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Abstract

Facial attractiveness has been related to health in both men and women. Certain psychological, physiological, and secondary sex characteristics have been used as accurate markers of hormonal and developmental health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of women to select males of high reproductive quality based on their facial attractiveness. A total of 66 males were included in the study. Each of them provides a semen sample, and frontal and lateral photographs were taken. Semen analysis was made according to standard WHO (1999) guidelines for morphology, motility, and concentration. Moreover, a Sperm Index (SI) was calculated as the principal component of these parameters. In Study 1, 66 women rated the attractiveness, as a possible permanent couple, of pictures of all 66 men. In Study 2, the pictures of a subset of 12 males were randomly selected from three semen quality subgroups (terciles named good, normal, and bad, according to the value of the SI). These 12 pictures were rated on attractiveness by two independent sets of women (N = 88 and N = 76). Facial attractiveness ratings were significantly (P < .05) and positively correlated with sperm morphology, motility, and SI, but not with concentration, for all the women sets.

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... In contrast to women, men do not have cyclical phases in which they are particularly fertile. Instead, men have rather fixed factors that determine their fertility, such as spermatozoa morphology (Soler et al., 2003; but see Peters, Rhodes, & Simmons, 2008). Soler et al. (2003) found significant correlations between men's fertility and their level of physical attractiveness rated by heterosexual women. ...
... Instead, men have rather fixed factors that determine their fertility, such as spermatozoa morphology (Soler et al., 2003; but see Peters, Rhodes, & Simmons, 2008). Soler et al. (2003) found significant correlations between men's fertility and their level of physical attractiveness rated by heterosexual women. Accordingly, attractive (in comparison to unattractive) men seem to have a better sperm quality. ...
Article
According to the sexual strategy theory (SST), men pursue short-term mating strategies to enhance their reproductive fitness. To do so, heterosexual men search for women who signal high reproductive value through multiple fertility cues. We hypothesize that, due to an interplay of mating strategies derived from a person's biological sex and the sexual orientation of a person (which develops independently of biological sex), not only heterosexual but also homosexual men should find high fertility more attractive in others. Accordingly, in Study 1 (N = 124), we found that hetero-as well as homosexual men rated the physical attractiveness of a female stimulus person to be greater when she was portrayed to be of high (versus low) fertility. Interestingly, in Study 2 (N = 224), we found that only homosexual-, but not heterosexual men perceived a male stimulus to be less attractive when information was provided that pointed at his low (versus high) fertility and when no information was given. We discuss these findings against the background of evolved adaptive mating motives in humans. Overall, the present results indicate that fertility appears to be an important cue for perceived physical attractiveness for both hetero-and homosexual men.
... Piemēram, atklāts, ka gan vīrieši, gan sievietes, kuru sejas vērtētas kā vispievilcīgākās, dzīvo ilgāk [31,354]. Sievietēm pievilcīgāki šķiet tie vīrieši, kuri ir būtiski auglīgāki [60,[203][204][205]. Ir konstatēta pat inteliģences un auglības korelācija [8, 279-280] un tendence, ka cilvēkiem ar pievilcīgu seju ir augstāks IQ [70,[243][244][245]. ...
... Nepieciešamība būt pievilcīgam var likt daudziem cilvēkiem justies neapmierinātiem ar savu izskatu [49,[721][722][723][724], un dažādās kultūrās vīrieši un sievietes vēsturiski ir izstrādājuši visdažādākos paņēmienus, kā uzlabot savu pievilcību [19,[50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66], piemēram, korsetes nodrošina šaurāku vidukli un maina tā attiecību pret gurniem, tos padarot platākus, savukārt trenažieru zāles apmeklējumi ļauj vīriešiem palielināt muskuļainību un plecu platumu. Medicīnas sasniegumi ļauj cilvēkiem atgriezt jaunību, kā arī modelēt savu formu un seju padarīt simetriskāku. ...
Article
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Cilvēka vizuālais tēls iemanto apjomīgu sociāli bioloģiskās informācijas daudzumu. Tas norāda uz dzimumu, vecumu, rasi, veselības stāvokli, auglību, hormonu līmeni un pat uz paredzamo uzvedību un dzīves ilgumu. Tā ir būtiska privātā informācija, kas ikdienā nav aizsargāta un kas ir eksponēta apkārtējiem. Latvijā katrs trešais skolēns saskaras ar mobingu, un tas ir viens no augstākajiem rādītājiem starp Ekonomiskās sadarbības un attīstības organizācijas valstīm. Piemēram, visticamāk, tieši mobings bijis par iemeslu 16 gadu veca puiša pašnāvībai, kas notika 2019. gadā. Zināms, ka pašnāvība ir sociālās atstumtības rezultāts, un Latvijā ir trešais lielākais pašnāvību izdarījušo cilvēku skaits Eiropas Savienībā. Rakstā tiek analizēta vizuālā tēla sociāli bioloģiskā koncepcija, sniegti argumenti tā aizsardzībai un nozīmīgumam sabiedrībā kopsakarā ar spēkā esošajām tiesību normām un judikatūru. Nobeigumā ir priekšlikums, kas attiecināms uz likumprojektu “Sejas aizsegšanas ierobežojuma likums”, kā arī uz sejas atpazīšanas videonovērošanas sistēmas iespējamu ieviešanu. Visual image of a man is a considerable amount of socially biological information. This includes gender, age, race, health, fertility, hormone levels, even behavior, and life expectancy. It is essentially private information that is not protected day-to-day basis and is rather exposed to the surrounding individuals. In Latvia, every third pupil faces bullying, which is one of the highest rates among OECD countries. For example, in 2019, it was more likely that bullying had been the reason for suicide of a 16-year-old boy. It is known that suicide is the result of social exclusion, and Latvia possesses the third largest number of people who have committed suicide in the European Union. The article analyses socio-biological concept of visual image, arguments for its protection and its importance in society, compliance with existing legal provisions and case law. A proposal has been made for the establishment of legal provisions relating to the draft of the Facial Masking Limitation Law, as well as for the possible introduction of a facial recognition video surveillance system.
... Further research supports the idea that facially attractive people are not only perceived as healthier but that they have in fact a better physical health. For instance, ratings of facial attractiveness predicted future longevity (Henderson & Anglin, 2003) and were associated with semen quality (Soler et al., 2003). Furthermore, facial attractiveness was directly linked to a measure of genetic quality and immune function (Roberts et al., 2005). ...
... Peters, Rhodes, and Simmons (2008) investigated whether facial attractiveness or its components are predictive of semen quality. Despite the link between facial attractiveness and semen quality found in a prior study (Soler et al., 2003), they did not find any relationship between semen quality and neither facial attractiveness nor its components, thus suggesting that facial attractiveness per se is not a cue for reproductive success. Furthermore, Gangestad and colleagues (2010) examined whether masculinity and fluctuating asymmetry are associated with oxidative stress, derived from measures of oxidative damage to the DNA and lipids. ...
... The few studies of the relationship between facial appearance and semen quality have reported mixed results. Soler et al. 38 found that semen quality was positively related to facial attractiveness and negatively related to a masculine trait of the face: the width. In contrast, Peters, Rhodes, and Simmons 39 did not find any relationship between semen quality and facial attractiveness or attractive traits such as masculinity, symmetry, and averageness. ...
... However, our result is not consistent with those of previous studies. Soler et al. 38 found that the width of the face, a measurement that has been linked to masculinity, was negatively related to semen quality. Similarly, Simmons et al. 42 found that voice masculinity was negatively related to semen quality. ...
Article
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Facial attractiveness has been suggested to provide signals of biological quality, particularly health, in humans. The attractive traits that have been implicated as signals of biological quality include sexual dimorphism, symmetry, averageness, adiposity, and carotenoid-based skin colour. In this study, we first provide a comprehensive examination of the traits that predict attractiveness. In men, attractiveness was predicted positively by masculinity, symmetry, averageness, and negatively by adiposity. In women, attractiveness was predicted positively by femininity and negatively by adiposity. Skin colour did not predict attractiveness in either sex, suggesting that, despite recent interest in the literature, colour may play limited role in determining attractiveness. Male perceived health was predicted positively by averageness, symmetry, and skin yellowness, and negatively by adiposity. Female perceived health was predicted by femininity. We then examined whether appearance predicted actual health using measures that have been theoretically linked to sexual selection, including immune function, oxidative stress, and semen quality. In women, there was little evidence that female appearance predicted health. In men, we found support for the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis that male masculinity signalled semen quality. However, we also found a negative relationship between averageness and semen quality. Overall, these results indicate weak links between attractive facial traits and health.
... Women's attraction to particular male facial traits may motivate them to mate with males that produce high-quality ejaculates. In a Spanish sample, men's facial attractiveness-as rated by women-correlated positively with sperm motility, sperm morphology, and sperm concentration (Soler et al., 2003). These findings were replicated in research that secured Spanish and Colombian women's assessments of Spanish men's facial attractiveness (Soler et al., 2014). ...
... The different results among these studies may be attributable to methodological differences. Soler et al. (2003Soler et al. ( , 2014 asked women to report their interest in a long-term relationship with the photographed male, whereas Peters et al. (2007) asked women to report their short-term sexual interest in the photographed male. These different contexts influence the traits that women find attractive, with a priority on masculinity in shortterm contexts but not in long-term contexts (Li and Kenrick, 2006;Little et al., 2002;Soler et al., 2012). ...
