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Abstract

This study considered how three groups of academically talented high school students—those who attended an academic summer program (TIP), those who qualified for the program but chose not to attend (QNA), and those who did not qualify (DNQ)—spent time outside the classroom. These groupings differentiated students by ability (QNA vs. DNQ) and attendance (TIP vs. QNA). Male–female comparisons were also conducted. By comparing participation rates across a variety of activities and by sex, the current study helps explain the lives of high-ability students outside the arena by which they are defined: their academic ability. Results reveal numerous group and sex differences based on how high-ability students spend their time outside the classroom. Females tended to participate more than males in activities that were generally positively associated with academic achievement, while also participating in more types of activities. Males, however, reported watching more TV and were less likely to participate in any activity. QNA students reported spending more time on academic-related activities, such as homework and academic clubs, than did DNQ students, indicating a generally higher interest in academic endeavors. However, the QNA and TIP groups differed only in their service club participation rates, indicating that attending a summer program is not associated with spending time outside the classroom differently during the school year. This research underscores the heterogeneity of different groups of high-ability students and suggests some caution when generalizing from research findings based only on program participants. Knowing how students spend their time can help parents, educators, and researchers understand and foster adolescent development.

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... Nonetheless, few studies have focused specifically on how academically talented students spend their time outside the classroom (cf. Bucknavage & Worrell, 2005;Makel, Li, Putallaz, & Wai, 2011;Olszewski-Kubilius & Lee, 2004). ...
... This finding suggests that the local school context may moderate the time spent on homework for academically talented students. Makel et al. (2011) reported that academically talented females reported spending more time on homework than their male peers. ...
... A study of U.S. academically talented students found that males reported watching significantly more TV than females (Makel et al., 2011). The authors concluded that such differences may be partially explained by the fact that females reported spending more time on nearly all other activities surveyed. ...
Article
Despite growing concern about the need to develop talent across the globe, relatively little empirical research has examined how students develop their academic talents. Toward this end, the current study explored how academically talented students from the United States and India spend their time both in and out of school. Indian students reported spending roughly 11 more hours on academics than their U.S. peers during the weekend in both STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) and non-STEM topics. U.S. students reported spending about 5.4 more hours than their Indian peers on non-STEM academics during the week, leaving an approximately 7-hour-a-week academic gap between U.S. and Indian students. Additionally, U.S. students reported using electronics over 14 hours per week more than their Indian peers. Indian students also reported having control over a greater proportion of their time during the week than U.S. students did. Generally, there were far more cross-cultural differences than gender differences. These results inform discussions on how academically talented students develop within educational systems as well as what each culture supports in and out of school.
... Several studies have shown that children with lower intellectual ability watch more television in general (e.g., Sprafkin & Gadow, 1986), and more violent television in particular than do children with higher intellectual ability (Chaffee & McLeod, 1972;Sprafkin & Gadow, 1986;Stein & Friedrich, 1972;Wiegman, Kuttschreuter, & Baarda, 1986). Even within a gifted sample, smarter children tended to watch less television than their general cohort peers (Makel, Li, Putallaz, & Wai, 2011). ...
... Some implications of these findings for parents, educators, and policymakers may be that parents with gifted children, especially those high in intelligence, should be aware that stimuli such as violent media may have a negative impact both inside and outside of school. Given that how gifted students utilize their time in and out of school may have a long-term impact (Makel et al., 2011;Makel, Wai, Putallaz, & Malone, 2015) similar to compound interest over time, one should consider the accumulated dosage, both educational (Wai, Lubinski, Benbow, & Steiger, 2010) and otherwise, of the exposure to violent media over a very long stretch of time. The impact of violent video on verbal tasks in particular may be important given the heavily verbal nature of the school system. ...
Article
At the request of the Journal Editor(s) and the Publisher and/or the author(s), the following article has been retracted. Çetin, Y., Wai, J., Altay, C., & Bushman B. J. (2016). Effects of violent media on verbal task performance in gifted and general cohort children. Gifted Child Quarterly, 60(4), 279-287. doi: 10.1177/0016986216660382 Joseph Hilgard, postdoctoral fellow at the Annenberg Public Policy Center at the University of Pennsylvania, contacted the journal with questions regarding the pattern of results and conducted reanalyses of the data that called into question the credibility of the data. Unfortunately, the data collection procedures could not be verified because the author who collected the data (Cengiz Altay) could not be contacted following the attempted coup in Turkey. Therefore, as the integrity of the data could not be confirmed, the journal has determined, and the co-authors have agreed, to retract the study.
