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Music in sport and exercise

The Role of Music 1
CHAPTER 17: Chariots of Fire:
The Role of Music in Sport and Exercise
Peter C. Terry
University of Southern Queensland, Australia
Costas I. Karageorghis
Brunel University, UK
“The music gives me a rhythm that fits in with my record pace.”
(Haile Gebrselassie, double Olympic 10,000 m champion)
The Role of Music 2
The cultural pursuits of playing and listening to music are extremely widespread and
almost as old as civilization itself. Music applications in physical activity developed rapidly
in the 1970s and 1980s, reflecting the popularity of exercise-to-music classes in the western
world. This growth extended from group to individual exercise when personal listening
devices such as Nike‟s Personal Sport Audio™ reached the mass market. During the same
period, music was integrated into many professional sporting events and added considerably
to the sporting spectacle. More recently, since the advent of the iPod™, there has been an
explosion in music use by athletes during training and prior to competition, while countless
millions of exercise participants have made music an essential part of their daily workout.
The boom in the use of music by athletes and exercisers appeared to take researchers by
surprise. There was only a trickle of empirical research in the 1980s and 1990s, but this
trickle has turned into a stream during the present decade.
Intuitively, for a stimulus such as music to be used on a daily basis by so many people for
such a variety of purposes it must have some benefits. However, of particular interest to
behavioral scientists is the reliability and reproducibility of any purported effect, its
magnitude, and the contingencies that surround it. For example, is music as effective during
high intensity activity as it is during low intensity exercise? Can music provide as much
benefit for elite athletes as it appears to have for recreational participants? What are the
important aspects of the music selection process that serve to maximize its potential benefits?
Moreover, it is possible that music may have no measurable effects on physical performance
other than to make seemingly monotonous tasks a little more pleasurable. This raises the
additional question of whether the recent popularity of music use by athletes is a marketing-
led phenomenon, rather than one that is grounded in genuine psychological and physical
The Role of Music 3
In this chapter, we have integrated the corpus of research work we have generated over
the past two decades with the findings of other researchers from around the world, to
rigorously examine whether music has a meaningful and reliable effect. We describe
situations in which music is likely to benefit performance, and also address those in which it
may debilitate performance. We provide applied examples and recommendations throughout
the chapter that will enable practitioners to use music more judiciously.
Understanding the Nature of Music
Any piece of music, whether it be jazz improvisation or a symphony performed by the
Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, requires the organization of several primary elements:
melody, harmony, rhythm, tempo, and dynamics. Melody is the tune of a piece of music, the
part to which you might hum or whistle along. Indeed many people refer to a piece of music
as a “tune” which highlights the importance of this element. Harmony involves the
combination of notes, which acts to influence the mood of the listener. The “sonic tapestry”
that results when different notes are combined can make you feel happy, sad, relaxed, or
edgy. The next time you watch a movie, pay particular attention to how changes in harmony
are used to manipulate your emotions.
Rhythm involves the distribution of notes over time and the way in which they are
accented. Musical styles, such as reggae which has a strong second and fourth beat of each
bar or salsa which has a syncopated (off the beat) feel are characterized by very distinct
rhythms. That is why when you dance to a reggae “skank”1 your movements are slow and
jolting, whereas when you dance to a salsa “montuno”2 they are fast and pulsating. Tempo is
the speed at which music is played, usually measured in beats per minute (bpm). Most
1 “Skank” is a West Indian colloquialism representing the beat that characterizes reggae music. This involves a
strong emphasis on the second and fourth beat of the bar.
2 “Montuno” is a name given to the particular style of piano playing that typifies salsa music. It features a
catchy, syncopated vamp that is repeated throughout the piece.
The Role of Music 4
common musical styles or rhythms only work within a certain bandwidth of tempi; so when
reggae is played at a very high tempo it just doesn‟t sound right. Dynamics reflect the energy
transmitted by a musician, through their touch or breath, to impact on the loudness of an
instrument. For example, in a jazz ballad, such as Ella Fitzgerald‟s version of Summertime,
the drummer strokes his drums with brushes, whereas in a rock anthem, such as Queen‟s We
Will Rock You, he strikes them forcefully using both sticks simultaneously.
In many professional arenas, music and sport have become very closely linked, with the
use of disc jockeys who select music that will inspire the players and engage the crowd. In
the highest echelons of modern-day sport, the line between sporting endeavor and show
business has become blurred. Fans attend games and matches, not just to support their
favorite team, but to be entertained. Accordingly, stimuli, such as music, video, and lighting,
have become an integral part of the sporting spectacle.
Effects of Music
In the context of sport and exercise psychology, researchers have primarily explored the
psychological, psychophysical, psychophysiological, and ergogenic effects of music.
Psychological effects refer to how music influences mood, affect, emotion, attitudes,
cognition, and behavior. The psychophysical effects of music involve sensory responses to
physiological processes. In music-related research, perceptions of physical effort are of
particular interest and are most often assessed using ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). The
psychophysiological effects of music relate to the influence of music on a range of
physiological parameters (e.g., blood lactate, heart rate, respiration rate). Music exerts an
ergogenic effect when it improves physical performance by either delaying fatigue or
increasing work capacity. Typically, this results in higher-than-expected levels of endurance,
power, productivity, or strength. In general terms, rhythm and tempo have been shown to be
the elements of music most likely to prompt a physical reaction in the listener (Karageorghis,
The Role of Music 5
Terry, & Lane, 1999), reflecting their close relationship to various periodicities of human
functioning, such as heart beat, breathing rate, and walking (Bonny, 1987).
Uses of Music
In a sport and exercise context, music is typically used in one of four ways. First,
asynchronous music is played in the background to make the environment more pleasurable
or to act as a planned distraction. In this application, there is no conscious synchronization
between movement patterns and musical tempo (Elliot, Carr, & Savage, 2004; Rendi, Szabo,
& Szabo, 2008). Second, synchronous music is typified by athletes or exercisers using the
rhythmic or temporal aspects of music as a type of metronome that regulates their movement
patterns (Simpson & Karageorghis, 2006; Karageorghis, Mouzourides, Priest, Sasso,
Morrish, & Walley, 2009). Third, pre-task music is applied immediately prior to a physical
task or sporting event; this entails using a musical stimulus to arouse, relax, or regulate the
mood of an athlete or a team (Karageorghis, Drew, & Terry, 1996; Lanzillo, Burke, Joyner,
& Hardy, 2001). Pre-task music is also used to engender task-relevant images or to facilitate
mental rehearsal (Bishop, Karageorghis, & Loizou, 2007; Gluch 1993). Fourth, music may
also be used as part of the recovery process following competition or a tough workout (Priest
& Karageorghis, 2008). This use of music, which we refer to as recuperative music, has not
been well documented in the sport and exercise literature. Boxed Example 17.1 describes
how the Brazilian national soccer team uses music in all four ways.
Insert Boxed Example 17.1
Theoretical Developments
Until the publication of our first review paper (Karageorghis & Terry, 1997), the
approach taken to the study of music in sport or exercise was largely unstructured and
The Role of Music 6
atheoretical in nature. Researchers often adopted what became known as a “vitamin model”
(Sloboda, 2008) whereby they presupposed that a particular piece of music would have
certain “active properties” that might cause the listener to feel sedated or elated, happy or sad.
This approach failed to account for two critical aspects of music that determine how
individuals respond to a particular song or piece of music. The first relates to the moods,
memories, attitudes, and preferences of the listener, while the second concerns the social
context in which the music is heard. The presence of others, the type of activity one is
engaged in, and the significance of that activity all come together in shaping one‟s response
to music.