Article
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A given man's phenotype embodies cues of his ancestral ability to effectively defend himself and his kin from harm, to survive adverse conditions, and to acquire status and mating opportunities. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that a man's phenotype also embodies cues to fertility or the probability that an ejaculate will fertilize ova. Female mate choice depends on the ability to discern the quality of a male reproductive partner through his phenotype, and male fertility may be among the traits that females have evolved to detect. A female who selects as mates males that deliver higher quality ejaculates will, on average, be more fecund than her competitors. Data on several non-human species demonstrate correlations between ejaculate quality and secondary sexual characteristics that inform female mate choice, suggesting that females may select mates in part on the basis of fertility. While the non-human literature on this topic has advanced, the human literature remains limited in scope and there is no clear consensus on appropriate methodologies or theoretical positions. We provide a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of this literature, and conclude by proposing solutions to the many issues that impede progress in the field. In the process, we hope to encourage interest and insight from investigators in other areas of human mating and reproductive biology. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Few studies have empirically investigated the relationship between reproductive function and masculine traits. A pioneering study by Soler et al. [102] reported a positive association between facial attractiveness and semen quality, as assessed by sperm motility and morphology. However, later studies failed to replicate the predicted association between semen quality, attractiveness, and masculinity in the face [103] and voice [104]. ...
Chapter
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Literature on psychological function of testosterone in humans has emphasized its association with such traits as aggressiveness and impulsivity. In addition, increasing number of studies have shown the linkage between testosterone level and individual difference in the strength of preference for other’s sexually dimorphic traits. According to theorists in the field of evolutionary psychology, the preference pattern for sexual dimorphisms had evolved as an adaptive mechanism to increase the odds of reproductive success. But, so far, there are few systematic syntheses of literatures to validate such evolutionary explanation from the perspective of androgenic function. This chapter aims to give an overview of the existing findings on the association between testosterone and preference pattern in humans and discuss their implications for evolutionary explanation of human attractiveness perception.
... These cues are considered sexually attractive by women, and men exhibiting these cues tend to have more success in various aspects of reproduction. Men possessing these traits have had a greater number of sexual partners (e.g., Apicella et al., 2007;Mueller & Mazur, 2001;Rhodes et al., 2005;Weeden & Sabini, 2007), father more offspring (Waynforth, 1998), and have higher semen quality (Soler et al., 2003; but see Peters et al., 2008), which may predict fertilization success (Barratt et al., 1993;Youn et al., 2011). ...
Article
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A great deal of research has focused on women’s attention to the physical and behavioral cues of potential romantic partners. Comparatively little work has investigated how these cues influence women’s sexual risk-taking. The current study investigated the relationship between women’s perceptions of various factors associated with their partner’s genetic or investment quality, and women’s risky sexual behaviors (i.e., behaviors that could lead to unintended pregnancy). This work also investigated the influence of estimated menstrual cycle phase using a between-subject design. Analyses failed to reveal menstrual cycle effects, but women reported a greater tendency to engage in risky sexual behaviors when they had more physically attractive partners and when they use sexual inducements as a mate retention strategy. Also, conception-risking behaviors occurred most often when the woman reported being more socially dominant and she reported being less upset by a potential pregnancy. Moreover, the self-reported likelihood that women would carry an unintended pregnancy to term with their partner was predicted by feeling less upset by a potential pregnancy, taking fewer social risks, religiosity, and by more favorable ratings of their partners’ masculinity. These results are discussed in line with evolutionary theory surrounding mate choice.
... Pharm et al. [1] have suggested, for centuries, that the human face reflects the attributes of gender, ethnicity, attractiveness, emotions, personality traits and so on has been the subject of speculation. The literature reports that the facial attractiveness is attributed to longevity [2], reproductive health [3,4] and some physical illness symptoms like cold, nausea, backache, etc. [5], heterozygous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes [6]. De Jager et al. [7] have reported that Facial adiposity is strongly regressed to attractiveness and health, with more massive faces are judged to be more unattractive and unhealthier. ...
Article
This paper presents a novel method for body mass index prediction and classification based on the multinomial logistic regression model. The facial geometrical features are extracted and the logistic regression model parameters estimated based on the features. Based on the model parameters, the logistic model is fit in to predict the body mass index and classifies. Two different facial datasets are taken into account for the experiments. Each dataset is divided into two sets. One set is used to estimate the parameters while the other is used to fit-in the model and predicts the body mass index and classifies itself. The obtained outcome results show that the performance of the proposed method is comparable to the state-of-the-art techniques.
... Na druhé straně muži s nízkým socioekonomickým statusem, tedy ti, kteří mohli s nízkou pravděpodobností získat partnerku, se častěji uchylovali ke znásilnění (Thornhill -Thornhill 1992;Thornhill -Palmer 2000) jako k alternativní strategii. Vysoký status -sociální dominance -u samců úzce souvisel se symetrií těla či odolností k nemocem (Gangestad et al. 1994;Grammer -Thornhill 1994;Sidanius et al. 1994;Jones et al. 2001;Waynforth 2001;Soler et al. 2003;Thornhill -Gangestad 2006), a přístupem ke zdrojům (Akkerhuis -Damgaard 1999), a tedy následně s reprodukčním úspěchem (Deruiter -vanHooff 1993). ...
Article
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Dominanční hierarchie se vyvinula jako adaptace sociálně žijících živočichů na podmínky prostředí. Postavení v dominanční hierarchii výrazně ovlivňuje život a chování člověka i v dnešních moderních evropských a amerických společnostech. Zde 1) stručně vysvětlíme principy a evoluční pozadí dominanční hierarchie z úhlu pohledu behaviorálních věd, 2) popíšeme rysy dominanční hierarchie u člověka, a 3) uvedeme příklady toho, co určuje hierarchické postavení jedince u člověka, jak toto postavení ovlivňuje život jedince a jak se projevuje v chování.Struktura dominanční hierarchie, ustavení hierarchického postavení (rank) a omezení daná tímto postavením jsou předvídatelná. Postavení ovlivňuje život jedince v mnoha směrech (reprodukce, komunikace, zdraví, tok informací, vzorce chování). Pokud chceme plně porozumět chování člověka, jeho rozhodnutím a pocitům, musíme brát v úvahu existence dominanční hierarchie mezi jedinci a mezi skupinami jedinců.
... Previous research has examined ejaculate quality and its relationship to phenotypic traits such as facial attractiveness, body symmetry, and intelligence (see for a review Jeffrey et al., 2016). For instance, women's assessments of men's facial attractiveness correlate positively with sperm motility and morphology in a sample of Spanish men (Soler et al., 2003). A later study found a positive correlation between an index of ejaculate quality and facial attractiveness ratings (of the same Spanish men) provided by a different sample of men and women (Soler et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Genetic quality may be expressed through many traits simultaneously, and this would suggest a phenotype-wide fitness factor. In humans, intelligence has been positively associated with several potential indicators of genetic quality, including ejaculate quality. We conducted a conceptual replication of one such study by investigating the relationship between intelligence (assessed by the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test-Short Form) and ejaculate quality (indexed by sperm count, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) in a sample of 41 men (ages ranging 18 to 33 years; M ¼ 23.33; SD ¼ 3.60). By self-report, participants had not had a vasectomy, and had never sought infertility treatment. We controlled for several covariates known to affect ejaculate quality (e.g., abstinence duration before providing an ejaculate) and found no statistically significant relationship between intelligence and ejaculate quality; our findings, therefore, do not match those of Arden, Gottfredson, Miller et al. or those of previous studies. We discuss limitations of this study and the general research area and highlight the need for future research in this area, especially the need for larger data sets to address questions around phenotypic quality and ejaculate quality.
... Men are theorised to value fertility and reproductive value highly, and women as well, to some extent, when seeking long-term mates (Buss and Schmitt 1993;Soler et al. 2003). Both fertility and reproductive value (i.e. the number of future offspring an individual can produce) decrease with age, in particular among women (Frank et al. 1994;Kidd et al. 2001). ...
Article
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The current study aimed to identify demographic, personality and substance-use characteristics associated with forming romantic relationships. Data were collected by two online surveys among students in Bergen, Norway, during the autumn of 2015 (T1) and by a follow-up survey that was conducted 12 months later (T2). The current sample consists of the 2404 participants who reported being single at T1 (mean age 23.2) and who participated in both waves of the survey. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Separate analyses were conducted for both sexes and for the entire sample of participants. High extroversion scores predicted relationship formation. For women, having a child/children, higher scores on neuroticism, alcohol use and illegal substance use positively predicted relationship formation, while for men, age and openness were positive predictors. The study contributes with several novel findings. In general, characteristics related to a need for support predicted romantic relationship formation among women, while characteristics associated with increased resource acquisition potential predicted relationship formation among men. The general pattern of findings is in line with established evolutionary theories such as the sexual strategies theory and the parental investment theory.
... Despite the link between physical attractiveness and the reduced likelihood of investing in offspring, attractiveness is more often associated with the existence of additional positive characteristics such as better personalities, more positive life experiences (Dion et al. 1972), or health and fertility (Soler et al. 2003;Weeden and Sabini 2005). This tendency to associate positive characteristics with attractive targets occurs cross-culturally (Shaffer et al. 2000;Zebrowitz et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Prior research assessing mate preferences among women and their parents reveals the potential for conflict within families; daughters value characteristics indicating genetic quality, such as physical attractiveness, more strongly than their parents do. However, prior research also suggests the potential for agreement within families; both daughters and their parents report valuing other mate characteristics much more strongly than physical attractiveness (e.g., mutual affection, intelligence, etc.). We assessed mate preferences among 86 daughter-father pairs using an experimental design varying target men’s physical attractiveness and personality characteristics. We tested five hypotheses investigating the relative importance of physical attractiveness and personality traits to women and their fathers as well as the potential for mate choice conflict between women and their fathers. Both women and their fathers were strongly influenced by the physical attractiveness of the target men and rated more attractive target men as more desirable partners for themselves or for their daughters. Reinforcing the importance of physical attractiveness, men with the most desirable personality profiles were rated more favorably than their counterparts only when they were moderately attractive or more attractive; unattractive men were never rated as more desirable partners for daughters, regardless of their personality profiles. However, physical attractiveness was more strongly related to women’s own dating preferences whereas personality favorability was more strongly related to fathers’ preferences for their daughters. Furthermore, when women and their fathers disagreed about the best mate, women chose the more attractive man while fathers chose the man with the more desirable personality traits. The importance of physical attractiveness to women’s mate choices may lead to conflict with their fathers.
