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The Hot History and Cold Future of Brands

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  • Institue of management sciences peshawar

Abstract

In this paper, a review of literature regarding the evaluation of brands and brand management practices are traced back to Agrarian period (Egypt) and effort has been made to avoid the theoretical aspect of the development by highlighting the historical perspectives. The paper opens by tracing the origin of branding to the earliest man and offers the rationale as to why it was used then. Branding started from the Agrarian economy of Egypt, where it was used to signal the quality of cattle to be sold or purchased and as a theft deterrent. In the Mediterranean region artisans used to mark their clay pots with different images of nature or their thumb. In the Roman territory the legal rights of the mark owner were recognized, that formed the basis for further legal recognition system of mark owner. In Britain strict measures were announced against infringements. It discusses the modern day brand management practices and the criticism it faces. Brand and marketing management have been accused of creating brand narcissism. Further more the relevance of appeal used by brands to consumers and their needs and lifestyle has been questioned. Even the practices for building brand equity are criticized. In the last section a few suggestions have been advanced for the future of branding.
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... La necesidad de exteriorizar físicamente el dominio sobre algunos animales llevó a que los seres humanos comenzaran a marcar los cuerpos de los animales bajo su propiedad. Fue quemando que el ser humano primitivo selló la propiedad de "su ganado", y con el desarrollo del Revista Latino-Americana de Direitos da Natureza e dos Animais comercio, los compradores utilizaron las marcas como un medio para distinguir entre el ganado de un granjero y otro (KHAN & MUFTI, 2007). Esta práctica, que aún se lleva a cabo en varios lugares, consiste en marcar al ganado con un hierro candente como protección frente a la pérdida y a los ladrones, así como para facilitar su conteo (SINGER, 2011). ...
... Posteriormente, las marcas se utilizaron en el oeste de Estados Unidos como una promesa por parte de un vendedor de "reparar" el ganado defectuoso vendido a los compradores (KHAN & MUFTI, 2007). ...
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La domesticación de animales no humanos llevó a exteriorizar a través de marcas corporales el dominio sobre ellos. Los hallazgos en materia de sintiencia animal, así como el realce de los vínculos afectivos que se generan con individuos de otras especies, hoy permiten transitar hacia una nueva forma de relacionarnos con estos seres vivos. Así, se lleva a cabo un análisis histórico-jurídico de la práctica del marcaje de animales no humanos como forma de dominación, de raigambre especista y cosificadora, con claras similitudes con la esclavitud y el Holocausto. Se resalta el tránsito hacia una nueva forma de relacionarnos con los demás animales, cuyo auge está dado por los vínculos afectivos que se generan con los que convivimos, pero que permiten avanzar hacia un trato respetuoso para todos los animales, sin distinción de especie.
... Hot-iron branding is a traditional form of permanent cattle identification practiced in multiple cultures dating back centuries (Khan and Mufti, 2007;Rajaram and Shelly, 2012;Stamp, 2013). In the United States, approximately half of all cattle are identified in this manner and the practice is more prevalent (~80%) in the western states (USDA, 2008). ...
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Hot-iron branding is a traditional form of permanent cattle identification in the United States. There is a need for science-based determination of cattle brand age. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to obtain information about animal tissues and healing processes. Height-width allometry and NIRS were applied to hot-iron cattle brand scars to determine if either or both of these methods can be used to non-invasively establish the interval since application of hot-iron cattle brands. Length and width of a brand routinely applied to calves (~30 to 60 d old) were established and then the same measurements were recorded on 378 calfhood branded cattle of known age ranging from 0.5 to > 6.5 yr-of-age. Brand width and height increased over the original measurements by > 100% between calfhood application and 2.5 yr-of-age (P < 0.001). Brand size did not change dramatically between 2.5 and > 6.5 yr, however, both width and height were (P < 0.05) greater at maturity than at weaning. Near infrared spectra were collected from: a) branded skin b) non-clipped (hair), non-branded skin, and c) hair clipped, non-branded skin on Bos taurus cross calves. Individual trial calibrations yielded high R 2 and low SE of calibration values as well as similar cross validation performance (P < 0.001). Numerically lower but still strong performance (P < 0.001) resulted from combined data set calibrations. Cross-trial prediction of brand age was unsuccessful. One single year calibration underpredicted (P < 0.001) brand age of an independent validation set by 2.83 d, and another single year calibration underpredicted (P < 0.001) the same validation set by 9.91 d. When combined, these two datasets resulted in a calibration that overpredicted brand age in the validation set by 6.9 d (P < 0.02). Discriminant analyses for identification of skin surface type yielded success rates of 90% for branded, 99% for non-clipped, non-branded, and 96% for clipped, non-branded (P < 0.01). Discriminant analyses were also performed on samples grouped into: a) less than 33 d, b) 141-153 d, and c) 169 d categories. All group membership identifications were successful at greater than 90% (P < 0.01). Preliminary results indicate that brand size could be used to indicate brand age and that NIRS can predict brand age as well as discriminate between broad brand age groups in cattle. More work will need to be done before these techniques can be used in real-world forensic applications.
... Brands and branding have played a significant role in human history globally. In particular, they have been associated with "the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft" in ancient Egypt (Khan & Mufti, 2007), "seals, which acted as quasi-brands…on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE)" and "maker's marks on pottery in both ancient Greece and Rome" (Starcevic, 2015). Nowadays, the role of brand and branding has been at the centre of business interests (Kohli, 1997). ...
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This paper examines the theory of brand and branding in practice using the city of Dundee as a case study. Specifically, the general theory of brand and branding and the specific theories of place and city branding are analyzed and implemented in relation to Dundee’s rebranding process with a focus on its cultural dimension. It is worth mentioning that although place branding was not applied successfully in the Dundee case, the city branding succeeded. The paper concludes that brands and branding are useful marketing tools but difficult to be understood and applied in practice. In addition, the successful branding implementation process is related to the examination of specific aspects of places/cities, such as the cultural aspect.
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Especially after the 1980s, as a result of the revolutionary innovations in the communication and transportation industries, globalization has intensified, and the world order has changed. Undoubtedly, international relations and diplomacy also have been affected by this great change. The importance given to soft power and public diplomacy, which is an element of soft power, has increased, and the increasing commercial relations between countries have enabled multinational corporations to be included in the diplomacy process. In addition, the importance of brand and branding in the new world order has emerged and it has been understood that studies should be carried out on this subject. In this study, the effects of Turkish Airlines (THY), one of the most important soft power elements of Turkey, in Turkish foreign policy from the perspective of brand diplomacy and nation branding will be examined. With this study, it is aimed to popularize the use of the concepts of brand diplomacy and nation branding, which do not get the attention it deserves in the literature, and to shed light on future studies to give the necessary attention to this field. In addition, it is another aim that ensuring the disciplines of international relations and marketing to be used together more frequently. Because in the globalizing world, actors in every field, from individuals to states, from daily life to business life, are in the process of marketing themselves, and the actor who markets himself best gets the most valuable outputs. The fact that information about the policies followed by THY will be given in the study will be able to guide other Turkish companies that are on the way to becoming a global brand. In the study, THY's contributions to Turkish foreign policy were grouped and supported with examples. As a result of the study, it has been revealed that THY, as Turkey's most global Turkish brand, has very important contributions in Turkish foreign policy in the framework of brand diplomacy and is an extremely strategic institution for Turkey. Also, the use of international relations and marketing disciplines together will be much more beneficial in studies to strengthen Turkey's brand perception. Keywords: Public Diplomacy, Branding, Brand Diplomacy, Turkish Foreign Policy, Turkish Airlines, Nation Branding, Soft Power
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