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Herbal Cosmetics: Used for Skin and Hair

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INTRODUCTION The word cosmetic was derived from the Greek word "kosm tikos" meaning having the power, arrange, skill in decorating 1 . The origin of cosmetics forms a continuous narrative throughout the history of man as they developed. The man in prehistoric times 3000BC used colours for decoration to attract the animals that he wished to hunt and also the man survived attack from the enemy by colouring his skin and adorned his body for protection to provoke fear in an enemy (whether man or animal) 2 . The origin of cosmetics were associated with hunting, fighting, religion and superstition and later associated with medicine 3 . Herbal Cosmetics, here in after referred as Products, are formulated, using various permissible cosmetic ingredients to form the base in which one or more herbal ingredients are used to provide defined cosmetic benefits only, shall be called as "Herbal Cosmetics 4 ". Beginning 1990's cosmetic manufacturer adapted a term 'cosmeceuticals' to describe the OTC skin care products that claims therapeutic benefit by addition of plant based active ingredient such as alpha-hydroxy acid, retinoic acid, ascorbic acid and coenzyme Q10 5 . These active ingredients serves many purposes viz. increase in skin elasticity, delay in skin aging by reducing the wrinkles, protection against UV radiation by antioxidant property and to check degradation of collagen respectively 6 . The skin and hair beauty of individuals depends on the health, habits, routine job, climatic conditions and maintenance 7 . The skin due to excessive exposure to heat will dehydrate during summer and causes wrinkle, freckles, blemishes, pigmentation and sunburns. The extreme winter cause damages to the skin in the form of cracks, cuts, maceration and infections 8 . The skin diseases are common among all age groups and can be due to exposure towards microbes, chemical agents, biological toxin present in the environment, and also to some extend due to malnutrition 9 . The only factor they had to rely on was the knowledge of nature compiled in the ayurveda. The science of ayurveda had utilized many herbs and floras to make cosmetics for beautification and protection from external affects 10 . The natural content in the botanicals does not cause any side effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals 11 . The cosmetics, according to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act is defined as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on, introduced into or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance 12 . The cosmetic does not come under the preview of drug license. The herbal cosmetics are the preparations containing phytochemical from a variety of botanical sources, which influences the functions of skin and provide nutrients necessary for the healthy skin or hair 13 . The natural herbs and their products when used for their aromatic value in cosmetic preparation are termed as herbal cosmetics 14 . There is common belief that chemical based cosmetics are harmful to the skin and an increased awareness among consumers for herbal products triggered the demand for natural products and natural extracts in cosmetics preparations 15 .The increased demand for the natural product has created new avenues in cosmeceutical market. The Drug and Cosmetics Act specify that herbs and essential oils used in cosmetics must not claim to penetrate beyond the surface layers of the skin nor should have any therapeutic effect 16 . The legal requirement and the regulatory procedures for herbal cosmetics are same as that for other chemical ingredients used in cosmetic formulations 17 . The requirements for the basic skin care: x x Cleansing agent: which remove the dust, dead cells and dirt that chokes the pores on the skin. Some of the common cleansers include vegetable oils like coconut, sesame and palm oil 18 . x Toners: The toners help to tighten the skin and keep it from being exposed to many of the toxins that are floating in the air or other environmental pollutants. Some of the herbs used as toners are witch hazel, geranium, sage, lemon, ivy burdock and essential oils 19 . x Moisturizing: The moisturizing helps the skin to become soft and supple. Moisturizing shows a healthy glow and
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Inventi Rapid: Cosmeceuticals Vol. 2012, Issue 4
[ISSN 0976-3864]
2012 pcc 077, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
Published on Web 10/10/2012, www.inventi.in
REVIEW ARTICLE
INTRODUCTION
The word cosmetic was derived from the Greek word
“kosm tikos” meaning having the power, arrange, skill in
decorating 1. The origin of cosmetics forms a continuous
narrative throughout the history of man as they developed.
The man in prehistoric times 3000BC used colours for
decoration to attract the animals that he wished to hunt
and also the man survived attack from the enemy by
colouring his skin and adorned his body for protection to
provoke fear in an enemy (whether man or animal) 2. The
origin of cosmetics were associated with hunting, fighting,
religion and superstition and later associated with
medicine 3.
Herbal Cosmetics, here in after referred as Products, are
formulated, using various permissible cosmetic ingredients
to form the base in which one or more herbal ingredients
are used to provide defined cosmetic benefits only, shall be
called as “Herbal Cosmetics 4”.
Beginning 1990's cosmetic manufacturer adapted a
term 'cosmeceuticals' to describe the OTC skin care
products that claims therapeutic benefit by addition of
plant based active ingredient such as alpha-hydroxy
acid, retinoic acid, ascorbic acid and coenzyme Q10 5.
These active ingredients serves many purposes viz.
increase in skin elasticity, delay in skin aging by
reducing the wrinkles, protection against UV radiation
by antioxidant property and to check degradation of
collagen respectively 6.
The skin and hair beauty of individuals depends on the
health, habits, routine job, climatic conditions and
maintenance7. The skin due to excessive exposure to heat
will dehydrate during summer and causes wrinkle, freckles,
blemishes, pigmentation and sunburns. The extreme winter
cause damages to the skin in the form of cracks, cuts,
maceration and infections8. The skin diseases are common
among all age groups and can be due to exposure towards
microbes, chemical agents, biological toxin present in the
environment, and also to some extend due to malnutrition9.
The only factor they had to rely on was the knowledge of
1Department of Quality Assurance, I. S. F. College of Pharmacy, Moga-
142001, Punjab, India.