... In addition, on the one hand, the association between physical attraction and degree of desirability in a partner may be predicted to be linear, as there is evidence to suggest that physically attractive faces and bodies are indicators of good health, fertility, and genes (Rhodes, Chan, Zebrowitz, & Simmons, 2003;Soler et al., 2003). On the contrary, however, very high levels of physical attractiveness are associated with some socially regarded negative qualities, including an increased incidence of divorce (Ma-kellams, Wang, & Cardiel, 2017). ...
Article
Prospective mate characteristics such as kindness, intelligence, easygoingness, and physical attraction are ranked consistently highly by both men and women. However, rank measurement does not allow for determinations of what level of a mate characteristic is rated most desirable. Based on a more informative percentile scale measurement approach, it was reported recently that mean desirability ratings of IQ in a prospective partner peaked at the 90th percentile, with a statistically significant reduction from the 90th to the 99th percentiles. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate the recently reported non‐linear desirability effect associated with IQ, in addition to the evaluation of three other valued mate characteristics: easygoing, kindness, and physical attraction. Based on a sample of 214 young adults, it was found that all four mate characteristics peaked at the 90th percentile. However, the IQ and easygoing mean desirability ratings evidenced statistically significant mean reductions across the 90th to the 99th percentiles, whereas kindness and physical attraction did not. Finally, the objectively and subjectively assessed intelligence of the participants was not found to be associated with the participants’ desirability ratings of IQ. We interpreted the results to be consistent with a broadly conceptualized threshold hypothesis, which states that the perceived benefits of valued mate characteristics may not extend beyond a certain point. However, mate characteristics such as intelligence and easygoing become somewhat less attractive at very elevated levels, at least based on preference ratings, for reasons that may be biological and/or psycho‐social in nature.
... Previous work has shown concordance between men's facial attractiveness and other physical markers of mate value, such as vocal attractiveness as judged by female adults and adolescents, but not by female children (Saxton, Carlyle, & Roberts, 2006), as well as semen quality (Soler et al., 2003). These results suggest that men's facial attractiveness is a mate value trait detectable by, and particularly relevant to, reproductiveaged women. ...
Article
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Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men’s sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men’s expressed mate preferences. Results showed that self-perceived mate value was unrelated to men’s facial attractiveness as rated by women. Men who believed they were of high mate value were more likely than lower mate value men to prefer to marry at a younger age; to have a spouse who was younger than them; and to have a partner who was sociable, ambitious, high in social status, with good financial prospects, a desire for children, health, good looks, and mutual attraction. Objective male facial attractiveness was generally unrelated to heightened mate preferences, with the exception of heightened preference for similar religious background and good physical health. Findings suggest that men who perceive themselves as high in overall mate value are selective in their mate choice in a manner similar to high mate value women.
... Take ratings of facial attractiveness as a case in point. Men with faces that women rate as being attractive usually have higher quality sperm (Soler et al., 2003), and they tend to be more bilaterally symmetrical (Grammer & Thornhill, 1994). Men with attractive faces also have broader shoulders and narrower hips, that is, higher shoulder-to-hip ratios (Shoup & Gallup, 2008). ...
Article
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The capacity to experience an orgasm evolved to promote high-frequency sex in species with low reproductive rates. Growing evidence shows that orgasms also have a variety of other reproductive consequences. Based on a distinction between orgasm frequency and orgasm intensity, there is emerging evidence in humans that orgasms function to promote and fine tune what are often very different, sex-specific reproductive outcomes. We provide an overview of the effect of hormonal contraceptives on orgasm, mate choice, and sexual satisfaction. The effects of sex during pregnancy, along with orgasm induced vocalizations, facial expressions during orgasm, and the putative effects of semen exposure on orgasm and sexual functioning in females are also discussed. Recent research suggests that female orgasms evolved to promote good mate choices, and we propose that instances of orgasmic dysfunction in many women may be a byproduct of an inability to find and/or retain high-quality male partners. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Physical attractiveness may have such a powerful effect on our real-life mate preferences because we associate attractiveness with other positive characteristics such as better personalities or life experiences (Dion et al. 1972) as well as health and fertility (Soler et al. 2003;Weeden and Sabini 2005). This tendency to expect positive characteristics from attractive targets occurs cross-culturally (Shaffer et al. 2000;Zebrowitz et al. 2012) and is more common among women than men (Levesque et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Prior research investigating the mate preferences of women and their parents reveals two important findings with regard to physical attractiveness. First, daughters more strongly value mate characteristics connoting genetic quality (such as physical attractiveness) than their parents. Second, both daughters and their parents report valuing characteristics other than physical attractiveness most strongly (e.g., ambition/industriousness, friendliness/kindness). However, the prior research relies solely on self-report to assess daughters’ and parents’ preferences. We assessed mate preferences among 61 daughter-mother pairs using an experimental design varying target men’s physical attractiveness and trait profiles. We tested four hypotheses investigating whether a minimum level of physical attractiveness was a necessity to both women and their mothers and whether physical attractiveness was a more important determinant of dating desirability than trait profiles. These hypotheses were supported. Women and their mothers were strongly influenced by the physical attractiveness of the target men and preferred the attractive and moderately attractive targets. Men with the most desirable personality profiles were rated more favorably than their counterparts only when they were at least moderately attractive. Unattractive men were never rated as more desirable partners for daughters, even when they possessed the most desirable trait profiles. We conclude that a minimum level of physical attractiveness is a necessity for both women and their mothers and that when women and their parents state that other traits are more important than physical attractiveness, they assume potential mates meet a minimally acceptable standard of physical attractiveness.
... The authors hypothesized that facial attractiveness functions to signal low fitness, but it is not helpful in identifying high fitness. Other evidence suggests that the degree of masculine features in male faces does have a low correlation with health and reproductive fitness (Soler et al. 2003;Rhodes, Simmons, and Peters 2005). Conversely, feminine features of female faces do not seem to be correlated with a variety of health measures . ...
Article
What are the perceptual and cognitive processes that underlie our experiences of beauty? In this dissertation, I describe a series of experiments where we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral methods to explore the mechanisms of perception, reward representation, and decision-making during evaluations of face and place beauty. In our first study, we used fMRI to ask whether evaluative signals in frontal cortex contain category-specific information or whether these signals are encoded as a "common currency" across reward types. By comparing neural activity correlated with subjective ratings of face and place beauty, we showed overlapping activity in dorsal ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), consistence with the common currency hypothesis. At the same time, our results revealed category-specific patterns of activity in ventral vmPFC and in lateral orbitofrontal cortex (latOFC), suggesting at least a partial distinction in the frontal networks recruited during the processing of different types of rewards. In a follow-up study, we used fMRI to further examine face-responsive "patches" of activity in latOFC by measuring response in these patches while subjects evaluated but did explicitly rate face beauty. Our results demonstrated a similar pattern of response to that observed during explicit ratings, suggesting that reward-related activity in this region is not dependent on a decision-making task. Lastly, in a series of behavioral studies, we developed a novel experimental design to measure the influence of recent trial history on current judgments of face attractiveness. We found that attractiveness judgments are simultaneously contrasted away from the attractiveness of the previous face but assimilated towards the previous numerical rating given. Our results also suggested that these influences are not specific to attractiveness judgments but may be linked to more general properties of perception and decision-making. Collectively, this work furthers our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying evaluations of face and place beauty, and illuminates some of the specific contextual influences on these evaluations.
... Weitere Studien machen darüber hinaus darauf aufmerksam, dass attraktivere Männer im Gegensatz zu weniger attraktiveneine höhere Spermienqualität aufweisen (Soler et al., 2003), während die weniger attraktiven ein höheres Ausmaß an pro-und reaktiver Aggression zeigen (Bobadilla, Metze, & Taylor, 2013). Gut aussehende Menschen weisen außerdem ein höheres Selbstwertgefühl auf, teilweise vermittelt über ein gesteigertes romantisches Selbstvertrauen (Bale & Archer, 2013). ...
Book
Fabian Kirsch geht im Rahmen von zwei experimentellen Studien der Frage nach, wie sich das Tragen roter Kleidung und Kleidung in der persönlichen Präferenzfarbe des Betrachters/der Betrachterin auf die Wahrnehmung verschiedener Personenaspekte, insbesondere auf die physische Attraktivität, auswirkt. Weiterhin gibt der Autor einen Überblick über die aktuelle Attraktivitäts- sowie farbpsychologische Forschung und diskutiert methodische Besonderheiten im Schnittpunkt dieser beiden Forschungszweige. Für die individuelle Farbpräferenz zeigte sich ein positiver Zusammenhang zur Attraktivitätswahrnehmung. Die spezifische Wirkung der Farbe Rot hängt von dem Geschlecht der Versuchsperson, deren sexueller Orientierung und dem Geschlecht der betrachteten Zielperson ab.
... They found that women who were more symmetrical had higher levels of estradiol than their less symmetrical counterparts. Similarly, Soler et al. (2003) reported significant correlations between semen quality-measured with sperm motility, morphology, and concentration-and facial attractiveness in a sample of Spanish adult men (N = 66). The authors proposed that high-quality semen is an indicator of good physical health, which is closely associated with higher likelihood of conception. ...
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Reproductive behavior is a complex process involving psychological, biological, and social influences throughout individual’s life. Yet, to date, most research on determinants of fertility has treated these factors simply as the unobservable. Using three large longitudinal studies, the current study estimates the effects of personality traits, physical attractiveness, intelligence, and SES on transition to parenthood and on number of children ever born. Analyses results indicated that, among the personality traits, extraversion significantly accelerates childbearing among both sexes. Moreover, extraversion was found to be positively associated with number of children born during the reproductive career. Openness was found to significantly reduce the odds of transitioning to parenthood and size of completed fertility among women. The present study also provides support for the strong and positive correlation between physical attractiveness and reproductive success even among contemporary populations. Finally, the effect of intelligence on fertility were inconsistent across samples and between genders.