... Very few studies, however, have investigated PA prevalence and PF levels in children who are intellectually gifted (IG), a group that is largely ignored in this area of research. Previous research on the PA habits of IG children is mostly embedded within studies focused on extracurricular practices, [11][12][13], and those that do not follow extra-curricular practices [14,15], have limitations restricting generalizability. For example, Hormazábal-Peralta et al. [14], compared the physical characteristics of IG boys and girls, but failed to include a sample of typical development children; thus, a direct comparison cannot be made. ...
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Scientific evidence regarding whether intellectually gifted children show similar physical activity habits and physical fitness levels in comparison to typically developed children, is inconclusive. This is in part due to the scant research that has directly compared both groups of people. In this study, physical activity prevalence, self-perceived and objectively assessed physical fitness levels, and body image were assessed in a sample of 74 intellectually gifted children (mean age 11.6 ± 1.2 years). Seventy-four non-gifted children matched by age and sex were selected as a comparison cohort. Results indicated that both groups showed similar self-perceived and objectively assessed fitness levels. Physical activity habits were also similar, although significant differences were observed indicating that intellectually gifted girls were less active in comparison with non-gifted girls. Both cohorts perceived their body image accurately, although intellectually gifted children were much more satisfied with their physical appearance.
... Considering the above, perhaps gifted students may not spend as much time on PA as their non-gifted peers; they may devote more time to academicrelated activities, as some authors suggested (see, Ference, 1999). There is evidence that a higher proportion of gifted students spends extracurricular time on academic-related activities and a slightly lower proportion spends time on athletics (Makel, Li, Putallaz, & Wai, 2011). Gifted students may place more importance on academic-related aspects than on physical aspects compared with non-gifted students. ...
Article
Physical activity plays an important role in individuals’ physical and psychological health. However, there is scarce evidence on how physical activity is associated with socioemotional aspects in gifted students. This is of special importance since previous research showed that gifted students scored significantly lower on physical self-concept when compared with their non-gifted peers. This study aimed to measure the associations between physical activity and different dimensions of academic, physical, and global self-concept in a sample of 10- to 18-year-old Spanish gifted students. It also investigated differences with non-gifted students on physical activity, selfconcept, and their associations. The study involved measuring the physical activity levels of 219 gifted and 242 non-gifted students through PAQ-A, following a cross-sectional design. It relied on SDQ-II and CAF to measure academic, physical, and global self-concepts and included the importance accorded to self-concepts. Results showed that gifted students scored higher on academic self-concept and lower on self-perceived athletic ability. Physical activity was associated with better physical and global self-concepts, with no differences between gifted and non-gifted participants. No interactions between giftedness and physical activity appeared. Both samples’ selfconcept may benefit from physical activity equally. Strategies for promoting physical activity should be endorsed also in gifted students.
... A study by Makel et al. (2015) comparing the distribution of time in and out of school for gifted students in the United States and India shows that time spent on extracurricular activities can vary depending on cultural and social variables, age, and family perceptions of the value of these activities [such as academics clubs, arts, service clubs, and sports activities (athletics)]. The authors cite previous research (Makel et al., 2011), which confirm the findings of Rinn and Wininger (2007) in which they found a high rate of participation of American adolescents in sports activities, which contradicts the idea that they spend little time on activities other than academics. ...
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The health alert caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown have caused significant changes in people’s lives. Therefore, it has been essential to study the quality of life, especially in vulnerable populations, including children and adolescents. In this work, the psychological well-being, distribution of tasks and routines, as well as the physical activity done by children and adolescents from two samples: community and high abilities, have been analyzed. The methodology used was Mixed Method Research, through a survey conducted online through social networks. The informants were the parents of the children and adolescents, 209 in the community sample and 116 in the high ability sample. The instrument used was a questionnaire implemented through Google Forms, with open and closed questions, including the Kidscreen-27 scale to measure well-being. The assessment of the adequacy of the physical activity levels was analyzed through ALCESTE. The results showed the absence of differences between students from community samples and those with high capacities in well-being and physical activity. Parents residing in Spain observed less play time in the high ability sample, and more time spent on homework, whether or not they have a diagnosis of high ability. It is concluded that these results question the misconceptions held about high ability students in terms of poorer personal adjustment and better interest in physical activities.
... A tanórán kívüli foglalkozások szignifikánsan befolyásolják a lemaradó, az átlagos eredményű, illetve a speciális érdeklődésű, kiemelkedő képességű tanulók teljesítményét (McComb és Scott-Little 2003, Moriana et al. 2006, Schumann 2009, Makel et al. 2011. Az ilyen tevékenységek leggyakoribb formái az iskola utáni magánórák és különórák, amelyeken a fiatalok egyedül vagy kisebb csoportokban gyakorolhatják, illetve mélyíthetik el ismereteiket. ...