E-mail: sumitkumarmittal@gmail.com
*Corresponding author
nature compiled in the ayurveda. The science of ayurveda
had utilized many herbs and floras to make cosmetics for
beautification and protection from external affects 10. The
natural content in the botanicals does not cause any side
effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with
nutrients and other useful minerals 11. The cosmetics,
according to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act is defined as
articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or
sprayed on, introduced into or otherwise applied to the
human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying,
promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance12. The
cosmetic does not come under the preview of drug license.
The herbal cosmetics are the preparations containing
phytochemical from a variety of botanical sources, which
influences the functions of skin and provide nutrients
necessary for the healthy skin or hair 13. The natural herbs
and their products when used for their aromatic value in
cosmetic preparation are termed as herbal cosmetics 14.
There is common belief that chemical based cosmetics are
harmful to the skin and an increased awareness among
consumers for herbal products triggered the demand for
natural products and natural extracts in cosmetics
preparations15.The increased demand for the natural
product has created new avenues in cosmeceutical market.
The Drug and Cosmetics Act specify that herbs and
essential oils used in cosmetics must not claim to penetrate
beyond the surface layers of the skin nor should have any
therapeutic effect 16. The legal requirement and the
regulatory procedures for herbal cosmetics are same as
that for other chemical ingredients used in cosmetic
formulations 17.
The requirements for the basic skin care:
x
x
Cleansing agent: which remove the dust, dead cells and
dirt that chokes the pores on the skin. Some of the
common cleansers include vegetable oils like coconut,
sesame and palm oil 18.
x
Toners: The toners help to tighten the skin and keep it
from being exposed to many of the toxins that are
floating in the air or other environmental pollutants.
Some of the herbs used as toners are witch hazel,
geranium, sage, lemon, ivy burdock and essential oils19.
x
Moisturizing: The moisturizing helps the skin to become
soft and supple. Moisturizing shows a healthy glow and
Herbal Cosmetics: Used for Skin and Hair
Kumar Sumit1*, Swarankar Vivek1, Sharma Sujata1, Baldi Ashish1
Abstracts: The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and
civilization. Women are obsessed with looking
beautiful. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. Indian herbs and its significance are
popular worldwide. An herbal cosmetic have growing demand in the world market an
d is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal
formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side
effects with synthetic drugs. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhanc
ing human beauty. Indian women have
long used herbs such as Sandalwood and Turmeric for skin care, Henna to color the hair, palms and soles; and natural oils to
perfume their bodies. Not too long ago, elaborate herbal beauty treatments were carried out in
the royal palaces of India to
heighten sensual appeal and maintain general hygiene. The herbal cosmetics manufactured and used commonly for daily
purpose include herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soap, herbal shampoo etc. The industry is now foc
using on the
growing segment with a vast scope of manifold expansion in coming years. Herbal cosmetics are defined as the beauty products
which posses desirable physiological activity such as healing, smoothing appearance, enhancing and conditioning properties
because of herbal ingredient. Here we reported the introduction, classification, common herbs used in cosmetics.
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Inventi Rapid: Cosmeceuticals Vol. 2012, Issue 4
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2012 pcc 077, CCC: $10 © Inventi Journals (P) Ltd
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are less prone to aging 20. Some of the herbal
moisturizers include vegetable glycerin, sorbitol, rose
water, jojoba oil, aloe vera and iris 21.
Herbal Cosmetics Can Be Grouped Into Following Major
Categories
xCosmetics for enhancing the appearance of facial skin
xCosmetics for hair growth and care
xCosmetics for skin care, especially in teenager22 (acne,
pimples and sustaining)
xShampoos, soaps, powders and perfumery, etc.
xMiscellaneous products
Table 1: Skin Types and their Care
Skin Type Features
Suitable Skin Care
Herbal
Essential oils
Normal
Has even tone, soft, smooth texture, no
visible pores or blemishes and no greasy
patches or flaky areas.
Pomegranate leaves
juice, Herbal Face Pack,
Gingili Oil
Chamomile, Fennel,
Geranium, Lavender,
Lemon, Rose, Sandal Wood,
Patchouli.
Dry
Low level of sebum and prone to
sensitivity. Has a parched look, feels
“tight. Chapping and cracking are signs of
extremely dry, dehydrated skin.
Aloe Vera, Olive Oil,
Calendula
Comfrey
Chamomile, Fennel,
Geranium,Lavender,
Lemon,Rose, Sandal Wood
Patchouli, Almond, Avocado
Oily
Shiny, thick and dull coloured Chronically
oily skin has coarse pores and pimples
and other embarrassing blemishes. Prone
to black heads
Aloe Vera, Burdock Root
chamomile Horsetail, Oat Straw,
Thyme, Lavender, Lemon Grass,
Liquorice, Rose Buds, Witch
Hazel
Bergamot, Cypress
Frankincense Geranium,
juniper, Lavender, Lemon,
Sage Evening Primrose
Combination
Some parts of your face are dry or flaky,
while the center part of your face, nose,
chin, and forehead (called the T- zone) is
oily.
Witch Hazel, Menthol,
Aloe Vera, Turmeric,
Wheat Germ, Sweet Flag
Citrus Oils, Jasmine
Oil, Sandal Wood Oil
Table 2: Special Skin Problems and Herbal Remedies
S. No.
Skin Problem
Features
Remedies
1.
Chapped Skin
Rough texture which sometimes causes the
skin to crack
Application of oils of St.John Wort, Olive Oil or
Mashed Avocado after bathing or massaging
with warm Olive Oil, Mustard or Coconut Oil
half an hour before bathing
2.
Withered Skin
Very tough texture, full of wrinkles
Carrot Juice along with a mixture of egg white
and honey
3.
Sallow Skin
No color look, skin becomes lusterless and
shows lack of vitality
Inclusion of Vitamin B in diet.
4.
Sensitive Skin
React quickly to both heat and cold.
Sunburns and wind burns occur easily.
Skins become dry delicate and prone to
allergic reactions.