... Atrakcyjność twarzy jest rzetelnym wskaźnikiem niektórych miar jakości biologicznej: (1) długowieczności u obu płci (HENDERSON i ANGLIN 2003), (2) siły fizycznej mężczyzn , SHOUP i GALLUP 2008, (3) sprawności fizycznej kobiet (HÖNEKOPP et al. 2004; przy kontroli aktualnego stanu zdrowia), (4) sprawności fizycznej u mężczyzn (WILLIAMS et al. 2009, ale por. HÖNEKOPP et al. 2007), (5) sprawności reprodukcyjnej mężczyzn: ruchliwości i prawidłowej morfologii plemników (SOLER et al. 2003, ale por. PETERS et al. 2008. ...
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A newer version of the Polish text which has been published (in somewhat shortened form) as two English-language papers: "Facial attractiveness: General patterns of facial preferences" and "Facial attractiveness: Variation, adaptiveness and consequences of facial preferences".
... The current research adds to the growing evidence demonstrating the powerful effect that morphological features can wield across widely disparate settings including facial features and occupational success (Mueller & Mazur, 1996;Rule & Ambady, 2008), height and occupational success (Judge & Cable, 2004), facial features and aggressive sports behaviors (Carré & McCormick, 2008), men's good looks and sperm quality (Soler et al., 2003), and women's waist to hip ratios and their fertility (Singh, 2002) and sexual behavior (Hughes & Gallup, 2003). Investigating how these types of morphological features might be predictive of consumer behavior and decision-making may lead to novel insights regarding biological influences on consumer behavior. ...
Article
While hormones have been shown to impact a wide range of behaviors, little is known regarding their influence on consumer behavior. The current research examines the association between digit ratios and courtship-related consumption. Digit ratios (2D:4D and rel2) are indicators of prenatal testosterone exposure and are assessed by measuring finger length. In Study 1, masculinized digit ratios (low digit ratios, high prenatal testosterone) in men were associated with greater courtship-related consumption to acquire mates, and this association was stronger for men with high mating confidence. In women, feminized digit ratios (high digit ratios, low prenatal testosterone) were associated with greater courtship-related consumption to acquire mates. In Study 2, men with masculinized digit ratios engaged in greater courtship-related consumption by offering romantic gifts as a means of retaining mates. In women, feminized digit ratios were associated with greater romantic gift giving. Our findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone in men leads to greater courtship-related consumption, whereas low prenatal testosterone leads to greater courtship-related consumption in women.
... FA is the most common marker of developmental instability (DI) used in empirical research (Van Dongen and Gangestad, 2011). DI (emerging morphologically as FA) has been linked to some aspects of human health (e.g., Manning et al., 1997a;Shackelford and Larsen, 1997;Waynforth, 1998), such as susceptibility to infectious disease (Thornhill and Gangestad, 2006), attractiveness (Brown et al. 2008), and reproductive potential in men (Manning et al., 1998;Soler et al., 2003;Gangestad et al., 2010) and women (Jasienska et al., 2006;Manning et al., 1997b;Moller et al., 1995). Those associations are moderate, but statistically highly robust (Van Dongen and Gangestad, 2011), and there is a relative paucity of research revealing how, and precisely why, FA becomes linked to a wide variety of aspects of an individual's fitness (Gangestad et al., 2010). ...
Article
Objectives High level of oxidative stress (OS) during the first weeks of pregnancy is related to many serious pregnancy complications. Previous studies showed that body fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is related to OS level in men, suggesting that FA is a marker of oxidative balance in an individual. The aim of this study was to analyze if body FA was related to the level of biomarkers of OS in the first trimester of pregnancy.Methods The sample included 34 women in the first trimester of pregnancy, not smoking, and not exposed to toxins in their work environment. The composite FA and levels of two biomarkers of OS, 8-iso-ProstaglandinF2α (an indicator of oxidative damage to lipids) and 8-OH-dG (an indicator of oxidative damage to DNA) were measured. Factors that may affect the level of OS (vitamin supplementation, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and health condition) were controlled.ResultsThe levels of OS markers in the first trimester of pregnancy correlated positively with women's FA (r = 0.52, P = 0.002 for 8-OH-dG; r = 0.50; P = 0.003 for 8-iso-PGF2α level) and positively with body height (r = 0.37, P = 0.03 for 8-OH-dG level).Conclusion The level of OS is likely to be a substantial and important fitness trait, and FA may convey information on the level of OS in women. The result confirms that FA is an indicator of biological condition, as suggested by an evolutionary approach to morphological human traits perceived as attractive. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Evidence that men advertise their fertility through attractive phenotypic traits remains mixed. A study conducted on 66 Spanish men found that men rated as attractive had a higher number of morphologically normal sperm and a higher proportion of motile sperm (Soler et al. 2003), although a similar study using 118 Australian men failed to replicate these findings (Peters et al. 2008). In a study investigating the relationship between attractiveness, voice pitch, and ejaculate quality, Simmons et al. (2011) found that men with low-pitched voices were rated as more attractive but had lower sperm concentrations, suggesting a trade-off between pre-and postcopulatory traits. ...
Article
Secondary sexual traits in males are recognized as having arisen in order to gain access to reproductive opportunities, through their effects on the outcome of male–male competition and female choice. The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that ejaculate quality is honestly advertised via secondary sexual traits. Alternatively, if males have limited resources to allocate to both pre- and postcopulatory traits, males possessing attractive phenotypic or behavioral traits may produce poorer quality ejaculates. Sperm competition theory also predicts that the female phenotype will influence ejaculate quality, with males increasing investment as female attractiveness increases. However, the extent to which the male and female phenotypes interact in affecting ejaculate quality has not been widely studied. Here, we examine how male and female phenotypes influence ejaculate quality in humans. Eighty-one men, for whom we had a composite measure of overall male mate value, produced a semen sample in response to images of either highly attractive or less attractive women. We found a significant relationship between male mate value and ejaculate quality that was context dependent. Sperm motility and concentration increased with male mate value but only when men viewed images of highly attractive women. Context dependence may contribute, in part, to the often conflicting patterns of variation found in studies that test the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis.
... Forty-five male participants in committed heterosexual relationships were asked to provide a semen sample and information about their use of mate guarding behaviors. Research on both human and non-human animals has suggested that male quality can be associated with both ejaculate quality and mate guarding behavior [4,20,[39][40][41][42]. We therefore determined whether male mate value might account for variation in ejaculate quality and mate guarding, by collected information on three measures of male quality -self-perceived mate value, and female perceived dominance and attractiveness. ...
... It is worth saying that it is only when the right-minus-left value is statistically tested on a sample that one can assign directional or fluctuating asymmetry. Human face asymmetries have been studied from different perspectives, including esthetics and facial reconstruction (Peck et al., 1991; Ponniah et al., 2006; Torres et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2010), or medical comparative studies (DeLeon and Richtsmeier, 2009; Klingenberg et al., 2010; Shaner et al., 2000), even though most of those studies explore facial "beauty" as a signal of individual fitness (Jones et al., 2001; Little et al., 2007; Møller and Swaddle, 1997; Peters et al., 2008; Rhodes et al., 1998; Saxton et al., 2006; Scheib et al., 1999; Soler et al., 2003; Swaddle and Cuthill, 1995; Tov ee and Cornelissen, 2001). Even when genetic disturbances might influence the individual's buffering ability, and thus might contribute to it, fluctuating asymmetry is considered to be a measure of developmental instability (Palmer and Strobeck, 1986). ...
Article
Objectives It has been postulated that symmetric faces are considered more attractive than asymmetric ones because symmetry may signal high quality due to developmental stability. However, other studies showed that both symmetric and slightly asymmetric faces are considered attractive. Here we aim to explore this discrepancy, beginning with the analysis of the normal prevalence of facial symmetry in a population as a necessary first step prior to any attractiveness assessment.Methods We collected facial landmarks from two-dimensional digital images of a sample of Mexican individuals (280 females and 285 males aged 18–68 years) that were analyzed using geometric morphometric methods. Then, we chose a subsample of 100 photographs (50 females and 50 males aged 18–27 years) selected to represent a broad range of asymmetrical variation, in order to evaluate attractiveness using a sex-opposite test. Finally, we analyzed the linear correlation between attractiveness and asymmetry.ResultsWe found that every evaluated subject presents some degree of facial asymmetry, and that both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry were significant (P < 0.0001) components of total facial asymmetry. Fluctuating asymmetry was slightly associated with age (r = 0.0858, P = 0.0414) and there were no differences between geographical regions (P = 0.413). Attractiveness was not correlated to levels of asymmetry in either sex (males: P = 0.0973; females P = 0.7415).Conclusions Asymmetry was a prevalent feature in the present sample, and preferences for symmetric faces were not operating in the studied population. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... The relevance of sperm competition as a selective force among humans is controversial (e.g. Pound et al. 2006), although it enjoys the support of evidence that competitive sperm covaries positively with a mate's symmetry and facial attractiveness (Manning et al. 1998, Soler et al. 2003) -good indicators of a potential father's genetic quality (Møller & Swaddle 1997, Gangestad & Thornhill 1998. Suggested indications of female adaptations that may promote sperm competition include the use of orgasm in sperm selection (Baker & Bellis 1993, Thornhill et al. 1995 and double matings (i.e. ...
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Nummi, P. & Pellikka, J. 2012: Do female sex fantasies reflect adaptations for sperm competition? — Ann. Zool. Fennici 49: 93–102. Researchers have suggested that female strategies for sexual selection in humans include the promotion of sperm competition. Sperm competition entails the simulta-neous presence of fertile sperm from at least two males in the female's reproductive organ competing for the opportunity to fertilise the ovum. Certain behaviour patterns near ovulation may enable such competition. In this paper, we describe relative prefer-ences for female sexual fantasy types and explore the idea that these preferences may help us understand the settings and mechanisms that promote sperm competition, and discourage interfemale competition. To expand this exploration, we also examine whether preferences vary with respect to the menstrual cycle. Our preliminary findings indicate notable preferences among females for multiple male-partner fantasies over multiple female-partner fantasies or fantasies that include multiple male and female partners. This suggests that females find multipartner settings as arousing as males do, but the psychological mechanism relating to settings that include the presence of same sex competitors may differ from that of males. We also discovered some indications that the female preference for promoting sperm competition and avoiding interfemale competition is the highest and strongest near ovulation.