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Az Országos kompetenciamérés (OKM) immár több mint egy évtizedes múltra tekint vissza, és mára a magyar köznevelési rendszer szerves részévé vált. A minden év május utolsó szerdáján megírt szövegértés- és matematikatesztek, a hozzájuk kapcsolódó háttérkérdőívek és az ezek alapján készült iskolajelentések egyre ismertebbek az iskolák, a tanárok, a tanulók és a szülők körében is. Az Országos kompetenciamérés elsődleges célja, hogy minden iskola számára biztosítsa azokat az objektív mutatókat, amelyek segítik intézményük önértékelését, a fejlesztési irányok kijelölését, de a mérés az intézményfenntartók munkáját is támogatja, és a külső intézményértékelést is ellátja adatokkal. Emellett a köznevelési rendszer felhasználói, a szülők és tanulók számára is információkat szolgáltat, és nem utolsósorban releváns alapot jelenthet a tényeken alapuló oktatáspolitika számára is. Az Országos kompetenciamérésben a tanulók négy, egyenként 45 perces feladat-blokkot tartalmazó tesztfüzetet töltenek ki tanáraik felügyelete mellett. Az első két órában szövegértési, a második két órában matematikafeladatokat oldanak meg a tanulók; a tesztfüzetek két (A és B) változatban készülnek, melyek a szövegértési, illetve a matematikai blokkok sorrendjében térnek el egymástól. A felmérést egy időben, azonos körülmények között írják meg az ország valamennyi iskolájában. Annak érdekében, hogy az eredmények öszszehasonlíthatók, érvényesek és megbízhatók legyenek, a felmérés minden lépése előre eltervezett, és dokumentumokkal, eljárásrendekkel szabályozott. Jelen kiadvány a mérés tartalmát rögzíti, azt ismerteti, hogy a tesztfüzetekben milyen mérési területeket, tartalmi elemeket és gondolkodási műveleteket milyen feladattípusok alkalmazásával mérünk, valamint hogy a háttérkérdőívek milyen elméleti megfontolások alapján milyen kérdéscsoportokat, kérdéseket tartalmaznak. Az Országos kompetenciamérés Tartalmi keretének korábbi változatához képest (Balázsi et al., 2006) több szempontból jelent előrelépést ez a kötet. A szövegértés és a matematika területe bővült a képességszintek leírásával, pontosabban és gazdagabb példafeladat-készlettel írtuk le a tartalmi területeket és a gondolkodási műveleteket, nem utolsósorban pedig elkészült a háttérkérdőívek tartalmi kerete is. Így az új tartalmi keret ugyanazokat a tartalmakat minden érdekelt fél számára jóval részletesebben és világosabban írja le.
... The available data recorded up to 10 activities for each participant and were coded by domain: academic, arts, athletic, and service. These domains align with admissions tracking techniques and are similar to those used in previous research (Knifsend & Graham, 2012;Makel, Li, Putallaz & Wai, 2011;Metsäpelto & Pulkkinen, 2012). For this study, extracurricular variables were categorized in one of four ways: domain memberships (four categorical variables representing whether an individual participated in clubs in each of the four domains), domain intensity (four continuous variables representing the sum of club memberships within each of the four domains), total intensity (one variable representing the sum of all club memberships, regardless of domain), and overall domain intensity (one variable representing the sum of different domain categories an individual participated in). ...
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Researchers are challenging college admissions to shift practices to become more inclusive and to consider a range of abilities, including creativity. Admissions counselors must examine limited information and then maximize what they learn. How can admissions counselors use existing data to identify creative students? Research suggests that creative individuals tend to be more involved in extracurricular activities and that those involved in creative activities tend to be more involved in extracurricular activities overall. We expected that extracurricular involvement would predict creativity better than traditional admissions factors alone. Participants were 232 applicants to an undergraduate program recruited by the admissions office who completed online supplements. Data on SAT scores, high school rank, and extracurricular involvement were obtained from admissions files. Creativity was measured through a divergent thinking task, a self-assessment, a rated photo caption, and a rated essay about a student's dream project. Involvement in art clubs significantly predicted caption creativity, explaining twice as much variance as traditional factors alone. Arts club membership, but not traditional admissions factors, explained a significant amount of variance in self-reported performance creativity (i.e., writing, acting, music, etc.). Curiously, intensity of participation in academic clubs was negatively related to divergent thinking creativity. These findings demonstrate that extracurricular activities reveal valuable information about applicants' creativity that traditional admission factors do not. (PsycINFO Database Record
... The current study reports only the implicit beliefs of students who participated in a summer talent search program. Previous research (e.g., Makel, Li, Putallaz, & Wai, 2011) has shown heterogeneity between students who qualify for such programs and gifted students who do not, but still perform in the 95th percentile, on a variety of behaviors. Similarly, gifted students of relatively different ability or achievement status (i.e., underachieving vs. achieving) may also differ in their implicit beliefs of giftedness and intelligence. ...