Use of essential oil of Chamomile, Lavender
Neroli, Rose and Sandal Wood Oil.
5.
Acne
Pockets of infection that manifest as red
sores, boils and pimples.
Usage of Red Sanda Wood Oil.
Table 3: List of Plants with Cosmetic Application for Skin Care
Scientific Name
Common Name
Part Uses
Uses
Acarus calamus (Araceae)
Sweet flag,
Rhizome
Aromatic, Dusting powders, Skin lotions
Alhagi camelorum (Leguminosae)
Jawasa
Leaves
Skin disorders
Allium sativum (Liliaceae)
Garlic
Bulb
Promotes skin healing, Antibacterial
Aloe vera (Liliaceae)
Aloe vera
Leaf
Moisturizer, Sun screen, Emollient
Alpinia galangal (Zingiberaceae)
Galanga
Rhizome
Aromatic, Dusting powders
Avena sativa (Gramineae)
Oat
Fruit
Moisturizer, Skin tonic
Azadiracta indica(Meliaceae)
Neem
Leaf
Antiseptic, reduce dark spots, Antibacterial
Bauhinia racemosa (Leguminosae)
Kanchivala
Bark and leaves
Skin disorders
Calendula ofjicinalis (Compositae)
Marigold
Flower
Skin care, Anti-inflammatory, Antiseptic Creams.
Centella asiatica (Apiaceae)
Brahmi
Plant
Wound healing, Reduce Stretch marks
Mesua ferrea (Guttiferae)
Cobras saffron
Flower
Astringent
Panax ginseng (Araliaceae)
Ginseng
Root
Stimulate blood flow to skin
Zizyphus jujube (Rhamnaceae)
Zizyphus
Fruit
Skin Care
Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae)
Zamabad
Rhizomes
Skin Care
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Inventi Rapid: Cosmeceuticals Vol. 2012, Issue 4
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Indian Extracts for Herbal Cosmetics
Herbs play a significant role, especially in modem imes,
when the damaging effects of food processing and over-
medication have assumed alarming proportions 23. They are
now being increasingly cosmetics, foods and teas, as well as
alternative medicines. The growing interest in herbs is a part
of the movement towards change in life-styles 24. This
movement is based on the belief that the plants have a vast
potential for their use as a curative medicine.
Oat (Avena sativa)
It is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is
known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike
other grains) 25. Oats are not only consumed for nutritional
purposes, but are also recognized as possessing healing and
soothing properties. The gentle process used to extract oat
oil from the whole oat kernels ensures that the biological
value remains unaltered. Oat oil is rich in antioxidants,
essential fatty acids and natural emollients26. Oat oil is used
in many lotions, creams, facial oils, salves and balms since
its properties add unique benefits.
Marigold (Calendula officinalis)
Calendula officinalis is a plant known as pot marigold. It
should not be confused with other types of plants more
commonly known as marigold, such as those in the
genus Tagetes 27. A number of ingredients used in
cosmetics and personal care products are made
from Calendula officinalis, including an extract of the whole
plant (Calendula officinalis Extract) the flowers, flower
extract and flower oil (Calendula officinalis Flower Extract,
Calendula officinalis Flower Oil) and the seed oil (Calendula
officinalis Seed Oil) 28. Of the Calendula-derived ingredients,
the flower extracts are the most commonly used in
cosmetics and personal care products.
Wild Cherry Bark (Prunus serotina Bark)
Wild cherry bark is the bark of Prunus serotina29. Wild
Cherry Bark has properties that makes the hair smooth,
silky, and adds body to the hair. The dried stem bark of
Prunus serotina, collected in autumn in North America.
Used in lipsticks and cherry flavorings for food and
medicines 30. Also used as a sedative and expectorant
medicinally
Chicory (Cichorium intybus)
Chicory, Cichorium intybus, is somewhat
woody, perennial herbaceous plant usually with bright
blue flowers, rarely white or pink 31. It was believed that
the plant could purify the blood and liver, while others
have relied on the herb for its power to cure passions of the
heart. Chicory continues to be a popular herbal remedy due
to its healing effects on several ailments32. Chicory is taken
internally for loss of appetite, jaundice, gallstones, gout and
rheumatism. In addition, the leaves of chicory may also be
used as compresses to be applied externally to ease skin
inflammations and swellings. As a mild diuretic, it increases
the elimination of fluid from the body, leading to its use as a
treatment for rheumatism and gout. The root and the
leaves are appetizer, cholagogue, depurative, digestive,
diuretic, hypoglycaemic, laxative and tonic 33. It favors
blood circulation by making blood more fluid and allowing
it a better travel through vein and arteries.
Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)
Holy basil, called Tulsi in India, is ubiquitous in Hindu
tradition. Perhaps its role as a healing herb was
instrumental in its "sacred" implication 34.
Ghritkumar (Aloe vera)
It is a most ingenious mixture of an antibiotic, an astringent
coagulating agent, a pain inhibitor and a growth stimulator
(also called a "wound hormone"), whose function is to
accelerate the healing of injured surfaces 35. It is used for
pain relief and healing of 'hemorrhoids, applied externally
and internally it‟s also used for sunburn, scratch and a
cleansing purge for the body or skin. It is an aid to growing
new tissue and alleviating the advance of skin cancer
caused by the sun 36.
Multani Mitts (Fullers Earth)
It is Mother Nature's own baby powder 37. Clay was one of
the earliest substances to be used as a beauty mask to draw
oils from the skin, natural moisturizers for hairs, teeth,
gums and hair, To remove pimple marks, treating sunburn,
helps unclog pores, to cleanse the skin of flakes and dirt 38.
Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla)
Matricaria chamomilla, known as scented mayweed
or German chamomile (also spelled camomile), is an annual
plant of the composite family Asteraceae 39. Chamomile is
also used cosmetically, primarily to make a rinse for blonde
hair and as a yellow dye for fabrics 40.