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Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.
Chapter
Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.
Chapter
Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.
Chapter
Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.
Chapter
Wide-ranging and inclusive, this text provides an invaluable review of an expansive selection of topics in human evolution, variation and adaptability for professionals and students in biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, medical sciences and psychology. The chapters are organized around four broad themes, with sections devoted to phenotypic and genetic variation within and between human populations, reproductive physiology and behavior, growth and development, and human health from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. An introductory section provides readers with the historical, theoretical and methodological foundations needed to understand the more complex ideas presented later. Two hundred discussion questions provide starting points for class debate and assignments to test student understanding.
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Early exposure to parental features shapes later sexual preferences in fish, birds, and mammals. Here I report that human males’ preferences for a conspicuous trait, colourful eyes, are affected by the eye colour of mothers. Female faces with light (blue or green) eyes were liked better by men whose mother had light eyes; the effect broke down in those who had felt rejected by her as children. These results, garnered on over one thousand men, complete those of a symmetrical study on one thousand women, painting a fuller picture of human sexual imprinting. Both men and women appear to have imprinted on their opposite-sex parents unless these were perceived as cold and unjustly punitive. Birds require strong attachment to sexually imprint—a constraint in place to reduce the perils of acquiring the wrong sort of information. Parents who form no bond with their offspring may fail to be recognised as appropriate parental imprinting objects. Consistent with human females being, as in most of the animal kingdom, the choosier sex, imprinted preferences were displayed by both sexes but translated into real-life partner choices solely in women—attractive women. Apparently, not all of us can afford to follow our own inclinations.
Article
Physical attractiveness plays an important role in the formation and development of intimate relationships. Since individuals with igher ratings of physical attractiveness are perceived as having more socially desirable traits and better genes, they are regarded as having higher mate value that can facilitate the establishment of intimate elationships. However, because of the dissimilarity in physical ttractiveness, the less attractive partner tends to employ a range of ate retention, jealous, insulting, and sexual coercion behaviors. These behaviors contribute to an acceleration of the breakup of intimate elationships. Other studies have suggested that attractive men have a higher probability of not possessing good genes, which would be avorable to intimate relationships and women do not show a stronger reference for attractive men when in the hormonal states associated with high fertility.The viewpoint of “what is beautiful is good”is currently being questioned, the findings of which have been controversial and divergent. As a result, the relevant direct evidence needs to be further consolidated.
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We routinely make judgements of trustworthiness from the faces of others. However, the accuracy of such judgements remains contentious. An important context for trustworthiness judgements is sexual unfaithfulness. Accuracy in sexual unfaithfulness judgements may be adaptive for avoiding reproductive costs associated with having an unfaithful partner. Indeed, emerging studies suggest that women, and to a lesser degree, men, show above-chance accuracy in judging sexual unfaithfulness from opposite-sex faces. In the context of mate guarding, it is important not only to assess the likelihood of a partner defecting, but also to detect same-sex poachers. Therefore, here, we examine whether individuals can also judge sexual unfaithfulness (self-reported cheating and poaching behaviour) from same-sex faces. We found above-chance accuracy in judgements of unfaithfulness from same-sex faces in men but not women. Conversely, we found above-chance accuracy for opposite-sex faces in women but not men. Therefore, both men and women showed above-chance accuracy, but only for men's, and not women's, faces. Raters were making accurate (above-chance) judgements of unfaithfulness from men's faces using facial masculinity, a well-established signal of propensity to adopt short-term mating strategies. In summary, we found above-chance accuracy in impressions of unfaithfulness from men's faces. Although very modest, the level of accuracy could nevertheless have biological significance as an evolved adaptation for identifying potential cheaters/poachers. © 2019 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Affectionate Communication in Close Relationships - by Kory Floyd December 2018
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Cambridge Core - Communications - Affectionate Communication in Close Relationships - by Kory Floyd
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How and why do our minds generate different levels of attraction to others? This chapter integrates life history, evolutionary psychology, and human biology approaches to address this question. Biological adaptations regulate a vast number of life history trade-offs that affect how we look, smell, sound, and behave. Selection produced adaptations that evaluate these cues and regulate our degree of attraction to others based on their relative probable social value to us in different contexts. This chapter outlinesthe alternative evolutionary explanations for the emergence of an attraction,basic components necessary for attraction systems to evolve, and sources of variation in attractiveness assessment. It identifies different domains of social value for which attractiveness assessment evolved, reviews evidence for some of the hypothesized attractiveness-assessment adaptations in those domains, and highlights avenues calling for increased attention. Finally, it calls for greater integration of evolutionary psychology, human biological research, and data from small-scale foraging societies to generate predictions about these domains of social value, the cues or signals associated with them, adaptations selected to regulate attraction to them, and the life history trade-offs involved in these processes. New research on body shape attractiveness is presented to illustrate these points.
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Health has been claimed to play an important role in human sexual selection, especially in terms of mate choice. Our preferences for attractive individuals are said to represent evolved adaptations for finding high-quality, healthy mates. If this is true, then we expect health to predict mating success in humans. We tested this hypothesis using several important physiological indicators of health, including immune function, oxidative stress and semen quality, and self-reported measures of sexual behaviour that contribute to mating success. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not find a relationship between the physiological measures of health and sexual behaviour. Our results provide little support for claims that health, at least the health measures we used, increases mating success in relatively healthy humans.
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The study of beauty has many facets with research clearly showing us what biological indicators account for the perception of attractiveness and the subsequent societal implications. Conventional thinking asserts that standards of beauty are formed from a gradually learned subjective process that is a product of the media; however, research conducted over the past decades contradicts these widely held beliefs. Theoretical and empirical work has attempted to understand physical attractiveness through evolutionary models of signaling. It is the fundamental assumption of evolutionary-based theories that physical attractiveness is largely a reflection of reliable cues to health, quality, and reproduction. Studies on both the animal kingdom and humans suggest that those human traits that are considered attractive function as markers of biologic condition and reproductive potential. In particular, human beauty standards are thought to reflect our evolutionary past and emphasize the role of health assessment in mate choice. Although studies do show variable results, overall, a link, albeit weak in some instances, has been illustrated between attractiveness and perceived health, actual health, and reproductive status for men and women. This chapter explores the research behind evolutionary theories that have proved to be powerful tools in exploring the fundamentals of beauty ideals.
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The present research sought to determine how skin color, facial shape, and facial width to height ratio (fWHR) affect ratings of 10 Black male facial shapes. Based on evolutionary theory and prior research, the rectangular, quadratic, inverted trapezium, and pentagonal faces were hypothesized to receive the highest attractiveness, dominance, maturity, masculinity, strength, and social competence ratings. Additionally, faces with higher fWHRs were expected to receive higher dominance, strength, and masculinity ratings. Smaller, round or oval faces were hypothesized to receive highest warmth ratings. The results were partially consistent with these hypotheses. The examination of the effect of skin color was exploratory. Skin color did not affect ratings of the faces. These findings are discussed in terms of evolutionary adaptations and prior research.
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Over the past 15 years, extensive research has documented that estrus in women is present, not absent due to evolutionary loss, as scholars concluded erroneously by the middle of the last century. Estrus in women is a set of sexual preferences, manifested in the fertile window of the menstrual cycle, for mates with traits that connote male phenotypic and genetic quality. We hypothesize that women’s estrus is an adaptation that functions to obtain genes, including conditionally via extra-pair copulation, that enhance offspring reproductive value. Women’s estrus is ancient phylogenetically, and has homology and functional similarity with estrus throughout vertebrates. Women’s sexuality at infertile cycle points and other infertile times is referred to as “extended sexuality.” It is common in Old World primates and probably in pair-bonding, socially monogamous birds. The kinds of preferences associated with women’s extended sexuality are consistent with the hypothesis that its function is to obtain nongenetic material benefits and services from males by exchanging sexual access for them. Concealed estrus is present in women as evidenced by men’s limited ability (compared to other male mammals) to detect estrus, women’s limited behavioral changes (compared to other female mammals) during estrus, and estrous women’s efforts to limit male mate guarding. Evidence supports the hypothesis that concealed estrus is adaptation that functions in extra-pair-bond copulation to cuckold the main partner in service of better genes for offspring, while maintaining the main partner’s material benefits. Research findings indicate that women’s estrogen-based sexual ornaments honestly signal residual reproductive value.
Article
From an evolutionary perspective, animal mate choice depends in large part on the natural mating system of a species. The natural mating system of humans, however, seems at first glance to contain internal contradictions. On the one hand, humans show several signs of having a monogamous mating system. For example, humans are highly altricial-we have prolonged childhoods and rely heavily on extended families throughout our life spans (Alexander and Noonan, 1979). We also appear designed to form romantic pair bonds, having a dedicated neurochemistry of attachment associated with monogamy when comparisons are made across mammalian species (Fisher, 1998; Young, 2003). On the other hand, humans seem to possess evolved design features associated with multimale/multifemale or “promiscuous” mating systems. For example, humans possess psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition (Baker and Bellis, 1995; Shackelford and LeBlanc, 2001), such as women's adaptive timing of extrapair copulations (Gangestad and Thornhill, 1998; Haselton and Miller, 2006), men's specialized expressions of sexual jealousy (Buss, 2000; Schutzwohl, 2006), and the physical structure of the human penis serving as a semen displacement device (Gallup et al., 2003). Among men, causal sex with multiple partners is often viewed as desirable (Symons and Ellis, 1989; Oliver and Hyde, 1993), with most men agreeing to have sex with complete strangers when asked in field experiments (Clark and Hatfield, 1989). Adaptive patterns of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and mate poaching by both men and women have been documented across cultures (Broude and Greene, 1976; Schmitt et al., 2004a).