In our 1997 review paper we sought to provide researchers with an underlying framework
and a number of methodological recommendations to guide their efforts. In particular, we
suggested that the selection of music for experimental conditions should account for factors
such as the age profile, musical preferences, and socio-cultural background of experimental
participants. Moreover, we provided some guidelines on the design of music-related studies
emphasizing the inclusion of appropriate dependent measures. Early work in this field had
yielded frustratingly equivocal findings (see Lucaccini & Kreit, 1972 for a review).
Accordingly, it was impossible to conclude that music would have a beneficial effect when
applied to real-life sport and exercise tasks. Our review identified a number of
methodological limitations that contributed to the equivocal findings. It also provided a
starting point for the theoretical developments that followed and gave subsequent empirical
investigations a sharper focus, particularly in terms of how researchers selected music for
experimental conditions. The present chapter primarily addresses theoretical advances and
empirical research since our 1997 review.
The Role of Music 7
The 1999 Conceptual Model
To address the paucity of relevant theory, we have published several conceptual
frameworks over the past decade, three of which are outlined here. In our original conceptual
framework for predicting the psychophysical effects of asynchronous music in exercise and
sport (see Figure 17.1), we proposed that four factors determine the motivational quotient of a
piece of music; namely, rhythm response, musicality, cultural impact, and association
(Karageorghis et al., 1999). The validity of these factors was supported using exploratory and
confirmatory factor analyses.
Insert Figure 17.1
Rhythm response relates to innate responses to rhythm-related elements of music, in
particular, tempo. Musicality refers to pitch-related elements of music, such as melody and
harmony. Cultural impact reflects the pervasiveness of a particular musical selection within a
given culture or sub-culture. Frequent exposure to a musical selection increases its familiarity
which, in turn, determines preference (Schubert, 2007). The fourth factor, association,
pertains to the extra-musical associations that music can evoke and represents a very
powerful mechanism by which to generate beneficial effects. For example, Chariots Of Fire
by Vangelis became closely associated with Olympic glory in the movie of the same name
(see Boxed Example 17.2). Similarly, Bill Conti‟s composition Gonna Fly Now, popularized
in the Rocky movie series, is associated with striving to overcome adversity. This is perhaps
why it is played every year by the Eagles Pep Band on the course of the Philadelphia
Marathon. Such associations are classically conditioned through repetition and powerful
images in which television, cinema, radio, and the Internet play an important role.
The Role of Music 8
Insert Boxed Example 17.2
When a connection between sport and music is reinforced in the media, it can elicit a
conditioned response that triggers a particular mindset. For example, the M People hit Search
For The Hero now evokes a sense of pride and inspiration in many British people, owing to
its recent association with the successful London bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games. Along
similar lines, music can trigger a relaxation response, which can ease an athlete‟s pre-
competition anxiety. British athlete Kelly Holmes told journalists that she used the soulful
ballads of Alicia Keys to great effect during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games where she won
gold medals in the 800 m and 1500 m. Famous athletes‟ playlists are a regular feature in
newspapers and fitness magazines; a media-led, sport-music connection that motivates many
people to explore how particular musical selections might enhance their own performance.
In developing the conceptual model, we demonstrated a hierarchical structure for the four
factors in terms of determining the motivational quotient of a piece of music. The two most
important factors, rhythm response and musicality, were termed internal factors because they
relate to the constituents of music. The other two factors, cultural impact and association,
were termed external factors because they concern how an individual interprets a piece of
music. Motivational music is generally of higher tempo (> 120 bpm), has catchy melodies,
inspiring lyrics, an association with sporting endeavor, and a bright, uplifting harmonic
structure. Consider tracks such as I Like The Way You Move by Bodyrockers or Boom Boom
Pow by the Black Eyed Peas, both of which typify motivational music in a sporting context.
Some of the potential benefits of music were also identified in the model. Among the
most reliable effects is its influence on arousal or activation levels; causing some media
commentators to refer to music as a “legal drug” because it can act like a stimulant or a
sedative. In general terms, loud, upbeat music has a stimulative effect (Edworthy & Waring,
The Role of Music 9
2006) while soft, slow music has a sedative effect (Szmedra & Bacharach, 1998). Music also
has the capacity to lower perceived exertion (RPE), primarily by distracting attention away
from sensations of fatigue. Nonetheless, during high intensity activity, because physiological
cues become the more salient influence on attention, an automatic switch of attention from
external cues to internal, body-related cues occurs (Hernandez-Peon, 1961; Rejeski, 1985).
As a consequence, given that music is an external cue, its effect on perceived exertion during
high intensity activities is greatly diminished. Rejeski‟s parallel processing model is often
cited with reference to this diminution of the effects of music when workload crosses the
anaerobic threshold; an aspect of the model that has been referred to as the load-dependent
Appropriately selected music can also enhance positive dimensions of mood, such as
vigor, excitement, and happiness, and reduce negative aspects of mood such as boredom,
tension, and depression (Terry, Dinsdale, Karageorghis, & Lane, 2006). Collectively, such
benefits can impact upon exercise adherence or compliance to a training program by making
activities more pleasurable. Moreover, music can be used as part of a pre-event routine to
help athletes create an optimal mindset through arousal control and mood regulation (see
Bishop et al., 2007).
To augment the conceptual model, we also developed a measure the Brunel Music
Rating Inventory (BMRI; Karageorghis et al., 1999) and associated methodology to provide
a mechanism for the objective assessment of the motivational qualities of individual musical
selections. Many subsequent studies have used the BMRI or its successor, the BMRI-2
(Karageorghis, Priest, Terry, Chatzisarantis, & Lane, 2006) to rate the motivational qualities
of music used in experimental conditions. Collectively, research has shown that if the age and
sociocultural background of participants is accounted for in the music selection process, and
consideration given to the coordination of music with the task, music is very likely to exert a
The Role of Music 10
positive influence (Atkinson, Wilson, & Eubank, 2004; Crust, 2008; Crust & Clough, 2006;
Elliot, Carr, & Orme, 2005; Simpson & Karageorghis, 2006).
Revised 2006 Conceptual Model
In 2006, we proposed a simpler conceptual framework directed primarily at the sport
context, to reflect the burgeoning list of potential benefits of music listening for athletes that
had come to light through empirical investigations (see Figure 17.2; Terry & Karageorghis,
2006). In this model, we emphasized (a) the interaction of personal factors (age, socio-
cultural background, musical preferences) and situational factors (presence of others, type of
activity engaged in, listening context), (b) the influence of intermediaries in the form of the
four music factors identified previously (i.e., rhythm response, musicality, cultural impact,
associations), and (c) a longer list of consequences or potential benefits that also included
dissociation, greater work output, improved skill acquisition, flow state, and enhanced
performance, as well as arousal control, reduced RPE, and improved mood. The literature
critically appraised later in this chapter provides substantial support for this list of proposed
Insert Figure 17.2
The 2007 Grounded Theory Model
Grounded theory is a set of techniques for developing theory from qualitative data by
coding raw data into emergent themes at different levels of generality (Glaser & Strauss,
1967). Bishop et al. (2007) developed a grounded theory of young tennis players‟ use of
music to manipulate emotional states (see Figure 17.3). This study is one of only a handful to
apply qualitative techniques when investigating applications of music in sport and exercise
(see also Gluch 1993; Priest & Karageorghis, 2008; Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2004).
The Role of Music 11
Based on data derived from a music questionnaire, interviews, 2-week diaries, and
observations (i.e., facial expressions, smiling, piloerection,3 and increased liveliness), Bishop
and colleagues found that tennis players consciously selected music to elicit a variety of
emotional states. The most frequently reported consequences of music listening included
enhanced mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. Numerous factors
mediated players‟ choice of tracks and the impact of music listening; these included desired
emotional state, extra-musical associations, inspirational lyrics, and the way in which the
music was delivered (e.g., iPod vs. stereo hi-fi).