Raktachandan
This was another natural component available in attractive
color and hence was used as fresh, red bindi / tika (dot) on
the forehead 41.
Aloe vera
With the traits that prevent aging and regenerate growth of
cells this was used as an essential component to keep
oneself fit, protect the skin 42, prevents and heals skin
irritations 43.
Chandan and Vertiver (Usheer)
It was used as scrubs and face packs that were applied on
face and whole body to remove dead cells, regenerate
growth of new cells and give a young look 44.
Haldi (Turmeric)
It was used as a face pack along with usheer (vertiver) and
also as an antiseptic 45.
Medicinal Herbs used in Cosmetics
The medicinal herb mentioned in ayurveda by
experienced sages basically state that the function of
ayurvedic herbs is to purify blood and eliminate vitiated
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doshas (vata, pitta, kapha) from the body as they are
mainly responsible for skin disorders and other diseases
46. Among the written information on ayurveda like in
Charakh Samhita, the sage Charakh stated numerous
medicinal plants in Varnya Kashaya. The herbs mentioned
can be used to obtain glowing complexion. Various herbs
for which description and usage can be found in ayurvedic
inscriptions are chandana, Nagkeshara, Padmak, Khus,
Yashtimadhu, Manjistha, Sariva, Payasya, Seta (shweta
durva), Lata (shyama durva) 47. There is also the mention
of various herbs from Kushthagna Mahakashaya that are
effective curatives for skin disorders are Khadira, Abhaya,
Amalaki, Haridra, Bhallataka, Saptaparna, Aragvadha,
Karavira, Vidanga, Jati. Like the notifications of charakh
and other sages, Sushrut said that Eladi Gana contains,-Ela,
tagar, kusstha, jatamansi, tvak, dhmamaka, patra,
nagkeshar, priyangu, harenuka, vyaghranakha, shukti,
stouneyaka, choraka, shriveshta, khus, goggol, sarjarasa,
turushka, kundaru, agaru, ushira, devdaru, keshara, and
padmakeshara 48. All these herbs can eliminate toxins from
the body, clear the complexion that leads to a glow on the
skin and alleviates puritus, kusstha and boils (Table 2 and
Table 3).
The Benefits of Herbs May include the Following
xEnhance physical and mental well-being
xStrengthen the immune system
xDetoxification
xAid in sleeping, digestion
xIncrease stamina and reduce fatigue etc.
Herbal products in cosmetics or herb in cosmetics can
also be referred as botanical origin products in cosmetics
49. According to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940
cosmetics may be defined as, any substance intended to be
rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or otherwise applied to human
being for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness
50. Cosmeceuticals are the cosmetic products which contain
biologically active principles or ingredients of plant origin
having effect on user or they are combination product of
cosmetics and pharmaceuticals intended to enhance the
health and beauty of skin 51. Herbal cosmetics are defined
as the beauty products which posses desirable
physiological activity such as healing, smoothing
appearance, enhancing and conditioning properties
because of herbal ingredient 52 (Table 3).
Advantages of Herbal Medicine
xHerbal medicine have long history of use and better
patient tolerance as well as acceptance.
xMedicinal plants have a renewable source, which is our
only hope for sustainable supplies of cheaper medicines
for the world growing population 53.
xAvailability of medicinal plants is not a problem
especially in developing countries like India having rich
agro-climatic, cultural and ethnic biodiversity.
xThe cultivation and processing of medicinal herbs and
herbal products is environmental friendly 54.
xProlong and apparently uneventful use of herbal
medicines may offer testimony of their safety and efficacy.
xThroughout the world, herbal medicine has provided
many of the most potent medicines to the vast arsenal
of drugs available to modern medical science, both in
crude form and as a pure chemical upon which modern
medicines are structured 55.
Limitations of Herbal Medicines
Like any other branch of science and technology,
present scenario of herbal medicine has its own
limitations arising out of its own technical constituents.
The prominent limitations of herbal medicines can be
summarized as follow 56:
Dry Skin Treatment
Coconut oil
Coconut oil comes from the fruit or seed of the coconut
palm tree Cocos nucifera, family Arecaceae. The melting
point of coconut oil is 24 to 25°C (75-76°F) and thus it can
be used easily in both liquid and solid forms and is often
used in cooking and baking 57. Coconut oil is excellent as a
skin moisturizer and softener. A study shows that extra
virgin coconut oil is effective and safe when used as a
moisturizer, with absence of adverse reactions. (3) A study
found that coconut oil helped prevent protein loss from the
wet combing of hair when used for fourteen hours 58.
Sunflower Oil
It is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower seeds
obtained from Helianthus annuus, family Asteraceae.
Sunflower oil contains lecithin, tocopherols, carotenoids
and waxes. In cosmetics, it has smoothing properties and is
considered noncomedogenic 59.
Aloe
A native of southern Africa, the aloe vera plant has fleshy
spiny-toothed leaves and red or yellow flowers 60. It is an
ingredient in many cosmetics because it heals moisturizes,
and softens skin. Simply cut one of the aloe vera leaves to
easily extract the soothing gel.
Anti-Aging Treatment
Golden Root
Rhodiola rosea (Roseroot, Aaron's rod), is a plant in the
Crassulaceae family that grows in cold regions of the world.
The Rhodiola root has long been used in the traditional
medical systems in Europe and Asia to increase an
organism’s resistance to physicalstress , currently; it is
widely thought to have antioxidative properties 61.
Carrot
It is obtained from the plant Daucus carota belonging to
family Apiaceae. .It is a valuable herb since ages as it is rich
natural source of Vitamin A along with other essential
vitamins. Carrot seed oil is indicated for anti-aging,
revitalizing and rejuvenating 62. As it promotes the
formation of new cells and helps in reducing wrinkles. It
acts as Natural toner and rejuvenator for the skin.