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From an evolutionary psychology perspective, it is likely our species comes equipped with specialized psychological adaptations that influence the differing ways men and women pursue mating strategies. When short-term mating, men seem to preferentially desire easy sexual access and relax their mate preference desires so as to obtain large numbers of sexual partners. When women pursue short-term mates, they appear to increase their selectivity in mate choice and desire men who possess cues to “good genes.” In long-term mating, men preferentially emphasize fertility-related cues such as youth and physical attractiveness, whereas women desire a long-term mate who is able and willing to devote resources to her and their offspring. Overall, the empirical validity of most mate preference adaptations postulated by Sexual Strategies Theory (Psychological Review 100:204–232, 1993) is strong to moderate in evidentiary depth and breadth.
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Humans are exquisitely sensitive to beauty: it plays a primary role in impression formation and influences subsequent judgements, favouring the beautiful. Why? This paper examines the factors underlying beauty's effect on the mind of the beholder. First we review the evolutionary importance of beauty, including its role as reward, before focusing on the impact of beauty on attention and the influence of motivational state. The research reviewed demonstrates the evolutionary importance of beauty as an implicit cue indexing genotypic and phenotypic quality: as a preference for beauty is highly adaptive, the brain has evolved to activate neural networks associated with reward in response to beautiful faces (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, ventral striatum). Not surprisingly then, beauty holds privileged attentional status: even when attention is consciously engaged elsewhere, beauty alters attentional deployment rapidly, effortlessly and unconsciously, capturing attention even when beauty falls outside the focus of conscious attention or a region of high visual acuity. Motivational context also influences attentional adhesion to beauty, with perceiver gender, relationship status and sociosexual orientation all influencing attentional capture. Overall, the research confirms that beauty holds privileged attentional status, in keeping with its evolutionary importance; beauty truly does capture the mind of the beholder.
Article
Dimensional Structure of the Mental Representation of Faces – Data for a sample of European-type faces and participants Various psychological dimensions involved in the evaluation of human faces are proposed in the literature. It is assumed that they organise the mental representation of faces but only indirect elements of validation are currently available. The present study is a response to this problem. It integrates dimensions proposed within the framework of evolutionary psychology and research on the recognition of faces. We connect results of judgements of similarity for European-type faces with their evaluation on four dimensions. Evaluations are made by a convenience sample of 123 participants, also of European type. The results demonstrate that the dimensions of attractiveness, familiarity, apparent health, and distinctiveness are involved in the organisation of the perceived proximity between faces.
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In evolutionary psychology predictions, women's mate preferences shift between fertile and nonfertile times of the month to reflect ancestral fitness benefits. Our meta-analytic test involving 58 independent reports (13 unpublished, 45 published) was largely nonsupportive. Specifically, fertile women did not especially desire sex in short-term relationships with men purported to be of high genetic quality (i.e., high testosterone, masculinity, dominance, symmetry). The few significant preference shifts appeared to be research artifacts. The effects declined over time in published work, were Limited to studies that used broader, less precise definitions of the fertile phase, and were found only in published research.
Article
-A relatively new theory of motivation posits that purposeful human behavior may be partly explained by multidimensional individual differences "traits of action" (motives). Its 15 motives can be characterized according to their purpose: individual integrity, competitiveness, and cooperativeness. Existing evidence supports the model on which the motives are based and the reliability and validity of strategies to assess them. This experiment tested whether the hypothetical results of consistent, motivated cooperative and competitive behavior could affect ratings of attractiveness. Male and female participants (N = 98; M age = 18.8, SD = 1.4) were shown 24 opposite-sex facial photos ranging in attractiveness. The photos were paired with one of three conditions representing theoretical outcomes that would result from low, control, and high levels of cooperative and competitive motives. As predicted, outcome descriptions representing high motive strength of six motives statistically significantly affected ratings of attractiveness. This result was independent of sex of participant and consistent with the theory.
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Previous research has documented that more facially attractive people are perceived by others to be physically healthier. Using self-reports, observer ratings, daily diary methodology, and psychophysiological assessments, this study provides limited empirical evidence that more facially attractive people (N = 100) may be physically healthier than unattractive people. Discussion suggests the value of an evolutionary psychological perspective for understanding the relationship between facial attractiveness and physical health.
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Sexual selection is a well established evolutionary process based on preferences for specific traits in one sex by members of the other sex. It is important in the evolution of morphological traits, and several sexually dimorphic traits in humans, such as facial hair and facial shape1, are assumed to be the outcome of such a process. Here we demonstrate that taller men are reproductively more successful than shorter men, indicating that there is active selection for stature in male partners by women.
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A model is presented to account for the natural selection of what is termed reciprocally altruistic behavior. The model shows how selection can operate against the cheater (non-reciprocator) in the system. Three instances of altruistic behavior are discussed, the evolution of which the model can explain: (1) behavior involved in cleaning symbioses; (2) warning cries in birds; and (3) human reciprocal altruism. Regarding human reciprocal altruism, it is shown that the details of the psychological system that regulates this altruism can be explained by the model. Specifically, friendship, dislike, moralistic aggression, gratitude, sympathy, trust, suspicion, trustworthiness, aspects of guilt, and some forms of dishonesty and hypocrisy can be explained as important adaptations to regulate the altruistic system. Each individual human is seen as possessing altruistic and cheating tendencies, the expression of which is sensitive to developmental variables that were selected to set the tendencies at a balance ap...
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Evolutionary, as well as cultural, pressures may contribute to our perceptions of facial attractiveness. Biologists predict that facial symmetry should be attractive, because it may signal mate quality. We tested the prediction that facial symmetry is attractive by manipulating the symmetry of individual faces and observing the effect on attractiveness, and by examining whether natural variations in symmetry (between faces) correlated with perceived attractiveness. Attractiveness increased when we increased symmetry, and decreased when we reduced symmetry, in individual faces (Experiment 1), and natural variations in symmetry correlated significantly with attractiveness (Experiments 1 and 1A). Perfectly symmetric versions, made by blending the normal and mirror images of each face, were preferred to less symmetric versions of the same faces (even when those versions were also blends) (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were found when subjects judged the faces on appeal as a potential life partner, suggesting that facial symmetry may affect human mate choice. We conclude that facial symmetry is attractive and discuss the possibility that this preference for symmetry may be biologically based.
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The Y chromosome was once thought to be devoid of genetic information. However, recent work shows that it contains numerous genes related to sperm production and dimorphic traits (such as body size and tooth development). Among mammals, these traits influence a male's competitive ability in male–male contests and in sperm competition. Therefore, sexual selection could have favoured genes on the Y chromosome that enhance male fertilization success because they spread unaltered through the male line. In contrast, female heterogamety among birds makes it possible for genes that benefit females to spread through the female line, a mechanism that could explain the prevalence of female choice.
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We hypothesized from the parasite theory of sexual selection that men (Homo sapiens) would prefer averageness and symmetry in women's faces, that women would prefer averageness and symmetry in men's faces, and that women would prefer largeness (not averageness) of the secondary sexual traits of men's faces. We generated computer images of men's and women's faces and of composites of the faces of each sex, and then had men and women rate opposite-sex faces for 4 variables (attractive, dominant, sexy, and healthy). Symmetry, averageness, and the sizes of facial features were measured on the computerized faces. The hypotheses were supported, with the exception of the hypothesized effects of averageness of female and male faces on attractiveness ratings. This is the first study to show that facial symmetry has a positive influence on facial attractiveness ratings.
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The finding that photographic and digital composites (blends) of faces are considered to be attractive has led to the claim that attractiveness is averageness. This would encourage stabilizing selection, favouring phenotypes with an average facial structure. The 'averageness hypothesis' would account for the low distinctiveness of attractive faces but is difficult to reconcile with the finding that some facial measurements correlate with attractiveness. An average face shape is attractive but may not be optimally attractive. Human preferences may exert directional selection pressures, as with the phenomena of optimal outbreeding and sexual selection for extreme characteristics. Using composite faces, we show here that, contrary to the averageness hypothesis, the mean shape of a set of attractive faces is preferred to the mean shape of the sample from which the faces were selected. In addition, attractive composites can be made more attractive by exaggerating the shape differences from the sample mean. Japanese and caucasian observers showed the same direction of preferences for the same facial composites, suggesting that aesthetic judgements of face shape are similar across different cultural backgrounds. Our finding that highly attractive facial configurations are not average shows that preferences could exert a directional selection pressure on the evolution of human face shape.
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Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is deviation from bilateral symmetry in morphological traits with asymmetry values that are normally distributed with a mean of 0. FA is produced by genetic or environmental perturbations of developmental design and may play a role in human sexual selection. K. Grammer and R. Thornhill (1994) found that facial FA negatively covaries with observer ratings of attractiveness, dominance, sexiness, and health. Using self-reports, observer ratings, daily diary reports, and psychophysiological measures, the authors assessed the relationship between facial FA and health in 2 samples of undergraduates (N = 101). Results partially replicate and extend those of K. Grammer and R. Thornhill (1994) and suggest that facial FA may signal psychological, emotional, and physiological distress. Discussion integrates the authors' findings with previous research on FA and suggests future research needed to clarify the role of FA in human sexual selection.
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An ever-increasing number of species are suffering marked reductions in population size as a consequence of human activities. To understand the impact of these changes it is essential to assess how small population size affects individual fitness and the viability of populations. This issue acquires special relevance among endangered species in which numbers have decreased to such an extent that captive breeding must be established with a few founders. A major risk associated with small population size is inbreeding depression. The effects of inbreeding upon male reproductive traits are the subject of an ongoing controversy, since the evidence linking lack of genetic variability and poor ejaculate quality at the population level has been criticized recently by several authors. We report that among Gazella cuvieri males, inbreeding coefficient shows a strong inverse relationship with ejaculate quality. Furthermore, the degree of fluctuating asymmetry is positively related to the coefficient of inbreeding and negatively related to the proportion of normal sperm, suggesting that it is a reliable indicator of genetic stress and of ejaculate quality.