The grounded theory approach adopted by Bishop et al. (2007) can be used to assist
practitioners with music-related interventions at the delivery stage. For example, increasing
the tempo and/or volume of a piece of music can increase an athlete‟s arousal or activation
level (cf. Edworthy & Waring, 2006). There are at least two ways in which music influences
arousal levels. First, physiological processes tend to react sympathetically to the rhythmical
aspects of music. Fast, upbeat music increases heart rate, respiration rate, sweat secretion, and
numerous other indicators of physical activation. Second, arousal is increased through extra-
musical association. In other words, appropriate music promotes thoughts that inspire
physical activity or superior sporting performance.
Insert Figure 17.3
Keep it in the Background: Asynchronous Music
The majority of empirical investigations have focused on the psychological and
psychophysical effects of asynchronous music. Several of these investigations have examined
responses to music of differing tempi. For example, Szabo, Small, and Leigh (1999) used
3 Piloerection is the raising of bodily hair.
The Role of Music 12
Beethoven‟s Symphony No. 7 (A major, opus 92) during a static cycling task to voluntary
exhaustion. This piece of music is famed as an exploration of rhythm, featuring marked
changes in tempo within movements. The researchers found that a switch from slow to fast
tempo music yielded an ergogenic effect. The implication here is that a change of music
tempo from slow to fast may enhance participants‟ motivation and work output, especially
when work level plateaus or during the later stages of an exercise bout. Rendi and colleagues
(2008) conducted a similar study using excerpts of the same Beethoven symphony applied to
a 500 m rowing ergometer task. Participants completed three supramaximal bouts of exercise
with slow tempo music, fast tempo music, and a no-music control. The best times were
recorded in the fast tempo condition. There was also a significant effect for stroke rate, which
was higher when accompanied by fast tempo music than during the other conditions.
Interestingly, the slow tempo music also produced faster completion times relative to the
control condition. A possible limitation of this study is that none of the participants reported
previous use of music during training. Accordingly, the application of music may have
elicited a novelty effect, which would diminish with repeated exposure.
Atkinson et al. (2004) showed how the careful application of asynchronous music during
a simulated 10 km cycle time-trial could help to regulate work output. The music was
particularly effective in the early stages of the trial, when perceived exertion was low. The
BMRI was administered to assess the motivational qualities of musical selections, with
participant ratings supporting the prediction that the rhythmical components of music
contribute more to its motivational qualities than its melodic or harmonic components. Lim,
Atkinson, Karageorghis, and Eubank (2009) conducted a follow-up study in which they
assessed the impact of an asynchronous music program in different half-segments of a 10 km
cycle time-trial. Music was played either in the first or second half of the trial and
experimental conditions were compared against a no-music control. It was hypothesized that
The Role of Music 13
music would wield greater influence on power output when introduced during the second half
of the trial. However, results indicated the converse; the highest power output was evident in
the early stages of the trial when music was played during the first 5 km. This suggested that
foreknowledge of the introduction or removal of music may have affected participants‟
pacing strategy. The decision to provide participants with details about when music would be
played may have introduced a confounding variable, although Lim and colleagues‟ approach
did reflect how music is used in real-life sport settings.
Szmedra and Bacharach (1998) demonstrated that asynchronous music was associated
with reduced heart rate, systolic blood pressure, exercise lactate, norepinephrine production,
and RPE during treadmill exercise at 70% VO2 max [A DOT ABOVE THE V IS
REQUIRED]. Speculating on the mechanism by which these benefits accrued, the
researchers suggested that music allowed participants to relax, reducing muscle tension, and
thereby increasing blood flow and lactate clearance, while decreasing lactate production in
working muscle. The reduction in RPE for music vs. no music was ~10%, a figure replicated
in a subsequent study by Nethery (2002), who found that perceived exertion was lower in an
asynchronous music condition when compared to a video condition and two control
conditions comprising no music and sensory deprivation.
Crust and Clough (2006) examined the ergogenic properties of asynchronous
motivational music, compared to drumbeat only and no music, during an isometric muscular
endurance task. The drumbeat used was the same as that in the motivational track, but
without the other constituents of music (melody, harmony, lyrics). Participants endured for
longer in response to motivational music when compared to the other two conditions. This
highlighted the collective importance of the various constituents of music in determining
participants‟ responses; a point that has been emphasized strongly in a recent review (North
& Hargreaves, 2008).
The Role of Music 14
Research has shown that the beneficial effects of asynchronous music are reduced once
exercise intensity exceeds the anaerobic threshold. For example, using the Wingate test (a
maximal cycle ergometer effort over 30 s), Pujol and Langenfeld (1999) found that music had
no positive influence on performance; a finding that supports the load-dependent hypothesis.
In a subsequent study using a treadmill and outdoor running task at 90% VO2 max [A DOT
ABOVE THE V IS REQUIRED], Tenenbaum et al. (2004) showed that while motivational
asynchronous music did shape interpretations of fatigue symptoms, it did not reduce
perceptions of effort.
Tempo is generally considered to be a key determinant of the aesthetic response to a piece
of music and is an important musical constituent to consider when prescribing music for
exercise (Crust, 2008; Edworthy & Waring, 2006; Karageorghis & Terry, 1997).
Accordingly, a recent series of studies led by the second author has investigated the
relationship between exercise heart rate and preference for music tempo. Previous
investigations by Iwanaga (1995a, 1995b) had suggested a positive and linear relationship
between heart rate and music-tempo preference. However, methodological limitations
inherent in these studies, such as lack of a heart rate manipulation and self-regulation of
music tempo, detracted from the ecological validity of the findings. Karageorghis and his
collaborators sought to re-examine Iwanaga‟s findings having strengthened the methods used.
In the first study, participants reported their preference for slow (80 bpm), medium (120
bpm) and fast (140 bpm) tempo music selections while walking on a treadmill at 40%, 60%,
and 75% of maximal heart rate reserve (maxHRR). Participants expressed a strong preference
for fast and medium tempo music over slow music regardless of work intensity. Also, an
interaction effect was found, whereby participants reported a preference for either fast or
medium tempo music during low and moderate exercise intensities, but preferred fast tempo
music during high intensity exercise (Karageorghis, Jones, & Low, 2006).
The Role of Music 15
Karageorghis, Jones, and Stuart (2008) extended this approach to study the psychological
impact of entire music programs, rather than just excerpts of music. They administered
medium tempi, fast tempi, mixed tempi (tracks arranged in the order medium-fast-fast-
medium-fast-fast) conditions and a no-music control condition, while participants worked at
70% maxHRR on a treadmill. Dependent measures were music preference, intrinsic
motivation, and global flow. The researchers expected the mixed-tempi condition to yield the
most positive psychological effects because it was well aligned with the selected work
intensity, and there was also less likelihood of participants experiencing boredom or
irritation. However, findings showed that it was actually the medium-tempi condition that
elicited the most positive psychological outcomes.
Based on the findings of their first two studies, Karageorghis and colleagues suggested
that there may be a step change in preference between 70% and 75% maxHRR, reflected by a
stronger preference for fast tempi music at the higher heart rate. The step change in
preference parallels the anaerobic threshold, which is characterized by a greater reliance on
anaerobic pathways for energy production. Moreover, at these moderate-to-high intensities
participants become more acutely aware of fatigue-related cues (cf. Rejeski, 1985).
These findings led us to question the positive linear relationship between heart rate and
preferred music tempo that Iwanaga had proposed (Karageorghis & Terry, 2009). We
hypothesized that the relationship between these variables is quartic in nature, with three
inflection points (see Figure 17.4). During the early stages of an exercise bout, when RPE is
low, the relationship is linear, whereas at moderate-to-high exercise intensities, music of fast
and medium tempi is preferred equally. Beyond 70% maxHRR, fast tempi are preferred and
the linearity of the relationship resumes. Once exercise intensity exceeds 80% maxHRR,
there is a “ceiling effect” for tempo preference. The reason for this is that relatively few
tracks are recorded at very high tempi and so our band of most familiar tempi is 80-140 bpm.