Ginkgo
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Ginkgo comes from the ginkgo tree, Ginkgo biloba belongs
to family Ginkgoaceae, which grows to a huge size. It is best
known, as a circulatory tonic, in particular for
strengthening the tiny little capillaries to all the organs, but
especially to the brain63. The capillaries become more
flexible and as a result more oxygen is delivered to the
brain and eyes (to protect against degenerative eye
diseases like macular degeneration),so important as we
age. Ginkgo also protects the nervous system and fights
oxidation 64.
Dandruff Treatment
Ayurved has numerous natural medications wherein the
most common herbs include Neem, Kapoor (naphthalene),
and Henna, Hirda, Behada, and Amalaki, Magic nut,
Bringaraj, Rosary Pea, Sweet Flag, Cashmere tree and
Mandor 65.
Henna
Henna comes from the plant, Lawsonia inermis family
Lythraceae, which contain a dye molecule called Lawsone,
which when processed becomes Henna powder. Henna has
a natural affinity with the proteins in our hair, making it
able to “stain” the colour onto the hair shaft 66.
Skin Protection
Green Tea
Green tea is tea made solely with the leaves of Camellia
sinensis belonging to family Theaceae .Whether applied
topically or consumed as a beverage or dietary supplement,
green tea is a premiere skin protectant 67. It protects against
direct damage to the cell and moderates inflammation,
according to research from the Department of Dermatology,
Columbia University, New York. Studies suggest that the
catechins in green tea are some 20 times stronger in their
antioxidant powers than even vitamin E 68. Men, women and
children need to position this super shield on their side
against the ravaging effects of the sun 69.
Turmeric
Turmeric, Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous herbacessential
oilsus perennial plant of the ginger family Zingiberaceae
Turmeric is used in many celebrations of Hindus 70.
Especially in Hindu wedding brides would rub with
turmeric on their bodies for glowing look. New born babies
also rubbed with turmeric on their forehead for good luck.
Traditionally women rub turmeric on their cheeks to
produce a natural golden glow 71.
Hair Care
Amla
Amla is obtained from the plant Emblica Officinalis, Family
Euphorbiaceae72. Amla is rich in vitamin C, tannins and
minerals such as phosphorus, iron and calcium which
provides nutrition to hair and also causes darkening of
hair73. Hibiscus consists of calcium, phosphorus, iron,
vitamin B1, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C, used to
stimulate thicker hair growth and prevents premature
graying of hair 74.
Almond Oil
The almond oil is obtained from Prunus dulcis. The almond
oil basically contains about 78% of this fat. This oil contains
very small amounts of super-unsaturated Omega-3
essential fatty acids 75. It proves to be very nourishing, and
softens and strengthens the hair 76. The almond oil also
proves to be a very good cleansing agent. Almond oil has
been used for many centuries, even before it's spread as a
commercial agro-product 77.
CONCLUSION
The knowledge of medicinal plants used by the people of
seems to be well known to its culture and tradition 78. In
the present study we identified many plants used by the
people to cure dermatological disorders and as cosmetics
79. Some of the plants were found to have dual use, both as
curative and cosmetic. Quality control test must be carried
out for herbal cosmetics. It is assumed to be safe for longer
periods of time 80.
REFERENCES AND NOTES
1. Pandey Shivanand ,Meshya Nilam, D.Viral, Herbs Play an
Important Role in the Field of Cosmetics, International Journal
of PharmTech Research, .2(1); 632-639:2010
2. V P Kapoor, Herbal cosmetics for skin and hair care, Indian
Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR)
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Cite this article as: Kumar Sumit, Swarankar Vivek,
Sharma Sujata, Baldi Ashish. Herbal Cosmetics: Used for
Skin and Hair. Inventi Rapid: Cosmeceuticals, 2012(4): 1-
7, 2012.
7
... Biological Source: Rosemary essential oil is produced through steam distillation of the flowering hints of the plant Rosamarinus officinalis that belongs to the family Lamiaceae [33]. Its chemical constituents include the main chemicals of eucalyptol and alpha-pinene. ...
... This oil is widely used for hair care, because it nourishes the hair, promotes hair growth, and helps again stdandruff. It is recommended in hair-loss remedies, as it is believed to have similar characteristics to minoxidil [33]. stdandruff. ...
... stdandruff. It is recommended in hair-loss remedies, as it is believed to have similar characteristics to minoxidil [33]. ...
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Abstract: Cosmetic-containing herbals are a cosmetic that has or is claimed to have medicinal properties, with bioactive ingredients purported to have medical benefits. There are no legal requirements to prove that these products live up to their claims. The name is a combination of “cosmetics” and “pharmaceuticals”. “Nutricosmetics” are related dietary supplements or food or beverage products with additives that are marketed as having medical benefits that affect appearance. Cosmetic-containing herbals are topical cosmetic–pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance the health and beauty of the skin. Cosmetic-containing herbals improve appearance by delivering essential nutrients to the skin. Several herbal products, such as cosmetic-containing herbals, are available. The present review highlights the use of natural products in cosmetic-containing herbals, as natural products have many curative effects as well as healing effects on skin and hair growth with minimal to no side effects. A brief description is given on such plants, their used parts, active ingredients, and the therapeutic properties associated with them. Mainly, the utilization of phytoconstituents as cosmetic-containing herbals in the care of skin and hair, such as dryness of skin, acne, eczema, inflammation of the skin, aging, hair growth, and dandruff, along with natural ingredients, such as for hair colorant, are explained in detail in the present review. Keywords: cosmetic-containing herbals; bioactive ingredients; cosmetics
... Natural animal source Musk, Civet, Ambergris, Castoreum, etc. [34] Natural plant source Rose, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, etc. [34] Aroma chemical Eugenol, Farnesal, Rose oxide, Citral, Limonene [35] Floral base Rose and Jasmine [36] Woody base Citrus, Oriental, Fruity, etc. ...