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Testosterone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics in males may signal immunological competence and are sexually selected for in several species. In humans, oestrogen-dependent characteristics of the female body correlate with health and reproductive fitness and are found attractive. Enhancing the sexual dimorphism of human faces should raise attractiveness by enhancing sex-hormone-related cues to youth and fertility in females, and to dominance and immunocompetence in males. Here we report the results of asking subjects to choose the most attractive faces from continua that enhanced or diminished differences between the average shape of female and male faces. As predicted, subjects preferred feminized to average shapes of a female face. This preference applied across UK and Japanese populations but was stronger for within-population judgements, which indicates that attractiveness cues are learned. Subjects preferred feminized to average or masculinized shapes of a male face. Enhancing masculine facial characteristics increased both perceived dominance and negative attributions (for example, coldness or dishonesty) relevant to relationships and paternal investment. These results indicate a selection pressure that limits sexual dimorphism and encourages neoteny in humans.
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The differentiation of the urinogenital system and the appendicular skeleton in vertebrates is under the control of Hox genes. The common control of digit and gonad differentiation raises the possibility that patterns of digit formation may relate to spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations. This work was concerned with the ratio between the length of the 2nd and 4th digit (2D:4D) in humans. We showed that (i) 2D:4D in right and left hands has a sexually dimorphic pattern; in males mean 2D:4D = 0.98, i.e. the 4th digit tended to be longer than the 2nd and in females mean 2D:4D = 1.00, i.e. the 2nd and 4th digits tended to be of equal length. The dimorphism is present from at least age 2 years and 2D:4D is probably established in utero; (ii) high 2D:4D ratio in right hands was associated with germ cell failure in men (P = 0.04); (iii) sperm number was negatively related to 2D:4D in the right hand (P = 0.004); (iv) in men testosterone concentrations were negatively related to right hand 2D:4D and in women and men LH (right hand), oestrogen (right and left hands) and prolactin (right hand) concentrations were positively correlated with 2D:4D ratio and (v) 2D:4D ratio in right hands remained positively related to luteinizing hormone and oestrogen after controlling for sex, age, height and weight.
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Several studies have found body and facial symmetry as well as attractiveness to be human mate choice criteria. These characteristics are presumed to signal developmental stability. Human body odour has been shown to influence female mate choice depending on the immune system, but the question of whether smell could signal general mate quality, as do other cues, was not addressed in previous studies. We compared ratings of body odour, attractiveness, and measurements of facial and body asymmetry of 16 male and 19 female subjects. Subjects wore a T-shirt for three consecutive nights under controlled conditions. Opposite-sex raters judged the odour of the T-shirts and another group evaluated portraits of the subjects for attractiveness. We measured seven bilateral traits of the subject's body to assess body asymmetry. Facial asymmetry was examined by distance measurements of portrait photographs. The results showed a significant positive correlation between facial attractiveness and sexiness of body odour for female subjects. We found positive relationships between body odour and attractiveness and negative ones between smell and body asymmetry for males only if female odour raters were in the most fertile phase of their menstrual cycle. The outcomes are discussed in the light of different male and female reproductive strategies.
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The purpose of this comprehensive text is to increase awareness of human reproduction and its consequences. The central theme links reproductive capacity, the social consequences of the multiple stresses this places on the environment and the ways this relates back to the reproductive health of humans and other animals. In the first section, the biology of human reproduction is discussed, including such topics as the treatment and causes of infertility, growth and maturation, parental behaviour and neonate biology. The effects of procreational biology on the foundation of human social structure are also examined. The second part deals with reproduction as it relates to health and social issues such as stress, fertility control, AIDS, teratogens and errors of sexual differentiation. It is an invaluable resource for all those wishing to update their knowledge of human reproductive biology.
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Why are men, like other primate males, usually the aggressors and risk takers? Why do women typically have fewer sexual partners? In Why Sex Matters, Bobbi Low ranges from ancient Rome to modern America, from the Amazon to the Arctic, and from single-celled organisms to international politics, to show that these and many other questions about human behavior largely come down to evolution and sex. More precisely, as she shows in this uniquely comprehensive and accessible survey of behavioral and evolutionary ecology, they come down to the basic principle that all organisms evolved to maximize their reproductive success and seek resources to do so, but that sometimes cooperation and collaboration are the most effective ways to succeed. This newly revised edition has been thoroughly updated to include the latest research and reflect exciting changes in the field, including how our evolutionary past continues to affect our ecological present.
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Sexual selection processes have received much attention in recent years, attention reflected in interest in human mate preferences. Among these mate preferences are preferences for physical attractiveness. Preferences in and of themselves, however, do not fully explain the nature of the relationships that individuals attain. A tacit negotiation process underlies relationship formation and maintenance. The notion that preferences for physical attractiveness evolved under parasite-driven "good genes" sexual selection leads to predictions about the nature of trade-offs that individuals make between mates' physical attractiveness and investment potential. These predictions and relevant data are explored, with a primary emphasis on women's preferences for men's qualities. In addition, further implications of trade-offs are examined, most notably (a) the impact of environmental variations on the nature of mating and (b) some effects of trade-offs on infidelity and male attempts to control women.
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Psychological evidence suggests that sex differences in morphology have been modified by sexual selection so as to attract mates (intersexual selection) or intimidate rivals (intrasexual selection). Women compete with each other for high quality husbands by advertising reproductive value in terms of the distribution of fat reserves and by exaggerating morphological indicators of youthfulness such as a small nose and small feet and pale, hairless skin. Men's physical appearance tends to communicate social dominance, which has the combined effects of intimidating reproductive rivals and attracting mates. In addition to their attractiveness and intimidatory effects, human secondary sexual characters also provide cues to hormonal status and phenotypic quality consistent with the good genes model of sexual selection (which includes parasite resistance). Low waist-hip ratio is sexually attractive in women and indicates a high estrogen/testosterone ratio (which favors reproductive function). Facial attractiveness provides honest cues to health and mate value. The permanently enlarged female breast appears to have evolved under the influence of both the good genes and the runaway selection mechanisms. The male beard is not obviously related to phenotypic quality and may have evolved through a process of runaway intersexual selection.
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This article reviews evidence of coitus-induced ovulation. Maintenance of reproductive efficiency by more than 1 mechanism for triggering ovulation is interpreted as an evolutionary phenomenon aimed at ensuring the survival of the species. In earlier research estrogen levels or progesterone output were believed to regulate the ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) release and the length of the receptive period in spontaneous ovulators; more recently the effect of neural olfactory and emotional stimuli has been recognized. The neuroendocrine systems involved in spontaneous and reflex-induced ovulation include the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadokinetic system and the neurohormonal pathways for coitomimetic stimuli. In spontaneously ovulating rodents the stimulus of coitus serves as an inducer for pseudopregnancy. The translation of vaginal stimulation into gonadomimetic humoral messages released from the hypothalamus and/or the posterior pituitary for the liberation of LH and prolactin is not completely understood. Nervous or biochemical influences resulting from coitus may even more directly affect ovarian functions by local sympathetic reflexes or by biochemical components of the ejaculate. In coitus-induced ovulation central nervous and/or peripheral autonomic nervous involvement may interact to push ovarian follicles toward maturation and ovulation or may help to ovulate nearly ripe or ripe follicles as a result of cohabitation. Acceptance of coitus-induced ovulation in humans renders rhythm methods of fertility control unreliable. In 1 large study of pregnancies resulting from rape 33-46% of conceptions occurred during what should have been a safe period. Emotions may also play a role in facilitating or predisposing to coitus-induced ovulation. There is a need for further biochemical statistical and demographic analyses of the frequency and sociologic importance of coitus-induced ovulation in humans.
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There is accumulating evidence that women prefer symmetric men. This preference would be adaptive if symmetry was correlated with a fitness trait such as fertility. We show that, in a sample of 53 men from an infertility clinic, a measure of overall absolute fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in digits 2 to 5 was negatively related to sperm number per ejaculate, sperm speed, and sperm migration, and overall relative FA was negatively related to sperm number and sperm speed. Subjects who had few or no sperm in their ejaculates (azoospermics) tended to have high FA, particularly when obstructive azoospermia was the likely diagnosis. Controlling for weight, height, and age left sperm number, sperm speed, and sperm migration significantly related to both absolute and relative FA. The association between low digit FA and large ejaculates and high sperm quality may arise because (1) generalized developmental stability of the body is related to fertility or (2) Hox genes control differentiation of digits and the urinogenital system in vertebrates, and FA of the former is closely linked to developmental stability of the latter.
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Research has failed to reach consensus on the characteristics of attractive male faces. Different studies have reported preferences for phenotypically average faces, and faces with both exaggerated and reduced sexual dimorphism. Recent studies demonstrate cyclic changes in female sexual behavior and preferences for odors and facial characteristics that may reflect conditional mating strategies. We employed computer graphic techniques to manipulate the “masculinity” or “femininity” of a composite male face by exaggerating or reducing the shape differences between female and male average faces. Five stimuli with varying levels of masculinity and femininity were presented in a national U.K. magazine, with a questionnaire. Female respondents in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (n = 55) were significantly more likely to choose a masculine face than those in menses and luteal phases (n = 84). This study provides further evidence that when conception is most likely, females prefer testosterone-related facial characteristics that may honestly advertise immunocompetence.
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Symmetry may act as a marker of phenotypic and genetic quality and is preferred during mate selection in a variety of species. Measures of human body symmetry correlate with attractiveness, but studies manipulating human face images report a preference for asymmetry. These results may reflect unnatural feature shapes and changes in skin textures introduced by image processing. When the shape of facial features is varied (with skin textures held constant), increasing symmetry of face shape increases ratings of attractiveness for both male and female faces. These findings imply facial symmetry may have a positive impact on mate selection in humans.