The Role of Music 16
Also, given the automatic attentional switching that occurs at high exercise intensities, it is
unlikely that music of any tempo can be attended to selectively (Hernandez-Peon, 1961;
Rejeski, 1985). In other words, silence is possibly “golden” during very high intensity
exercise. This notion does, however, require further empirical investigation.
We recently tested the hypothesized quartic relationship between exercise heart rate and
music tempo preference (Karageorghis, Jones, Priest et al., in press) using six exercise
intensities (40-90% maxHRR) and four music tempi (slow, medium, fast, very fast). Results
generally supported a quartic relationship between heart rate and preferred music tempo,
although in the early stages of exercise, the preference was for music of a higher tempo than
we had predicted. Moreover, between 70% and 80% of maxHRR, rather than a “ceiling
effect”, we observed a dip in music tempo preference. This has been termed the “Clarke dip”
after a precocious undergraduate, Adam Clarke, who predicted it during the early stages of
the research project, despite the second author‟s forecast to the contrary.
Insert Figure 17.4
Keeping in Time: Synchronous Music
Despite the proliferation of studies examining asynchronous music since 1997, very few
researchers have addressed the impact of synchronous music on physical activity. There is
little doubt that humans have a strong tendency to respond to the rhythmical and temporal
qualities of music. One manifestation of this is a potential synchronization between either the
tempo or meter4 of a piece of music and an athlete‟s movement patterns. It is important to
stress that the synchronous use of music is a conscious process that is contingent upon an
individual‟s rhythmic ability in maintaining strict time.
The Role of Music 17
As well as the potential benefit of the synchronization phenomenon for athletic training,
especially in steady-state activities, the use of synchronous music is also integral to several
sports, including figure skating, rhythmic gymnastics, competition aerobics, and
synchronized swimming. The types of tasks that are typically used to assess the impact of
synchronous music include cycle ergometry, walking, and running (Karageorghis et al., 2009;
Simpson & Karageorghis, 2006).
An important consideration in conducting such research is strict standardization of the
experimental task. The internal validity of some of the early work was compromised by tasks
that were difficult or impossible to standardize (see Karageorghis & Terry, 1997).
The relatively few published studies that have investigated the potential benefits of
synchronous music have shown that it yields significant ergogenic effects among non highly-
trained participants, although its beneficial effects for elite athletes or highly trained
participants are less well supported. However, an oft-cited example of the effective use of
synchronous music in elite performance was provided by the celebrated Ethiopian runner
Haile Gebrselassie who, in February 1998, broke the indoor 2000 m world record while
synchronizing his stride rate to the rhythmical pop song Scatman, which was broadcast over
the arena‟s loudspeaker system (see Boxed Example 17.3).
Insert Boxed Example 17.3
Very recent research work has indicated that the benefits that potentially ensue from
synchronous music might exceed those proposed in our earlier work. Bacon, Myers, and
Karageorghis (under review) assessed the metabolic cost of exercise conducted
synchronously to ascertain whether it promoted greater neuromuscular or metabolic
4 Meter involves how tones are grouped with one another over time. For example, how one taps one‟s foot hard
The Role of Music 18
efficiency. They used a submaximal cycle ergometry task performed at 60% maxHR under
conditions of synchronous music, slow asynchronous music, and fast asynchronous music.
Participants used 7.4% less oxygen when listening to a selection of synchronous music when
compared to slow or fast asynchronous music conditions. Interestingly, no differences were
found in heart rate or RPE despite the observed reduction in oxygen uptake.
Karageorghis et al. (2009) examined the psychophysical and ergogenic effects of
synchronous music applied to a treadmill walking task. Participants initiated the task at 75%
maxHRR and continued walking until exhaustion. They were exposed to three conditions:
motivational synchronous music, oudeterous (neutral) synchronous music, and a no-music
control. The two experimental conditions yielded significantly longer endurance than the
control, with the motivational music proving superior to the oudeterous music. Indeed,
exposure to motivational music was associated with a 15% increase in treadmill endurance
over the control and a 6% increase over the oudeterous music. The experimental
manipulations did not impact significantly on RPE, although they did have a strong influence
on in-task affect, with the motivational condition yielding more positive feelings right up to
the point of voluntary exhaustion (see Figure 17.5). Findings supported the notion that
although music may not moderate what one feels during high intensity exercise, it can
moderate how one feels it (cf. Hardy & Rejeski, 1989). Despite the fact that music cannot
reduce RPE at high exercise intensities, it is possible that if the motivational qualities are
sufficiently high, the music may ameliorate the potential negative impact of high intensity
exercise on affect (Elliott et al., 2004).
Insert Figure 17.5
versus light, and how this series of taps forms together to create larger units. Meter is created in our brains by
The Role of Music 19
Simpson and Karageorghis (2006) tested the impact of synchronous music on anaerobic
endurance using a 400 m sprint time trial. This study was designed to have high ecological
validity, by implementing conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous
(neutral) synchronous music, and a no-music control in a race-like protocol with qualified
timekeepers. Both music conditions yielded faster 400 m times than the control although,
contrary to expectations, there was no significant difference between the motivational and
oudeterous music conditions. This suggests that motivational qualities may not be of prime
importance when music is used synchronously during an anaerobic endurance task. A
limitation of this study was that it was very difficult for the participants to achieve strict
synchronization, particularly in the early and latter stages of the task.
A follow-up study using circuit-type exercises (Karageorghis et al., 2010) found that,
synchronous music did not elicit ergogenic or psychological effects in isolation; instead there
was a Condition x Gender interaction for affect and total repetitions performed. Men reported
higher negative affect scores than women during oudeterous and motivational music
conditions but the opposite trend was evident in the control condition. Both genders produced
more repetitions with motivational music than oudeterous music. Although women
performed fewer repetitions under the control condition, men and women performed
comparably in the motivational condition. Results did not support the hypothesis that women
would outperform men during complex synchronous movement, although they did point to a
gender differential in responses to synchronous music during circuit-type exercise.
Independent of the research developments discussed, there has been substantial
commercial activity in recent years focused on the development and promotion of walking
programs that use synchronous music either to promote fitness (e.g., or as
an integral part of cardiac rehabilitation (e.g., Several mass
extracting detail from rhythmic cues and loudness.
The Role of Music 20
participation events have been organized by the International Management Group (IMG) with
music selected scientifically to enhance the experience of participants and promote
synchronous movement (e.g., Following two highly successful
half-marathons to music hosted by the London Borough of Greenwich in 2008 and 2009,
IMG is proposing to launch a string of similar mass participation events worldwide in the
USA, Asia, Australia, and throughout mainland Europe.
Listening Before Starting: Pre-task Music
A small number of studies have explored the application of music as a form of stimulant
or sedative prior to a task. In one of our early experiments, we tested the effects of fast,
energizing music and slow, relaxing music played prior to handgrip dynamometer
performance (Karageorghis et al., 1996). Participants produced significantly higher grip
strength after listening to stimulating music compared to sedative music or a white-noise
control. Also, listening to sedative music resulted in lower strength scores than white noise.
Our findings cast light on the potentially powerful effects of music on a simple motor task
and showed how use of a highly standardized task was effective in elucidating the impact of
pre-task music. A limitation of our approach was that, in maintaining high internal validity,
the music was provided in a clinical manner that did not typify how athletes might use it in
real-life settings.