Article
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Growing attention is being paid to individuals’ implicit beliefs about the nature of intelligence. However, implicit beliefs about giftedness are currently underexamined. In the current study, we examined academically gifted adolescents’ implicit beliefs about both intelligence and giftedness. Overall, participants’ implicit beliefs about giftedness and intelligence were significantly positively correlated while also having statistically significant mean differences, suggesting that they perceived the nature of the two constructs differently. Specifically, many students viewed intelligence as malleable (incremental view) and giftedness as fixed (entity view), whereas very few students viewed giftedness as malleable and intelligence as fixed; however, heterogeneity was observed. The beliefs identified in the current study provide important insight into the domain-specific nature of implicit beliefs of gifted students and suggest that caution be used against using terms like giftedness and intelligence interchangeably.
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Thesis
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This longitudinal study investigated consistent participation in extracurricular activities as a contributor to long-term educational success. Participants were 695 boys and girls who were interviewed annually to the end of high school and again at age 20. Family economic status, interpersonal competence, and educational aspirations during adolescence were used to assess educational status at young adulthood. Consistent extracurricular activity participation across adolescence on the educational attainment process was examined. Consistent extracurricular activity participation was associated with high educational status at young adulthood, including college attendance. Educational status was, in turn, linked to reciprocal positive changes between extracurricular activity participation and interpersonal competence, and to educational aspirations across adolescence. Findings were most apparent for students with below-average interpersonal competence.
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In observational studies, investigators have no control over the treatment assignment. The treated and non-treated (that is, control) groups may have large differences on their observed covariates, and these differences can lead to biased estimates of treatment effects. Even traditional covariance analysis adjustments may be inadequate to eliminate this bias. The propensity score, defined as the conditional probability of being treated given the covariates, can be used to balance the covariates in the two groups, and therefore reduce this bias. In order to estimate the propensity score, one must model the distribution of the treatment indicator variable given the observed covariates. Once estimated the propensity score can be used to reduce bias through matching, stratification (subclassification), regression adjustment, or some combination of all three. In this tutorial we discuss the uses of propensity score methods for bias reduction, give references to the literature and illustrate the uses through applied examples. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study compares academically gifted students who engage in sports to academically gifted students who do not engage in sports on measures of the multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 264 gifted adolescents who had completed the 6th through 10th grade during the previous academic year. Sports participation was measured by asking participants whether or not they participated in organized sports. Multiple facets of self-concept were measured using the Self Description Questionnaire II (Marsh, 1990). Results indicate gifted adolescents who engage in sports have higher physical abilities self-concepts than those who do not engage in sports. No grade level or gender interactions were found. Conclusions and implications are discussed.
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The purpose of this article was to examine students' after-school pursuits in a categorization framework and to consider the association of the pursuits with achievement after disaggregating the data by ethnicity. Student pursuits were categorized as in- or out-of-school, academic or nonacademic, organized or unorganized instead of simply in or out of school. For example, varsity football would be categorized as in-school, nonacademic, organized. A sample of 8,305 8th- and 10th-grade students who were enrolled in both years and had complete data was drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Study (1988) data set. The authors used multiple regression to analyze the models by ethnic background and found that different pursuits had differing levels of association after disaggregating by ethnicity. Also, classifying all after-school pursuits into I or 2 categories masked important differences In their associations with achievement.
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Effects of total extracurricular activity participation (TEAP) during the last 2 years of high school were examined using the large, nationally representative High School and Beyond data. After controlling background variables and sophomore outcomes, TEAP had small but statistically significant and positive relations with 17 of 22 senior and postsecondary outcomes (e.g., social and academic self-concept, educational aspirations, coursework selection, homework, absenteeism, academic achievement, and subsequent college attendance). Whereas there were small nonlinear components, increases in TEAP across almost the whole range of TEAP scores were associated with increases in benefits for most of the outcomes. The results contradict zero-sum models positing that TEAP detracts from more narrowly defined academic goals and support a commitment-to-school hypothesis in which identification with school and school values is enhanced by TEAP.
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In observational studies, investigators have no control over the treatment assignment. The treated and non-treated (that is, control) groups may have large differences on their observed covariates, and these differences can lead to biased estimates of treatment effects. Even traditional covariance analysis adjustments may be inadequate to eliminate this bias. The propensity score, defined as the conditional probability of being treated given the covariates, can be used to balance the covariates in the two groups, and therefore reduce this bias. In order to estimate the propensity score, one must model the distribution of the treatment indicator variable given the observed covariates. Once estimated the propensity score can be used to reduce bias through matching, stratification (subclassification), regression adjustment, or some combination of all three. In this tutorial we discuss the uses of propensity score methods for bias reduction, give references to the literature and illustrate the uses through applied examples.