... Natural animal source Musk, Civet, Ambergris, Castoreum, etc. [34] Natural plant source Rose, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, etc. [34] Aroma chemical Eugenol, Farnesal, Rose oxide, Citral, Limonene [35] Floral base Rose and Jasmine [36] Woody base Citrus, Oriental, Fruity, etc. ...
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Cosmetic containing herbals,a cosmetic that has or is claimed to have medicinal properties. Cosmetic-containing herbals are cosmetic products with bioactive ingre-dients purported to have medical benefits. There are no legal requirements to prove that these products live up to their claims. The name is a combination of "cosmetics" and "pharmaceuticals". "Nutricosmetics" are related dietary supplements or food or beverage products with additives that are marketed as having medical benefits that affect appearance. Cosmetic-containing herbals are topical cosmetic- pharmaceuti-cal hybrids intended to enhance the health and beauty of the skin. Cosmet-ic-containing herbals improve appearance by delivering essential nutrients to the skin. Several herbal products as cosmetics containing herbals are available. The pre-sent review highlighted the use of natural products in cosmetics containing herbals, as natural products have manycurative effects as well as healing effects on skin and hair growth, with minimum or no side effects on the same.A brief description has been given here about plants, their part used, active ingredients, and the therapeutic properties associated with the same. Mainly, the utilization of phytoconstituents as cosmetic containing herbals, in the care of skin and hair, like dryness of skin, acne, eczema, inflammation of the skin, aging, hair growth, dandruff, along with natural ingredients as hair colorant has been well explained in the present review.
... It can be used to treat eczema and pimples [222]. The almond oil nourishes, softens, and strengthens the hair [223]. ...
... The nanoparticles differ in chemical compositions and morphologies. Nevertheless, they are used in sunscreen preparations (e.g., TiO2-nanoparticles, ZnO-nanoparticles, CeO2-nanoparticle, and ZrO2-nanoparticles) and physical UV filters [223]. In addition, silica and clay nanoparticles are added as thickeners [249,250]. ...
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Nowadays, much attention is paid to issues such as ecology and sustainability. Many consumers choose "green cosmetics", which are environmentally friendly creams, makeup, and beauty products, hoping that they are not harmful to health and reduce pollution. Moreover, the repeated mini-lock downs during the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled the awareness that body beauty is linked to well-being, both external and internal. As a result, consumer preferences for makeup have declined, while those for skincare products have increased. Nutricosmetics, which combines the benefits derived from food supplementation with the advantages of cosmetic treatments to improve the beauty of our body, respond to the new market demands. Food chemistry and cosmetic chemistry come together to promote both inside and outside well-being. A nutricosmetic optimizes the intake of nutritional microelements to meet the needs of the skin and skin appendages, improving their conditions and delaying aging, thus helping to protect the skin from the aging action of environmental factors. Numerous studies in the literature show a significant correlation between the adequate intake of these supplements, improved skin quality (both aesthetic and histological), and the acceleration of wound-healing. This review revised the main foods and bioactive molecules used in nutricosmetic formulations, their cosmetic effects, and the analytical techniques that allow the dosage of the active ingredients in the food.
... They do more than moisten the skin since they contain potent active ingredients in the brightening toner to get rid of discoloration, such as vitamin C. Similarly, to eliminate inflammation and redness of the skin, a calming toner would provide soothing herb extracts such as chamomile or allantoin [59]. To neutralize wrinkle-causing free radicals, an antiaging toner might contain antioxidants [60]. Treatment toners are effective for all skin types, depending on the problem, to target skin conditions such as excess oil, large pores, scarring, irritation, or air pollution. ...
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... There are number of advantages in the use of herbal drugs in making of cosmetics. They are discussed below [27]. ...
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Full-text available
There are thousands of herbs that are used in preparation of various herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations. Day-by-day, use of herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations are increasing as currently available cosmetics are showing unwanted effects upon prolong used. They are prepared by using different herbs or their extracts or juice derived from them. Herbal cosmetics and toiletries preparations are being used by Indian peoples and peoples from Indian sub-continental region since ancient time. They are used to improve the appearance of the skin. Herbal cosmetics are becoming more popular because they are comparatively cheaper, safe and easily available. WHO as well as AYUSH department of India, encourages the peoples to use these types of cosmetics for routine use. In the present paper, we have covered various pharmacognostic and relevant information of medicinal plants used in the cosmetics and toiletries preparations.
... Skin conditioning, moisturizer (extract from the leaves) (47) , antiinflammatory and analgesic (205) (235) Seeds Sweet Clover Melilotus officinalis (L.) ...
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According to complementary and alternative medicine which is based primarily on traditional or folkloric medicines of different world civilizations there is a constant growing interest on cosmetics and cosmeceuticals using botanical ingredients. Since ancient times, humans used distinctive natural ingredients as medicine or cosmetic products. Cosmetics alone are not sufficient for skin care. Active ingredients from natural or synthetic sources have been added to prevent and/or to treat damaged and ageing of the skin. Herbal cosmetics are more prevalent than synthetic ones. Since synthetic cosmetic products may cause severe skin damage, natural herbs are included directly in the skin care formulations. Usually plant based cosmetics are made using plants well known throughout history to be safe and side-effects free. Aromatic plants and fixed oils were mostly used by different civilizations in religious rituals, and for the care, cleansing and decoration of the skin to enhance beauty and to promote good health. Additionally, in most cases the herbs used in cosmetics contain antioxidants and antiinflammatory ingredient that can alleviate skin problems like rashes or skin itching. Given the emphasis on the trend in the use of natural sources in the cosmetics industry, in this review, effective skin care properties of some herbs and plants and their evidence-based benefits in the skin care, as well as in solving a multitude of skin problems are discussed, the international nomenclature of the cosmetic ingredients of the parts used are also mentioned.