Using a more ecologically valid approach, Lanzillo et al. (2001) examined the impact of
pre-event music use on competition anxiety and self-confidence among intercollegiate
athletes from a range of sports. The experimental group listened to a 3 minute selection of
their preferred tracks immediately before competition and results were compared against a
no-music control group. Findings showed that athletes in the experimental group reported
higher state self-confidence compared to controls, although there were no differences in
anxiety scores. A limitation of this study was that ability to select appropriate music to
The Role of Music 21
regulate activation levels inevitably varied among participants, introducing a potential
Bishop, Karageorghis, and Kinrade (2009) used a sample of tennis players to examine
how changes to the tempo and intensity (volume) of music influenced affective responses and
subsequent choice-reaction task performance. A researcher-selected piece of music was
modified to create six versions (3 tempi x 2 intensities) that were compared against white
noise and silence. A key finding was that fast, loud music produced more pleasant emotional
states, higher arousal, and faster choice reaction time compared to the same music played at
moderate volume. An implication for athletes is that in situations where a high level of
arousal coupled with short reaction times is desirable, the use of fast music played loudly is
potentially advantageous.
Using an idiographic approach, Pates, Karageorghis, Fryer, and Maynard (2001) tested
the effects of pre-task music and performance-related imagery on flow states and netball
shooting performance among three collegiate netball players. Two players reported increased
perceptions of flow, while all three showed improved shooting performance. The netball
players also reported that the intervention enabled them to better control emotions and
cognitions critical to performance. Pates et al. concluded that music with imagery has the
potential to enhance athletic performance by triggering emotions and cognitions associated
with flow. A possible limitation of this study was that the mental rehearsal and recall of flow
states, which were a central part of the intervention, may have caused the performance
improvements, rather than the music.
In an applied context, music is very often used as part of a pre-competition routine. The
music used by three gold medallists at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney illustrates its
potential to influence pre-competition mindset. For rowing champion James Cracknell,
listening to Blood Sugar Sex Magik, an album by the Red Hot Chilli Peppers, proved an
The Role of Music 22
effective pre-competition strategy for optimizing his arousal and aggression. Audley
Harrison, the super-heavyweight boxing champion, listened to Japanese classical music to
ease his pre-fight nerves coming into the final, and Richard Faulds, the winner of the double-
trap shooting, was inspired to seize the moment in the tensest of shoot-offs, by Whitney
Houston‟s classic One Moment In Time. Even the greatest Olympian of all time, American
swimmer Michael Phelps, regularly uses music to manipulate his pre-race mindset (see
Boxed Example 17.4). During the Beijing Olympic Games, the first author combined music
with PowerPoint presentations to target specific pre-competition feelings. For example, to
reduce the sense of isolation that afflicts some Olympic competitors, Delta Goodrem‟s
evocative ballad Together We Are One was combined with photographs of coach, family, and
friends to engender a sense of togetherness and a collective effort. To facilitate accessibility
during competition, the presentations were converted to mp4 files and loaded onto athletes‟
iPods™. In summary, pre-task music can have a potent effect on human emotions, but the
music selection process demands great sensitivity to the personal preferences of the athlete,
the match between the characteristics of the music and the target emotion, and the
associations elicited by a particular piece of music.
Recuperative Music
Historically, the healing properties of music have been tapped by many civilizations.
According to the Old Testament, King Saul was cured of his deep depression by the dulcet
tones of David‟s harp. Similarly, Aristotle believed in the healing power of the flute and
encouraged his students to participate in daily music making. In a sport and exercise context,
there has been no empirical investigation into how music can aid recovery from injury,
competition, or training. Hence, in this brief section, we simply emphasize that the power of
music as a recuperative agent has been demonstrated in other life domains (e.g., education,
The Role of Music 23
industry, medicine) with the underlying suggestion that it may be just as relevant within sport
and exercise (see Le Roux, 2006).
In terms of some practical guidelines from our own experiences as consultants to elite
athletes, we suggest that recuperative music should have a tempo in the range 60-70 bpm;
around resting heart rate. In terms of emotional tone, the music should be neutral or relaxing,
while the instrumentation might be comprised of soothing, “warm” instruments, such as
strings, oboe, or gentle piano. The inclusion of sounds of nature, such as breaking waves, bird
song, or a running stream may also be effective for this purpose. Recuperative tracks are
typically longer than regular music tracks (> 10 min), while rhythmically complex
arrangements should be avoided. The key is for the music to be absorbing, and hence jarring
or irksome selections do not work well. For optimal effect, the music should be characterized
by regular pulsation and repetitive tonal patterns based on a limited number of pitch levels.
Good examples of recuperative music include the slow-tempo classical works of Vivaldi,
Handel, and Bach. If you prefer a more contemporary sound, try listening to artists such as
Enya or Enigma.
Clinical research indicates that relaxation is an essential component of injury
rehabilitation (Ahern & Lohr, 1997). This is consistent with the gate control theory of pain
(Melzack & Wall, 1962) which posits that pain is not a direct result of activation of
nociceptors, but is rather modulated by interaction between different neurons. Accordingly,
this theory offers an explanation as to how a hypnotist can relax a patient to the point that
they can undergo painful dental surgery without anesthetic. Along similar lines, music can
activate neurons that are extraneous to pain reception and serves to inhibit the sensation of
pain through indirect means.
When Not to Use Music
The Role of Music 24
We have discussed how carefully selected music has the potential to aid the performance
of athletes and exercise participants. However, there are certain instances in which music
should be avoided. For example, in the early stages of learning, before a skill becomes
autonomous, a high proportion of information processing capacity is required for the learner
to make accurate movements. Accordingly, parallel processing of music and kinesthetic cues
can result in a performance decrement. Along similar lines, while learning a new skill,
feedback from a coach or exercise instructor is of seminal importance, and music provides an
unnecessary distraction that can inhibit learning. The research we have reviewed also
indicates that music is not particularly effective during very high intensity activity. Moreover,
there is evidence to suggest that moderate intensity activity coupled with very loud music (>
100 dB SPL) can result in temporary hearing loss (Lindgren & Axelsson, 1988), which is
obviously to be avoided.
It is slightly ironic that some governing bodies of sport have banned the use of music or
personal audio players in competition (e.g., the International Amateur Athletics Federation).
This is perhaps partly due to the potential work-enhancing effects of music, but also relates to
the fact that music can be so intoxicating that it can place athletes in mass-participation
events in mortal danger of, for example, being struck by a car. For this reason the organizers
of the New York Marathon banned the use of personal music players in the 2007 event,
which prompted considerable media debate on the effects of music in sport, plus hundreds of
complaints from competitors. The complaints continued to come thick and fast right up to the
2009 event, but the ban was not relaxed. Of course, banning iPods and other mp3 devices
in such large-scale events is very difficult to police.
Future Directions
Asynchronous Music. There are five notable trends to emerge from the many studies that
have examined the impact of asynchronous music. First, a change in tempo from slow to fast
The Role of Music 25
can elicit an ergogenic effect in aerobic endurance activities. Second, use of asynchronous
music during submaximal exercise can reduce RPE by up to 10%, although the degree to
which this effect is mediated by the motivational qualities of music requires further empirical
investigation. It would also be advantageous to use psychobiological measures, such as
salivary cortisol, to examine the mechanisms that underlie the benefits that have been
observed at submaximal work intensities. Third, from an applied perspective, slow
asynchronous music (< 110 bpm) is generally inappropriate for exercise or training contexts
unless used to limit effort exertion or as an auditory backdrop for warm-up/cool-down
activities. Fourth, rather than a positive-linear relationship between exercise heart rate and
music-tempo preference (Iwanaga 1995a, 1995b), recent research has suggested a quartic
relationship, that should guide practitioners in their prescription of music for activities at
different work intensities. We also recommend that researchers re-examine this quartic trend
to gauge whether it is manifest across a range of exercise modalities. Finally, in support of
Rejeski‟s (1985) load-dependent hypothesis, asynchronous music has a negligible effect on
psychological and psychophysical responses beyond the anaerobic threshold (70-80% VO2max
Synchronous Music. The few studies that have evaluated use of synchronous music
indicate that it can be applied to aerobic and anaerobic endurance activities to bring a number
of psychological and psychophysical benefits, as well as ergogenic effects. Most recently,
research has shown that synchronous music used during submaximal cycle ergometry can
facilitate a ~7% decrease in oxygen uptake (Bacon et al., under review). This finding
warrants reinvestigation using a range of exercise modalities; in particular, rhythmic and
repetitive exercise, such as running and rowing. At present, there is a paucity of research into
the application of synchronous music and the mechanisms that underlie its benefits.