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We examined the potential benefits and risks associated with participation in five types of activities: prosocial (church and volunteer activities), team sports, school involvement, performing arts, and academic clubs. Our sample included 1,259 mostly European American adolescents (approximately equal numbers of males and females). First, we explore the link between involvement in these activities and our indicators of positive and negative development. Involvement in prosocial activities was linked to positive educational trajectories and low rates of involvement in risky behaviors. In contrast, participation in team sports was linked to positive educational trajectories and to high rates of involvement in one risky behavior, drinking alcohol. Then, we explore two possible mediators of these associations: peer associations and activity-based identity formation. The evidence supported our hypothesis that group differences in peer associations and activity-based identities help explain activity group differences.
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This study investigated the relationship between participation in school sports and adolescent health risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of 12,272 high school students. Male and female students reporting participation on both one or two teams and three or more teams were significantly more likely to have not engaged in cigarette smoking and illegal drug use than those not playing on any sports teams. Although sports participation was not significantly associated with the likelihood of not ever having sexual intercourse, females who played on one or two teams were significantly more likely to have not ever had a sexually transmitted disease and to have not been pregnant. Also, among sexually active students, sports participation was significantly associated with not having four or more sexual partners (both males and females), the nonuse of a condom during last sexual intercourse (both males and females), and the nonuse of a method to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse (males only). In males, sports participation significantly increased the likelihood of smokeless tobacco and steroid use. For both males and females, the likelihood of carrying a weapon in the past 30 days and attempting suicide in the past 12 months was reduced in those who played on one or two teams compared to those not participating in school sports.
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This article analyzes data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 to test the effect of participation in extracurricular activities on high school achievement. It also explores potential mediating mechanisms that link such participation to academic success. The results show that participation in some activities improves achievement, while participation in others diminishes achievement. Participation in interscholastic sports promotes students' development and social ties among students, parents, and schools, and these benefits explain the positive effect of participation on achievement.
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The Duke University Talent Identification Program (Duke TIP) holds the distinguished position of being the first ‘transplant' of the Center for Talented Youth (CTY) regional talent search model developed by Professor Julian Stanley at Johns Hopkins University. Duke TIP was established in 1980, one year after CTY officially began. This article describes the history of Duke TIP and the evolution of its talent searches and various formats of its educational programming models as well as the complementary role that research has played at Duke TIP. The success of Duke TIP stands as a truly remarkable tribute to Julian Stanley and to the robustness of the talent search model that he created at Johns Hopkins University. Although the specific types of programs and initiatives may have taken different forms at Duke TIP, the underlying philosophy and commitment to identify and further the development of gifted and talented youth remains steadfast.
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Through their participation in a seventh-grade talent search in 19961997, students qualified to attend a summer program at Duke University's Talent Identification Program (Duke TIP). Of the North Carolina students in this group, some attended at least one summer program in middle school and others had qualified for but did not attend a summer program at Duke TIP. The two groups did not differ significantly on gender, parent education level, or ethnicity. Some positive effects of Duke TIP summer programs were found on later academic achievement and educational choices using both standardized objective measures and self-reports of high school and college academic experiences. We found that students who participated in a Duke TIP math program in middle school did indeed take more AP math courses in high school, but there were no effects for other types of advanced math classes or for any other subjects. Additionally, compared to Search Only students, students who took a math/science course at Duke TIP were more likely to major in math/science in college. More Duke TIP students than Search Only students aspired to earn a doctorate. Anecdotally, we also have heard from many former Duke TIP participants how much Duke TIP has affected their lives, and it is noteworthy that we are now able to empirically document some of these effects.
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Based on survey responses from 230 students enrolled in a summer gifted program at a university, this study gives a description of gifted students’ participation in extracurricular activities in and outside of school. Findings show that gifted students were more involved in competitions, clubs, or other extracurricular activities in mathematics than in other subject areas and were the least involved in computer science activities. Sports were the most frequent extracurricular and outside-of-school activities, as well as playing and working with computers. The data reveal some gender-stereotypical tendencies regarding participation in and outside-of-school activities and gender-typical patterns of support from parents. Grade and course differences were also found. Contributions this study makes to the existing literature are to assess the consonance of children's participation in outside-of-school and extracurricular activities with their talent area and to document empirically parental involvement and independent home study for gifted adolescents.
