlisea-Utricularia clade, the phylogenetic structure within this clade closely follows Taylor's recent sectional delimitations based on morphology. Three principal clades are shown within Utricularia, with the basal sections Polypompholyx and Pleiochasia together forming the sister lineage of the remaining Utricularia species. Of the fundamental morphological specializations, the stoloniferous growth form apparently arose independently within Genlisea and Utricularia three times, and within Utricularia itself, perhaps more than once. The epiphytic habit has evolved independently at least three times, in Pinguicula, in Utricularia section Phyllaria, and within the two sections Orchidioides and Iperua (in the latter as bromeliad tank-epiphytes). The suspended aquatic habit may have evolved independently within sections Utricularia and Vesiculina. Biogeographic optimization on the phylogeny demonstrates patterns commonly associated with the boreotropics hypothesis and limits the spatial origin of Lentibulariaceae to temperate Eurasia or tropical America. Communicating Editor: Matt Lavin
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A minute, reddish-purple-flowered, new species of Utricularia L. subgenus Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) is described and illustrated: Utricularia simmonsii Lowrie, Cowie & Conran from the western Top End of the Northern Territory and near Lockhart River and Tozer's Gap, Iron Range in far north Queensland. The species represents possibly the world's smallest-flowered carnivorous plant. It shows some affinities to Utricularia sections Enskide and Pleiochasia, but possesses a combination of features not found in any other Utricularia species. The tiny flowers have an open, gullet throat, virtually lack a spur (both unusual features in the genus), the traps lack obvious trigger or guiding hairs, and the seeds have almost fingerprint-like swirled sculpturing. Because of its distinctness, it is placed into a new section: Minutae Lowrie, Cowie & Conran. A key to the Utricularia taxa found in Northern Australia is also provided.
Lowrie, A. Utricularia petertaylorii (Lentibulariaceae), a new species from the south-west of Western Australia. Nuytsia 14(3): 405–410 (2002). A new species, Utricularia petertaylorii Lowrie, is described and illustrated. A key is provided to all the known Utricularia species occurring in the south-west of Western Australia.