Moreover, this area is in need of development of specific theory to underscore research
The Role of Music 26
efforts. Our own investigations have shown large positive effects with recreational exercise
participants, and although these are unlikely to be as pronounced with high-level performers,
the exploration of music-movement synchrony with elite athletes remains a tantalizing
prospect for sport scientists.
Pre-task Music. Research has shown that pre-task music can be used to manipulate
activation levels prior to sport or exercise performance. According to Bishop and
Karageorghis (2009), this may be due to a combination of emotion-mediated activation of
visuomotor decision-making pathways in the brain and the priming of increased corticospinal
excitability of motor circuits. Pre-task music can also facilitate task-relevant imagery/mental
rehearsal, enhance self-confidence, and promote the attainment of flow. Despite much
anecdotal evidence of famous athletes using pre-task music to good effect (see Boxed
Example 17.4), there have been relatively few scientific investigations to ascertain the precise
effects and their underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, this area is potentially fruitful given
the broad interest in pre-performance states that is evident in the sport psychology literature.
We anticipate that the use of music, video, and priming in combination will become
widespread in elite sport during the next decade. Indeed, researchers have already begun to
examine the interactive effects of these media (see Loizou & Karageorghis, 2009).
Recuperative Music. Investigation of recuperative music is almost entirely virgin territory
for sport and exercise researchers. There is a need for a conceptual framework to be
developed and for this to act as a springboard for both nomothetic and ideographic
investigations. The latter approach is likely to be more relevant to the application of
recuperative music given differing individual needs for recovery from injury and heavy
training. We advocate that music could be used in a far more systematic manner in order to
facilitate the mental and physical well-being of sport and exercise participants. To aid
scientific investigation of recuperative music, it would be advantageous for researchers to
The Role of Music 27
develop a scale, similar to the BMRI, for assessing the sedative qualities of music in a
physical activity context.
We have presented three complementary conceptual approaches underlying the study and
application of music in sport and exercise contexts (Karageorghis et al., 1999; Terry &
Karageorghis, 2006; Bishop et al., 2007), which provide some guidance for future research
endeavors. We have also established that music can be applied to exercise, athletic training,
and sports competition in many different ways. One of the main demonstrated benefits of
music is that it enhances psychological states, which has implications for optimizing the pre-
competition mindset and increasing the enjoyment of exercise or training activities. When
applied synchronously, music can boost work output and make repetitive tasks, such as
running or cycling, significantly more energy efficient. We have provided a number of
suggestions for future research involving more detailed investigation of the psychobiological
and neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie the benefits of music. We have also
provided examples of how music can be applied in sport and exercise and would encourage
others to adapt these in order to meet the needs of individuals or teams.
Review Questions
1. What are the main constituents of music?
2. What were the main weaknesses associated with early research in the area of music in
sport and exercise?
3. What are the documented psychological, psychophysical, psychophysiological, and
ergogenic benefits of music?
4. What qualities does “motivational music” have?
5. Why has music sometimes been referred to by journalists as a “legal drug”?
The Role of Music 28
6. How does asynchronous music influence ratings of perceived exertion during
7. What is the nature of the relationship between exercise heart rate and music-tempo
8. How can athletes use pre-task music to attain an optimal competition mindset?
9. What are the main qualities of recuperative music?
10. Under which circumstances might music be detrimental to performance?
The Role of Music 29
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The Role of Music 36
Boxed Example 17.2
Sean Dreams of Olympic Glory
Sean is a club runner with big ambitions. He was a talented athlete at school but stopped
running during his college years. Sean found it hard to motivate himself to train on the
dark, cold winter evenings. The lethargy of the winter soon spilled over into the summer
months and like many students, he drifted into some bad habits; late nights, fast food, too
much alcohol, and precious little physical activity. Sean was interested in movies and it
was while attending his university‟s film club that he saw Hugh Hudson‟s classic Chariots
of Fire for the first time. He loved the imagery in the movie as well as the inspiring
soundtrack by Vangelis. In the summer of his graduation, Sean took a close look at
himself, didn‟t like what he saw, and decided that it was time to re-initiate his training
regimen. He hooked-up with his old coach and began to make dramatic improvements. In
the fall, he felt his motivation waning a little but recalled the positive influence of the
Chariots of Fire theme while he was at college. Now, whenever Sean lacks the motivation
to leave the house for training, he plays the theme on his hi-fi at full blast while he
stretches his muscles and imagines himself representing his country in the 400 m at the
Olympic Games. In 3-4 minutes he is primed and ready to go.
The Role of Music 37
The Role of Music 38
Boxed Example 17.4
Michael Phelps’ Playlist Revealed
American swimmer Michael Phelps has been hailed the “greatest ever Olympian” after
winning six gold medals at the 2004 Athens Games and then surpassing even that feat
with an unprecedented haul of eight gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Games. Phelps is an
avid music listener prior to competition, using his iPod until about two minutes before
his race begins. One of the most frequently asked questions on Olympic-related blogs
from both Athens and Beijing was “Just what is Michael Phelps listening to?” Well, his
playlist includes mostly rap and hip-hop sounds, with artists such as Jay-Z, Young Jeezy,
and Eminem featuring prominently. I’m Me by Lil‟ Wayne was on his pre-race playlist in
Beijing, which includes the lines:
“Yes I am the best, and no I ain‟t positive, I‟m definite. I know the game like I‟m reffing
The Role of Music 39
Figure Captions
Figure 17.1. Conceptual framework for the prediction of responses to motivational
asynchronous music in exercise and sport. (Adapted with permission from Taylor and
Francis; Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 713-724) [PERMISSION FROM TAYLOR
Figure 17.2. Conceptual framework for the benefits of music in sport and exercise contexts.
(Reproduced with permission from Australian Psychological Society; 2006,
Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Australian Psychological Society and the
New Zealand Psychological Society, 415-419) [PERMISSION FROM THE
Figure 17.3. A model of young tennis players‟ use of music to manipulate emotional state.
Data from 1first interview, 2diary, 3questionnaire, and 4second interview (Reproduced
with permission from Human Kinetics Publishers; Journal of Sport & Exercise
Psychology, 29, 584-607). [PERMISSION FROM HUMAN KINETICS
Figure 17.4. Hypothesized quartic relationship between exercise heart rate and preferred
music tempo (adapted from Karageorghis & Terry, 2009) [PERMISSION FROM
Figure 17.5. Trendlines for RPE and in-task affect in a treadmill walking task to exhaustion
under conditions of synchronous music, oudeterous music, and a no-music control.
Note. The time series data for both variables are scaled to represent the time endured in
percentage terms. Hence, 100% represents the total time endured by each participant.