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Learning about the experience of living in a state-funded, public residential high school for academically talented children was the purpose of an ethnographic inquiry. Studying and homework dominated the students' lives throughout the year. Eager academically gifted high school students were “shocked” to meet the homework demands of a rigorous academic program. The general story of doing homework is told, as well as four characteristic patterns of adjustment presented as cases of studying in action. Theoretical issues related to talent development are discussed.
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Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, this article examines how various individual and contextual characteristics are related to the likelihood of interscholastic athletic participation. Girls are significantly less likely than boys to participate. The influence of socio-economic background, siblings, family structure, year in school, attendance at a private school, size of the school, region of the country, and urbanicity have similar effects on socializing boys and girls into athletics. However, the gender difference in participation rates are greater for blacks than whites. Results indicate that some of the association between athletic participation and academic outcomes is due to the tendency for better students to participate in athletics. Net of these effects, analyses indicate that participation in athletics has a positive influence on adolescents' academic outcomes. The positive influence of athletic participation on unexcused absences and educational expectations is significantly stronger for boys than for girls.
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This article presents a comprehensive portrait of talent search testing and associated educational programs in the United States, now some 35 years after Dr. Julian Stanley originated the concept. Survey data from the six major talent search centers in the United States were used to examine the scope of talent search educational offerings, including accelerated summer, distance education, Saturday and weekend, and leadership programs. Reported data reveal that over 3 million students have participated in talent search testing since these programs' inception, and subsequently thousands of these students participate each year in other educational programs offered by these organizations. In addition to above-level test scores, data used to prequalify students to participate include on-level standardized achievement tests, teacher or parent nominations, and portfolios. Disproportional representations within talent search testing and educational programs by racial and household income levels were addressed with a need for more financial support and collaborative work between talent search centers and local schools for more students to benefit from the talent search model.
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Students who participated in The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth Academic Programs are compared to eligible students who did not enroll in CTY courses. The two groups of students, over a 5-year period (1980-1984), were matched on gender and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores. The results of a questionnaire completed when the last group had finished high school suggest an education pattem of high academic achievement by both groups, with many students pursuing a rigorous high school program including College Board Advanced Placement courses and college courses outside of school. However, students who participated in CTY academic programs reported taking more advanced courses at an earlier age and enrolling in more college courses while in high school than students who did not attend CTY courses. The education pattern and accompanying achievements, exemplified by both groups, provide a validation for the selection instrument, the SAT.
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In this article, research conducted in the United States since 1987 on the effects of homework is summarized. Studies are grouped into four research designs. The authors found that all studies, regardless of type, had design flaws. However, both within and across design types, there was generally consistent evidence for a positive influence of homework on achievement. Studies that reported simple homework–achievement correlations revealed evidence that a stronger correlation existed (a) in Grades 7–12 than in K–6 and (b) when students rather than parents reported time on homework. No strong evidence was found for an association between the homework–achievement link and the outcome measure (grades as opposed to standardized tests) or the subject matter (reading as opposed to math). On the basis of these results and others, the authors suggest future research.
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Using data from the first two waves of the High School and Beyond project, this study examines the reciprocal relationship between media use and academic achievement among American high school students. The hypothesis of the study was that TV influences achievement negatively as it displaces other, more beneficial activities, but that reading influences achievement positively, particularly reading skills. It was also hypothesized that achievement influences media use: specifically, achievement negatively influences television use and positively influences reading. The study used multiple regression in a cross-lagged model. No clear evidence of negative effects of TV on achievement were found. TV, however, was found to be relatively less beneficial than reading for pleasure. And while achievement's influence on the amount of TV viewing was not supported, reading achievement does seem to influence the amount reading.
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The purpose of this article was to examine students' after-school pursuits in a categorization framework and to consider the association of the pursuits with achievement after disaggregating the data by ethnicity. Student pursuits were categorized as in- or out-of-school, academic or nonacademic, organized or unorganized instead of simply in or out of school. For example, varsity football would be categorized as in-school, nonacademic, organized. A sample of 8,305 8th- and 10th-grade students who were enrolled in both years and had complete data was drawn from the National Education Longitudinal Study (1988) data set. The authors used multiple regression to analyze the models by ethnic background and found that different pursuits had differing levels of association after disaggregating by ethnicity. Also, classifying all after-school pursuits into 1 or 2 categories masked important differences in their associations with achievement.
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Reports of activities from 3,119 high school seniors werefactoranalyzed into dimensions that signified integration into school-based, adult-endorsed norms or engagement in peerfun activities that excluded adults. Individuals were given scores on each dimension and then grouped into orientations toward school-adult norms, butnotpeerfun (School), toward fun but not school-adult norms (Party), toward both (All-around), or toward neither (Disengaged). School and All-around seniors were distinguishably high in community service, religion, andpolitics. Party seniors used marijuana more than did School seniors, but not All-around, seniors. Results indicated important variations in seniors' integration (connection) into the part ofpeer culture that coincides with adult normative society. It appears that connection may be typically associated with regulation but also may be superseded by agency-autonomy, as was manifested in the All-around group.