... Botanic cosmetics are made of natural and botanical ingredients from plants (herbs, roots, flowers, fruits, leaves or seeds) [19]. Botanic cosmetics can also be referred to as green cosmetics, herbal cosmetics and organic cosmetics [20]. According to Shi [21], more than 75% of the cosmetics market is made up of natural ingredients derived from plants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Given that the market is becoming more competitive, it is imperative to understand what influences purchasing decisions of global consumers as consumer trends change regarding botanic cosmetics for anti-aging, maintaining appearance and skin health. This study considers and examines susceptibility to global consumer culture (SGCC) (conformity to consumer trend, social prestige, and quality perception) and its effect on affective commitment, which in turn influences behavioral commitment and loyalty in the context of the botanic cosmetic industry. In addition to examining the structural relationships among the variables, we test whether purchase experience moderates the proposed relationships. The results are as follows. First, conformity to consumer trends has a significant effect on emotional commitment, but is not positively associated with behavioral commitment. Second, social prestige has no significant direct effect on either emotional or behavioral commitment. Third, quality perception has a significant impact on emotional commitment, but no positive impact on behavioral commitment. Fourth, both emotional commitment and behavioral commitment affect brand loyalty, and behavioral commitment in particular has a significant effect on brand loyalty. Finally, through the analysis of the moderating effect on the cosmetic purchasing experience, first, it was confirmed that the less purchasing experience, the stronger the effect of conformity to consumption trend (CCT) on emotional commitment and behavioral commitment.
Article
Full-text available
Current work discusses the way of local and tribal people have used plants over the time to cure for their skin, hairs, face beauty and in physical aspect. In times of this industrialization, people prefer natural and herbal products for dryness, acne, anti-aging, hair and skin protection effects. This article presented a descriptive review on the plants used by local and tribal people of Chhattisgarh for their skin care, cosmetics purpose and describes how plants are currently used in personal care products. Plants such as Lawsonia inermis L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia ballerica (Gaertn.) Roxb., Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Azadirachta indica A.Juss. and many other are used in cosmetic industry for various purposes. The purpose of doing this work is to collect and spread the knowledge about the plants nearby that are used for cosmetics.
Article
Background Synthetic shampoos have toxic chemical agents like chemicals such as parabens and sodium lauryl sulfate which damage the hair. To combat this issue use of natural herbal shampoos, as opposed to synthetic shampoos, is becoming increasingly popular. One of the many medicinal plants present in Karnataka and Kerala is Cyclea peltata. This plant has long been known to assist in wound healing, allergy relief, and hair and scalp improvement, as well as serving as a coolant for hair applications. Objective The key subject of this research was the preparation of plant extracts and fermentation of Cyclea peltata leaf extract with Lactobacillus plantarum, and standardizing the method for better formulation of an herbal shampoo. Method The leaf extract contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acid, saponins, and proteins, according to previous research by this group. The fermented product showed the presence of lactic acid which was a boon for shampoo base as it protects the hair from the sunlight and improves the texture and strength of hair fibers. Cyclea peltata was used as the main ingredient in herbal shampoo formulations, along with other herbal ingredients, and the formulated shampoo was characterized for its different organoleptic (Colour, odour) and physicochemical properties (pH, solid content, wettability, emulsification, and foam stability) to find the best formulation. Result Formulation H2 showed better organoleptic and physicochemical properties and thus was chosen as the best formulation among the 11 formulations. Conclusion Formulation H2 is regarded as the best formulation based on the results of the physicochemical tests (Pleasant odour, pH 3.01, solid content of 5.75%, wettability of 1.68 s, and percentage emulsification of 68.75%).
Article
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The aim of this research was to determine yield, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of extracts and essential oils of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves harvested during the months of June to September 2004. The maximum essential oil yields in the leaves were observed during July (3.24%) in sage and during August (1.35%) in rosemary. The maximum extract yields were found in July (15.57%) for sage and in June (30.48%) for rosemary. The sage oil was characterized by the presence of main components: camphore (20.73-26.07%), α-thujone (13.84-21.96), 1, 8-cineole (13.94-20.40%), ß-thujone (7.07-9.34%) and ß-caryophyllene (2.28-9.19%). Fourteen compounds of rosemary essential oil were identified and the main components were found as camphore (14.77-31.12%), 1, 8-cineole (7.70-26.18%), α-pinene (3.53-9.75%) and borneole (5.07-13.03%). Antiradical activities of sage and rosemary essential oils were found as IC 50=2492.84-6645.43 μg ml-1 and IC50=370.03- 2812.50 μg ml-1, respectively. Antioxidant capacities were also 25.20-43.46 mg AAE g-1 essential oil for sage and 18.53-37.95 mg AAE g-1 essential oil for rosemary. Sage and rosemary essential oils distilled from the early season (June) harvested leaves had the highest antioxidant activity, expressed as low concentration providing 50% inhibition of antiradical activity and high levels antioxidant capacity. Total phenolic content was between 85.33-110.52 mg GAE g-1 extract for sage and 94.29-104.44 mg GAE g-1 extract for rosemary. It was the lowest in June and the highest July in both extracts. Both antiradical activities and antioxidant capacities changed significantly depending on the phase in the growing season.