The Role of Music 40
The Role of Music 41
Rhythm response
Cultural impact
Arousal control
Reduced RPE
Improved mood
Greater work output
Improved skill acquisition
Flow state
Enhanced performance
Antecedents Intermediaries Potential Benefits
The Role of Music 42
Emotional responses
Pool of
emotive music
Determinants of
emotive music
Emotional intensity
mediators (delivery)
onset delay
Mode of delivery
e.g.,mp3 player, car
audio system
Modifiable music
e.g., tempo, pitch,
Altered arousal
e.g., psych
up, relax
Attentional focus shift
e.g., dissociation
e.g., visual, auditory
Improved or maintained
Physical reactions
e.g., heightened or
depressed motor activity
Desired emotional state
e.g., psyched
Environmental factors
e.g., traveling to competition
or working out in the gym
Present emotional state
e.g., good mood, nervous
musical associations
e.g., past performances,
iconic film
Acoustical properties
e.g., rhythm, melody,
Inspirational lyrics
I can climb a
mountain high
e.g., radio, music TV
Modifiable emotional
content and intensity
mediators (selection)
Peer and family
Film soundtracks and
music videos
Acoustical properties
with artist or lyrics
Listening to
liked and
The Role of Music 43
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Exercise Intensity (% maxHRR)
Preferred Music Tempo (bpm) ..
1st inflection
3rd inflection
2nd inflection
The Role of Music 44
010 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (%)
Feeling Scale Scores
RPE Scores
Linear (FS Motivational) Linear (FS Oudeterous) Linear (FS Control)
Linear (RPE Motivational) Linear (RPE Oudeterous) Linear (RPE Control)
RPE Trendlines
FS Trendlines
... In sport, the use of music during training represents a special paradigm for trainers to stimulate people undertaking different types of exercise. As previous findings reported that music, especially when selected according to its motivational qualities, renders moods and feeling states more positive across a range of exercise modalities and tasks (Terry & Karageorghis, 2011). ...
... When in-task music was used over a longer duration, during bouts of work completed to exhaustion, similar results ensued in that ergogenic effects were reported in 12 of the 14 studies cited.Music helps increased arousal, increased poweroutput and heart rate, delayed fatigue, and increasedexercise duration and intensity (Shoemark, 2016). Music is used synchronously to accompany repetitive endurance tasks such as cycle ergometer, walking and running (Terry & Karageorghis, 2011). ...
... Both music conditions promoted greater endurance than the control, with the motivational music proving superior to the oudeterous selection. Indeed, the motivational music elicited a marked 15% increase in treadmill endurance when compared to the control, and a clear 6% increase relative to the oudeterous condition (Terry & Karageorghis, 2011). ...
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Music act as ergogenic aid able to enhance the physiological and psychological status of participants during sport-related activities and physical exercise. Music is used synchronously to accompany repetitive endurance tasks such as cycle ergometer, walking and running. Maximal Aerobic Speed (MAS), defined as the minimum speed required to elicit maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during a graded exercise test, has also been validated outside of the laboratory as a field test. Previous study calculated that the most suitable duration for measuring maximal aerobic speed by a field test was 5 min.For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiovascular endurance performance was related to volume; type and tempo of the music been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no studies to date that examined the effect of music intervention duration on maximal aerobic speed during the physical education classes. As such, the primary aim of this study was to assess and compare the Maximal Aerobic Speed between intervention duration groups with music. A total of 207 female students enrolled in the Physical Education courses at Saigon University were recruited in current study.They were randomly divided into three groups: Intervention group 1, with 15 weeks of synchronous music throughout the whole semester (69 students); intervention group 2 with 7 weeks of synchronous music (69 students); and a control group (69 students). Results revealed that there was no significant main effect of Group on overall MAS performance (F (1,204) =.86, p=.43, ηp2= .008). Descriptive statistics showed that the groups (15-week group: Mean=825.65, SD=64.61; 7-week group: Mean=827.10, SD=63.34) with music intervention performed better in MAS performance compared to the control group (Mean=806.38, SD=55.97). From looking at the graph we can see that all groups showed a similarly upward trend between Pre-Post Intervention. The results of this study revealed that popular music has no effect on MAS performance in the students attended the physical education classes for 15 weeks.
... The evidence of the existing topic is unanimous and shows that music can affect the ability of attention and a series of emotions, such as increasing work efficiency and motivating rhythmic movements [27,29]. Nikol et al. [27] and Terry et al. [29], who supplied the definition about effects on humans, are unanimous regarding the effect of mild-and low-intensity activities. ...
... The evidence of the existing topic is unanimous and shows that music can affect the ability of attention and a series of emotions, such as increasing work efficiency and motivating rhythmic movements [27,29]. Nikol et al. [27] and Terry et al. [29], who supplied the definition about effects on humans, are unanimous regarding the effect of mild-and low-intensity activities. According to the American College of Sports Medicine(ACSM), exercise intensities are divided by percent of maximum heart rate (MHR), which separates intensities into three stages. ...
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Music can generate a positive effect in runners’ performance and motivation. However, the practical implementation of music intervention during exercise is mostly absent from the literature. Therefore, this paper designs a playback sequence system for joggers by considering music emotion and physiological signals. This playback sequence is implemented by a music selection module that combines artificial intelligence techniques with physiological data and emotional music. In order to make the system operate for a long time, this paper improves the model and selection music module to achieve lower energy consumption. The proposed model obtains fewer FLOPs and parameters by using logarithm scaled Mel-spectrogram as input features. The accuracy, computational complexity, trainable parameters, and inference time are evaluated on the Bi-modal, 4Q emotion, and Soundtrack datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed model is better than that of Sarkar et al. and achieves competitive performance on Bi-modal (84.91%), 4Q emotion (92.04%), and Soundtrack (87.24%) datasets. More specifically, the proposed model reduces the computational complexity and inference time while maintaining the classification accuracy, compared to other models. Moreover, the size of the proposed model for network training is small, which can be applied to mobiles and other devices with limited computing resources. This study designed the overall playback sequence system by considering the relationship between music emotion and physiological situation during exercise. The playback sequence system can be adopted directly during exercise to improve users’ exercise efficiency.
... Selain itu unsur musik juga dapat dijadikan media yang dapat menstimulus panca indara atlet hal ini dikarenakan musik merupakan teknik distraksi sebagai media menurunkan intensitas keadaan strees, dan kecemasan dengan cara mengalihkan perhatian dari perasaan yang dirasakan (Terry & Karageorghis, 2011). ...
Research purposes; (1) produce an effective training model using hypnotheraphy techniques assisted by instrumental music to increase the concentration of athletes. The test subjects were 15 male athletes from various sports in Lubuklinggau city. This study uses the reseach and development (RND) method with the following steps: (1) preparation for developing an exercise model, (2) designing a hypothetical model, (3) testing the feasibility of a hypothetical model, (4) improving the hypothetical model, (5) field testing , (6) the final product. The results of the research model are structured based on: (1) rational, (2) vision and mission of training, (3) training objectives, (4) training content, (5) system support, (6) training procedures, (7) evaluation and action and continue. The trial results were effective for increasing the concentration of athletes and there was an increase in the average score of 6.8 or 50.06%. It is reinforced by the results of the Wilcoxon test that the training model is effective for increasing the concentration of athletes. Obtained a value of 0.001 smaller than <0.05, the hypothesis can be Ha accepted. In conclusion, the developed model of hypnotheraphy technique assisted by instrumental music is effective to increase athletes' concentration Keywords: Hypnotheraphy and Instrumental Music, Concentration
... Relaxation exercises and psychingup can be combined with music which is often called pre-task music (Karageorghis & Priest, 2012). Listening to music before a task may have a stimulating or positive effect (Terry & Karageorghis, 2011). The results of research on relaxation and psyching up techniques conducted by the Brazilian Olympic Committee show that these techniques have been shown to help a person to manage anxiety and arousal levels, thereby improving performance (Pineschi & di Pietro, 2013). ...
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The purpose of this research to understand the correlation between anxiety and the concentration of tennis athletes. The subjects of this study were tennis athletes who entered the qualifying round in the " Piala Rektor UNP & Dirut Bank Nagari 2021" tournament as many as 50 people. Measurement of anxiety variables on the sports anxiety scale and concentration variables using a concentration training grid. Analysis of the data used is product moment correlation. Analysis of the data used is product moment correlation. Data analysis shows a correlation coefficient of 0.784 and is included in the strong category and contributes to the correlation between variables of 0.64 or 64%. From the value of the correlation coefficient is in the strong category. That is, if the level of anxiety is high, the level of concentration of tennis athletes will be lower and vice versa, an increase in concentration will be followed by a decrease in anxiety.