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This investigation examines the use of the MPAA television advisory ratings in the decision‐making of parents of intellectually gifted children and explores the manner by which ratings information is incorporated into rules and regulations about television in the home. It comes on the heels of published reports suggesting the general inadequacy and counter productivity of the age‐based ratings. In comparison to parents of non‐gifted children, parents of gifted children were more likely to utilize TV ratings information in the mediation of their children's televiewing. They tended to employ a highly inductive (communication‐oriented) style of child rearing and a highly evaluative (discussion‐based) method of TV mediation, tended to believe that television can have significant positive and/or negative effects on children, and were more concerned with cognitive‐ and affective‐level effects. The possible ramifications of these findings with regard to the new content‐driven ratings campaign and forthcoming V‐chip technology are discussed.
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This study examined the effects of a service-learning program on the development of civic attitudes and behaviors of 230 high school students who were identified as academically gifted and participated in either a service-learning program or an accelerated academic program during the summer. Students' responses to 3 surveys measuring civic responsibility, civic behavior, and leadership skills showed that enhanced civic responsibility, particularly a greater awareness of civic issues and a stronger connection and commitment to the community, was found among the students who participated in the service-learning program. Significant differences were not found for civic behaviors and leadership skills as a result of participation in the service-learning program. Longer term studies with students and examination of the type of service-learning activities students choose to get involved in are suggested to corroborate the positive outcomes of the service-learning program.
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Leadership has been retained in the federal definition of giftedness, across major revisions, since its inclusion in the Marland Report (1972) definition more than 30 years ago. Despite this history, there appears to be little consensus regarding the relationship between leadership education and education for talented and gifted youth. This review analyzes publications about leadership education among talented and gifted students since 1980. Four major emphases are identified within this literature, and empirical articles within each area of emphasis are summarized and critiqued. Analysis confirms that a consolidated theoretical framework for leadership giftedness has not yet materialized, although limited consensus may be emerging regarding the aspects of leadership that are more or less responsive to instruction. Findings suggest that more research may be needed to justify retaining leadership ability within the federal definition of giftedness. Three suggested directions for future research on youth leadership giftedness are extrapolated from this foundation.
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Much existing research documents the benefits gained by students when they participate in high school extracurricular activities (Camp, 1990; Eidsmore, 1964; Haensly, Lupkowski, & Edlind, 1986; Holland & Andre, 1987; McNeal, 1995; Yarworth & Gauthier, 1978). However, we know little about the patterns of participation (i.e., who is more likely to participate in which activities?). A finding in this research was that extracurricular activities are not equitably participated in by various subgroups of the high school population. To some degree, members of various racial and ethnic minority groups have greater likelihood(s) of participating in all types of extracurricular activities studied (athletics, cheerleading, fine arts, academic organizations, newspaper/yearbook, student government/service organizations, and vocational activities). Girls have an increased likelihood of participating in all the activities except athletics, which are dominated by boys. Finally, evidence also supports the hypothesis that the high school extracurriculum is one arena in which students of higher socioeconomic standing and greater academic ability have a distinct advantage. Given the differential rates of participation, and specifically the increased rates by various minorities, restricting access to or eliminating specific activities may make student access, and the resulting benefits from participation (e.g., network, prestige, cultural capital), less equitably distributed among the student population.