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Inspired by the evolutionary conjecture that sexually selected traits function as indicators of pathogen resistance in animals and humans, we examined the notion that human facial attractiveness provides evidence of health. Using photos of 164 males and 169 females in late adolescence and health data on these individuals in adolescence, middle adulthood, and later adulthood, we found that adolescent facial attractiveness was unrelated to adolescent health for either males or females, and was not predictive of health at the later times. We also asked raters to guess the health of each stimulus person from his or her photo. Relatively attractive stimulus persons were mistakenly rated as healthier than their peers. The correlation between perceived health and medically assessed health increased when attractiveness was statistically controlled, which implies that attractiveness suppressed the accurate recognition of health. These findings may have important implications for evolutionary models.
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Investigated, in 2 quasi-experiments, the relation between specific adult female facial features and the attraction, attribution, and altruistic responses of adult males. Precise measurements were obtained of the relative size of 24 facial features in an international sample of photographs of 50 females. 75 undergraduate males provided ratings of the attractiveness of each of the females. Positively correlated with attractiveness ratings were the neonate features of large eyes, small nose, and small chin; the maturity features of prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks; and the expressive features of high eyebrows, large pupils, and large smile. A 2nd study asked males to rate the personal characteristics of 16 previously measured females. The males were also asked to indicate the females for whom they would be most inclined to perform altruistic behaviors and to select for dating, sexual behavior, and childrearing. The 2nd study replicated the correlations of feature measurements with attractiveness. Facial features also predicted personality attributions, altruistic inclinations, and reproductive interest. Sociobiological interpretations are discussed. (73 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A previous study by the authors showed that the body scent of men who have greater body bilateral symmetry is rated as more attractive by normally ovulating (non-pill-using) women during the period of highest fertility based on day within the menstrual cycle. Women in low-fertility phases of the cycle and women using hormone-based con-traceptives do not show this pattern. The current study replicated these findings with a larger sample and statistically controlled for men's hygiene and other factors that were not controlled in the first study. The current study also examined women's scent attrac-tiveness to men and found no evidence that men prefer the scent of symmetric women. We propose that the scent of symmetry is an honest signal of phenotypic and genetic quality in the human male, and chemical candidates are discussed. In both sexes, facial attractiveness (as judged from photos) appears to predict body scent attractiveness to the opposite sex. Women's preference for the scent associated with men's facial attrac-tiveness is greatest when their fertility is highest across the menstrual cycle. The results overall suggest that women have an evolved preference for sires with good genes. © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.
Article
Members of host species in pathogen-host coevolutionary races may be selected to choose mates who possess features of physical appearance associated with pathogen resistance. Human data from 29 cultures indicate that people in geographical areas carrying relatively greater prevalences of pathogens value a mate's physical attractiveness more than people in areas with relatively little pathogen incidence. The relationship between pathogen prevalence and the value people place on physical attractiveness remained strong even after potential confounds such as distance from the equator, geographical region, and average income were statistically controlled for. Discussion focuses on potential limitations of the data, alternative explanations for the findings, and the nature of adaptions to the problems posed by pathogen prevalence.
Article
Humans in societies around the world discriminate between potential mates on the basis of attractiveness in ways that can dramatically affect their lives. From an evolutionary perspective, a reasonable working hypothesis is that the psychological mechanisms underlying attractiveness judgments are adaptations that have evolved in the service of choosing a mate so as to increase gene propagation throughout evolutionary history. The main hypothesis that has directed evolutionary psychology research into facial attractiveness is that these judgments reflect information about what can be broadly defined as an individual’s health. This has been investigated by examining whether attractiveness judgments show special design for detecting cues that allow us to make assessments of overall phenotypic condition. This review examines the three major lines of research that have been pursued in order to answer the question of whether attractiveness reflects non-obvious indicators of phenotypic condition. These are studies that have examined facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sex characteristics as hormone markers.
Article
The study of human sexuality from the darwinian perspective is in an explosive phase. Recent research is diverse; for instance, the dynamics of heterosexual relationships, the role of honest advertisement in attractiveness, the role of fluctuating asymmetry in sexual competition, and sexual conflict over fertilization, seen in sperm competition adaptations of men and possible cryptic sire-choice adaptation of women. Also, recent research reveals that the sexual selection that designed human secondary sexual traits was functional rather than strictly fisherian.
Article
We tested the idea that female preference for relatively attractive extra-pair males arises because the morphological and behavioural features that females find attractive covary with ejaculate features: Sheldon's (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 257 25-30 (1994) phenotype-linked fertility insurance hypothesis. Two phenotypic traits that female zebra finches find attractive in males are song rate and symmetry of chest band plumage, but we found neither of these to be significantly related to any of the following ejaculate features: number of sperm, percentage of live sperm, absolute number of sperm, sperm length or sperm swimming velocity. Furthermore, and surprisingly, we did not find the predicted negative relationship between male song rate and fluctuating asymmetry of chest band plumage. Because most ejaculate features (except sperm numbers in rested males) show low levels of repeatability, it is unlikely that female zebra finches could reliably obtain a better quality ejaculate by choosing to copulate with a more attractive male. There was thus no evidence for the phenotype-linked fertility insurance hypothesis. Nor did we obtain evidence for the more general fertility insurance hypothesis: we found that female zebra finches paired to a vasectomized male, and hence receiving no sperm, were no more likely to seek an extra-pair copulation than females paired to an intact male.
Article
We recently reported finding asymmetry in the appearance of beauty on the face [Zaidel et al., Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, pp. 649-655, 1995]. Here, we investigated whether facial beauty is a stable characteristic (on the owner's very face) or is in the perceptual space of the observer. We call the question 'the owner vs observer hypothesis'. We compared identity judgements and attractiveness ratings of observers. Subjects viewed left-left and right-right composites of faces and decided which most resembled the normal face (Experiment 1). Identity judgements (resemblance) are known to be associated with perceptual factors in the observer. Another group viewed the same normal faces and rated them on attractiveness (Experiment 2). In each experiment, there were two separate viewing conditions, original and reversed (mirror-image). Lateral reversal did affect the results of Experiment 1 (confirming previous findings [Bennett et al., Neuropsychologia, Vol. 25, pp. 681-687, 1987; Gilbert and Bakan, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 183, pp. 593-600, 1993]) but did not affect the results of Experiment 2. The fact that lateral reversal did not affect the results of Experiment 2 suggests that facial attractiveness is more dependent on physiognomy (of the owner) and less dependent on an asymmetrical perceptual process (in the observer) than is facial identity. The results are discussed in the context of beauty's biological significance and facial processing in the brain.
Article
Hominid fossils illustrate how modern humans have evolved anatomically. Included in the fossils are traits no longer phenotypically prevalent in humans (primitive) and phenotypic traits that have become increasingly prevalent (derived). In this study, published paleontological information about the anatomical evolution of humans was used to create line drawings of human form. Survey data were accumulated by having 759 individuals evaluate more than 40 anatomical traits. Each anatomical trait was presented as a panel of three line drawings intended to express the trait in a primitive, intermediate, and derived form. For each panel of three drawings, subjects were instructed to select the drawing they considered most attractive and then select the drawing they considered least attractive. The survey data indicate that males and females of diverse ages, races, cultures, and from varied geographical regions show commonality in their judgements of beauty of human form. The individuals surveyed appeared to have a strong aversion to primitive traits, preferring proportions and characteristics that are intermediate or more derived. In many instances, the evaluators preferred drawings that were exaggeratedly derived. The data may have relevance to the ongoing debate of whether averageness or atypicality is the essence of human beauty. Also, there was high agreement in judging the attractiveness of shapes and proportions in line drawings that were not immediately recognized to be representations of human form. These data could indicate that our general aesthetic sense for art, architecture, and fashion may be based on a subliminal reference to derived anatomical shapes and proportions. Overall, the data support the hypothesis that derived traits that are universally shared by anatomically modern humans may be the standard for our innate sense of beauty of human form.
Article
This article aims to throw light on the controversial topic of whether women have a ‘heat’ period within their menstrual cycle. The majority of publications in this field report, in addition to a periovulatory peak, no changes at all or even rises in male- and female-initiated sexual activity, woman’s sexual desire, autosexual activity and sexual arousability, and interpersonal sexual activities during the mid-follicular and late luteal phases. The lack of a distinct pattern of women’s sexual behaviour across the menstrual cycle may be explained by the interplay between cyclical endocrine fluctuations and many psychological, social, cultural and environmental factors, as well as the methodological shortcomings associated with menstrual cycle research. However, studies focused on cycling changes in women’s olfactory and visual perception show that, in comparison with women at other phases of the menstrual cycle, women at mid-cycle exhibit increased sexual motivation that biases recognition performance towards objects with a sexual meaning, evaluate the unattractive sweat substance androstenone as more pleasant, and display enhanced preference for the odour and face shape of masculinized, physically attractive and symmetric men. On the other hand, men find the scent of women at mid-cycle more pleasant and sexually attractive than during the luteal phase.
Evolutionary fitness: tall men have more reproductive success Female preference for males faces changes cyclically: further evidence
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Aná transcultural del concepto de atractivo facial masculino y de su relació son la calidad seminal Do women have a hidden heat period? Human Reproduction
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Soler, C., Gutié, R., Núñ, M., Buendí, P., Núñ, J., & Pé-Sá, F. (2000). Aná transcultural del concepto de atractivo facial masculino y de su relació son la calidad seminal. Actualidad Andrologica, 8, 134. Tarí, J. J., & Gó-Piquer, V. (2002). Do women have a hidden heat period? Human Reproduction, 17, 2243 – 2248.
Análisis transcultural del concepto de atractivo facial masculino y de su relación son la calidad seminal
  • Soler
Soler, C., Gutiérrez, R., Núñez, M., Buendía, P., Núñez, J., & Pérez-Sánchez, F. (2000). Análisis transcultural del concepto de atractivo facial masculino y de su relación son la calidad seminal. Actualidad Andrologica, 8, 134.