Article
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Studies were conducted on properties of oil extracted from raspberry seeds. Oil yield from the seed was 10.7%. Physicochemical properties of the oil include: saponification number 191; diene value 0.837; p-anisidine value 14.3; peroxide value 8.25 meq/kg; carotenoid content 23 mg/100 g; and viscosity of 26 mPa.s at 25°C. Raspberry seed oil showed absorbance in the UV-B and UV-C ranges with potential for use as a broad spectrum UV protectant. The seed oil was rich in tocopherols with the following composition (mg/100 g): [alpha]-tocopherol 71; [gamma]-tocopherol 272; [delta]-tocopherol 17.4; and total vitamin E equivalent of 97. The oil had good oxidation resistance and storage stability. Lipid fractionation of crude raspberry seed oil yielded 93.7% neutral lipids, 3.5% phospholipids, and 2.7% free fatty acids. The main fatty acids of crude oil were C18:2 n-6 (54.5%), C18:3 n-3 (29.1%), C18:1 n-9 (12.0%), and C16:0 (2.7%). The ratio of fatty acids, polyunsaturates to monounsaturates to saturates varied depending on lipid fraction. Polymorphic changes were observed in thermal properties of raspberry seed oil.
Article
Herbal cosmetic also known as "natural cosmetics". With the beginning of the civilization, mankind had the magnetic dip towards impressing others with their looks. At the time, there were no fancy fairness creams or any cosmetic surgeries.1 The only thing they had was the knowledge of nature, compiled in the ayurveda. With the science of ayurveda, several herbs and floras were used to make ayurvedic cosmetics that really worked. Ayurvedic cosmetics not only beautified the skin but acted as the shield against any kind of external affects for the body.2 Ayurvedic cosmetics also known as the herbal cosmetics have the same estimable assets in the modern era as well. There is a wide gamut of the herbal cosmetics that are manufactured and commonly used for daily purposes. Herbal cosmetics like herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soaps, herbal shampoo, and many more are highly acclaimed by the masses. The best thing of the herbal cosmetics is that it is purely made by the herbs and shrubs.2 The natural content in the herbs does not have any side effects on the human body; instead enrich the body with nutrients and other useful minerals. Herbal cosmetics are comprised of floras like ashwagandha, sandal (chandan), saffron (kesar) and many more that is augmented with healthy nutrient sand all the other necessary components.
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To the Editor: Asian patent medicines are one component of what are called traditional Chinese medicines. Asian patent medicines comprise multiple products, including herbs, plants, animal parts, and minerals, which are formulated into tablets, pills, or liquids for ease of use. They are widely available in herbal stores and have gained acceptance by the American public as a form of alternative medicine. However, many patent medicines manufactured in Asian countries contain toxic ingredients, such as heavy metals, as well as prescription drugs or unapproved ingredients that may or may not be identified on the label.1,2 Some have caused serious . . .
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Celecoxib, a tricyclic compound having pyrazole ring exhibits an excellent level of antiinflammatory action against COX-2 enzymes and some of its analogs act as anticancer and antibacterial agents. Various efficient routes and different improved processes for the synthesis of this drug have already been disclosed in the literature. However, there is a need for further developments in the present scenario of achieving cost effective synthetic technologies to celecoxib with high purity accompanied by excellent yield. Therefore, an effort has been made to summarize briefly the different methods of preparation of Celecoxib with their advantages or disadvantages that have been reported in various patents up to 2013. The present review would be beneficial for scientific community for further developments in the synthetic methodologies for Celecoxib and to explore some novel celecoxib based biologically active agents.
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The Shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) is a major tree species in African agroforestry systems. Butter extracted from its nuts offers an opportunity for sustainable development in Sudanian countries and an attractive potential for the food and cosmetics industries. The purpose of this study was to develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations to characterize Shea nut fat profiles. Powders prepared from nuts collected from 624 trees in five African countries (Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda) were analyzed for moisture content, fat content using solvent extraction, and fatty acid profiles using gas chromatography. Results confirmed the differences between East and West African Shea nut fat composition: eastern nuts had significantly higher fat and oleic acid contents. Near infrared reflectance spectra were recorded for each sample. Ten percent of the samples were randomly selected for validation and the remaining samples used for calibration. For each constituent, calibration equations were developed using modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression. The equation performances were evaluated using the ratio performance to deviation (RPD(p)) and R(p)(2) parameters, obtained by comparison of the validation set NIR predictions and corresponding laboratory values. Moisture (RPD(p) = 4.45; R(p)(2) = 0.95) and fat (RPD(p) = 5.6; R(p)(2) = 0.97) calibrations enabled accurate determination of these traits. NIR models for stearic (RPD(p) = 6.26; R(p)(2) = 0.98) and oleic (RPD(p) = 7.91; R(p)(2) = 0.99) acids were highly efficient and enabled sharp characterization of these two major Shea butter fatty acids. This study demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy for high-throughput phenotyping of Shea nuts.
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All-trans beta-carotene radical anion efficiently transfers an electron to oxygen but the reverse reaction is not observed and, instead we suggest the formation of a beta-carotene-superoxide radical addition complex. On the other hand, all-trans lycopene undergoes a reversible electron transfer with the superoxide radical. This distinctive behaviour may be related to the anti-cancer properties of these molecules.
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The mechanism of lipid peroxidation and the manner in which antioxidants function is reviewed. beta-Carotene is a purported anticancer agent, which is believed by some to have antioxidant action of a radical-trapping type. However, definitive experimental support for such action has been lacking. New experiments in vitro show that beta-carotene belongs to a previously unknown class of biological antioxidants. Specifically, it exhibits good radical-trapping antioxidant behavior only at partial pressures of oxygen significantly less than 150 torr, the pressure of oxygen in normal air. Such low oxygen partial pressures are found in most tissues under physiological conditions. At higher oxygen pressures, beta-carotene loses its antioxidant activity and shows an autocatalytic, prooxidant effect, particularly at relatively high concentrations. Similar oxygen-pressure-dependent behavior may be shown by other compounds containing many conjugated double bonds.