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Effects of total extracurricular activity participation (TEAP) during the last 2 yrs of high school were examined using the large, nationally repesentative High School and Beyond data. After controlling background variables and sophomore outcomes, TEAP had small but statistically significant and positive relations with 17 of 22 senior and postsecondary outcomes (e.g., social and academic self-concept, educational aspirations, coursework selection, homework, absenteeism, academic achievement, and subsequent college attendance). Whereas there were small nonlinear components, increases in TEAP across almost the whole range of TEAP scores were associated with increases in benefits for most of the outcomes. Results contradict zero-sum models positing that TEAP detracts from more narrowly defined academic goals and support a commitment-to-school hypothesis in which identification with school and school values is enhanced by TEAP. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Four hundred twenty-four students in Grades 6 through 12 and 1 parent of each completed a questionnaire concerning student participation in 5 types of after-school activities: homework, television viewing, extracurricular activities, other types of structured after-school groups, and jobs. Student standardized achievement test scores and class grades were also obtained. After-school activities contributed significantly to the prediction of achievement even after the student's gender, grade level, ethnicity, free-lunch eligibility, and level of adult supervision after school were statistically controlled. Generally, more time in extracurricular activities and other structured groups and less time in jobs and television viewing were associated with higher test scores and class grades. More time on homework was associated with better grades. The joint effects of all 5 after-school activities nearly doubled the predictive ability of any single activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examines the relation between part-time employment and adolescent development in a heterogeneous sample of approximately 4,000 15–18-yr-olds. Long work hours during the school year are associated with lower investment and performance in school, greater psychological and somatic distress, drug and alcohol use, delinquency, and autonomy from parents. Workers do not have any advantages over nonworkers in self-reliance, work orientation, or self-esteem. The negative correlates of school-year employment are closely linked to the number of hours worked each week and generally cut across ethnic, socioeconomic, and age groups; in no subsample are the correlates of extensive employment positive. The findings suggest that parents, educational practitioners, and policy makers should continue to monitor the number of weekly hours adolescents work during the school year. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Researchers disagree over whether negative correlates of extensive part-time employment during adolescence are consequences of working or are due to differential selection into the labor force. This study examines the over-time relation between school-year employment and adjustment in a heterogeneous sample of approximately 1,800 high school sophomores and juniors. Analyses indicate both significant selection effects and negative consequences of employment. Before working, adolescents who later work more than 20 hrs per wk are less engaged in school and are granted more autonomy by their parents. However, taking on a job for more than 20 hrs per wk further disengages youngsters from school, increases delinquency and drug use, furthers autonomy from parents, and diminishes self-reliance. Leaving the labor force after working long hours leads to improved school performance but does not reverse the other negatives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The book is written with three goals in mind. First, I hope my conclusions help school administrators and teachers develop homework policies that benefit students. Second, I hope the review helps future homework researchers identify areas that are most in need of investigation. Finally, I hope the procedures I used to integrate the research prove instructive to others who are interested in making sense of social science literatures. I have tried to apply state-of-the-art techniques for gathering and integrating the homework research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two studies examined the relationship between precollegiate advanced/enriched educational experiences and adult accomplishments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). In Study 1, 1,467 13-year-olds were identified as mathematically talented on the basis of scores ≥ 500 (top 0.5%) on the math section of the Scholastic Assessment Test; subsequently, their developmental trajectories were studied over 25 years. Particular attention was paid to high-level STEM accomplishments with low base rates in the general population (STEM PhDs, STEM publications, STEM tenure, STEM patents, and STEM occupations). Study 2 retrospectively profiled the adolescent advanced/enriched educational experiences of 714 top STEM graduate students (mean age = 25), and related these experiences to their STEM accomplishments up to age 35. In both longitudinal studies, those with notable STEM accomplishments manifested past histories involving a richer density of advanced precollegiate educational opportunities in STEM (a higher “STEM dose”) than less highly achieving members of their respective cohorts. While both studies are quasi-experimental, they suggest that for mathematically talented and academically motivated young adolescents, STEM accomplishments are facilitated by a rich mix of precollegiate STEM educational opportunities that are designed to be intellectually challenging, even for students at precocious developmental levels. These opportunities appear to be uniformly important for both sexes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Much behavioral research involves comparing the central tendencies of different groups, or of the same Ss under different conditions, and the usual analysis is some form of mean comparison. This article suggests that an ordinal statistic, d, is often more appropriate. d compares the number of times a score from one group or condition is higher than one from the other, compared with the reverse. Compared to mean comparisons, d is more robust and equally or more powerful; it is invariant under transformation; and it often conforms more closely to the experimeter's research hypothesis. It is suggested that inferences from d be based on sample estimates of its variance rather than on the more traditional assumption of identical distributions. The statistic is extended to simple repeated measures designs, and ways of extending its use to more complex designs are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article, Herbert W. Marsh and Sabina Kleitman examine the effects of participation in extracurricular school activities (ESAs) on grade-twelve and post-secondary outcomes (e.g., school grades, coursework selection, homework, educational and occupational aspirations, self-esteem, freedom from substance abuse, number of university applications, subsequent college enrollment, and highest educational level). Their analyses are grounded in three theoretical models: the threshold model, the identification/commitment model, and the social inequality gap reduction model. They find that, consistent with the threshold model predictions, there were some small nonlinear ESA effects - monotonic increases over most of the ESA range, but diminishing returns for extremely high levels of ESA. Consistent with identification/commitment model predictions, school-based ESAs were more beneficial than out-of-school activities, and the most beneficial ESAs included both non-academic (sports, student government, school publications, and performing arts) and academic activities. Finally, consistent with the social inequality gap reduction model predictions (as well as the identification/commitment model), ESAs benefited socioeconomically disadvantaged students as much or more than advantaged students. In summary, the authors' findings support the conclusion that ESAs foster school identification/commitment that benefits diverse academic outcomes, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are least well served by the traditional educational curriculum.