... For example, people often respond to a clear pulsating rhythm with whole-body movements [37]. Music associated with movement has also been shown to increase motivation, trigger emotions, stimulate active presence, stimulate the constructive regulation of feelings, raise achievement, and help individuals synchronize their movements with one another [38,39]. Dance and music may have the ability to facilitate increased feelings of self-trust. ...
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Transition to sustainability is a process that requires change on all levels of society from the physical to the psychological. This review takes an interdisciplinary view of the landscapes of research that contribute to the development of pro-social behaviors that align with sustainability goals, or what we call 'inner sustainability'. Engaging in musical and dance activities can make people feel trust and connectedness, promote prosocial behavior within a group, and also reduce prejudices between groups. Sustained engagement in these art forms brings change in a matter of seconds (such as hormonal changes and associated stress relief), months (such as improved emotional wellbeing and learning outcomes), and decades (such as structural changes to the brains of musicians and dancers and superior skills in expressing and understanding emotion). In this review, we bridge the often-separate domains of the arts and sciences by presenting evidence that suggests music and dance promote self-awareness, learning, care for others and wellbeing at individual and group levels. In doing so, we argue that artistic practices have a key role to play in leading the transformations necessary for a sustainable society. We require a movement of action that provides dance and music within a constructive framework for stimulating social sustainability.
... Within motor and creative activities, these patients should be addressed to opt for musical activities, because music induces them to perform fluid and rhythmic movements that contrast their tics (Bodeck, Lappe, & Evers, 2015;Scataglini, Andreoni, Fusca, & Porta, 2017). In fact, according to several studies (Zatorre, Halpern, Perry, Meyer, & Evans, 1996;Terry & Karageorghis, 2011), musical rhythm facilitates the coordination, by giving harmony to movements during a performance. More precisely, the temporal component of music leads the individual to follow the sequential structure and to "drag" movements. ...
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neurobehavioral disorder, which is characterized by motor and sound tics. Current studies have identified some specific factors that lead to tic reduction, such as relaxation, concentration, musical activities, and the execution of voluntary and finalistic movements. Patients with TS show a higher level of creativity than other people, which can be channeled, together with their excessive motor energy, into various functional activities that favor the reduction of tics. Moreover, in the last decades, music has been used as a rehabilitative tool, since it has shown to induce a positive effect on TS patients' mood and to facilitate the performance of fluid and rhythmic voluntary movements. The present study refers to “Imagine, Tourette!”, a motor imagery, music-based intervention aimed at reducing the manifestation of motor and sound tics in adult TS patients. To test the specific effect of such a kind of training, 8 TS patients were exposed to one of two interventions: the experimental group performed motor tasks based on music whereas the control group performed motor tasks without the accompaniment of music. The hypothesis tested was that performing motor tasks accompanied by music could reduce the severity of tics and have an effect on patients' mood more than simply performing motor tasks alone. The results supported the hypothesis: music played a specific effect on the manifestation of tics and on the patients' mood, confirming its potentially positive role in motor interventions addressed to TS. © 2020. Associazione Oasi Maria SS. - IRCCS. All Rights Reserved.
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Sport is an important phenomenon that supports psycho-social and physical development in both individual and social contexts. Music has an important place among the factors affecting the sportive process. In this study, the effect of music on sportive activities was examined according to some demographic factors in the context of motivation, physical strength and performance, and psychological resilience. The research data were obtained from 36 athletes competing in the archery branch in the 2020-2021 season Senior Turkey Championship Final Competitions. Scanning model was used in the research. In this context, the Effect of Music on Sportive Practices scale developed by Karayol and Turhan (2020) was used. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics for demographic variables, the Mann-Whitney U Test, which is a nonparametric test, to test the difference between the mean of two independent groups, and the Kruskal Wallis Test, which is one of the nonparametric tests, were used to compare more than two independent groups. In addition, Spearman test was applied to determine the relationship between two or more variables. As a result of the research, there were no significant differences according to the variables of gender and personal income, but significant differences were found between the variables of education status, listening to music in training and training place and some sub-dimensions of the scale. According to this; Significant differences were found in favor of those with university education, those who listen to music in training and those whose training place is in the district. In addition, a negative significant relationship was found between listening to music in sports activities and daily training time. According to the findings, the effect of music in sportive activities decreases as the training time increases, and listening to music during training increases motivation and performance.
OBJECTIVE: For years, the effects of music on exercise performance have been researched. Recovery is extremely important for athletes, and therefore any factor that could affect it is of importance. BACKGROUND: To assess the influence of listening to music on recovery after an anaerobic-exercise. METHOD: 25 male athletes (age 21.76 ± 1.84 years) visited the laboratory on two occasions over a week. They performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) test on two identical conditions but recovery was conducted ‘with’ and ‘without’ listening to music. Blood Lactate concentration values were determined at 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes during the recovery from the exercise. Heart Rate (HR) values were determined every minute of the 15 minutes of recovery. RESULTS: There was no difference in the mean blood lactate concentration and HR during the recovery with and without music (p> 0.05). Results showed no significant differences between 2 recovery conditions in heart rate or blood lactate. CONCLUSIONS: Music cannot improve recovery after anaerobic performance and it cannot be used as a mean to enhance recovery after an anaerobic-performance.
This article explores current research on how music can affect levels of motivation and increase levels of physical activity. Some of the topics include using music as a distraction, thinking about synchronous or asynchronous pairing of music with lessons, and how the tempo may interact with student engagement. Following the review of current research on the topic, suggestions are provided on how to apply this research to utilizing music within physical education instructional practices.
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Das Regenerationsmanagement im Leistungssport umfasst die Abschätzung von Ermüdungszustand und Regenerationsbedarf (Teil 1 dieser Beitragsreihe) sowie den Einsatz regenerationsfördernder Maßnahmen (Teil 2 dieser Beitragsreihe). Die Erfassung des Regenerationsbedarfs erfolgt durch die Dokumentation der externen Trainings- und Wettkampfbelastung, der damit einhergehenden internen Beanspruchung und der resultierenden Leistungsveränderung. Hierzu sind zahlreiche Surrogat-Parameter verfügbar (z. B. Laborparameter, sportmotorische Tests und psychometrische Verfahren). Diese sollten sensitiv für unterschiedliche Belastungsformen und Dimensionen der Ermüdung, ausreichend reliabel und objektiv, kostengünstig und praktikabel sowie engmaschig durchführbar und demnach nicht zu belastend sein. Für die Beurteilung des Regenerationsbedarfs einzelner Athleten sind neben einer individualisierten Interpretation der Surrogat-Parameter stets auch der vertrauensvolle Diskurs zwischen Athleten und deren Betreuerstab erforderlich.
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This study examined the effect of motivational music on a 20-min sub-maximal cycle task. Eighteen untrained student volunteers (10 males, 8 females) were required to partake in three experimental conditions: no music, oudeterous (non-motivational) music, and motivational music. Participants’ in-task affective states and rate of perceived exertion were assessed on rating scales during the trials and the distance traveled for each trial was recorded. In addition, participants’ attitudes towards the exercise experience were assessed on rating scales administered post-trial. The results of the study indicate that both motivational and oudeterous music can significantly increase distance traveled when compared to the control condition. However, no significant differences were observed between the two music conditions and the increased exercise intensity associated with musical accompaniments was not associated with an increased perception of effort. Both music conditions elicited increased in-task affect and generated equally positive post-task attitudes towards the exercise experience. No significant Gender×Trial interactions were identified for any of the dependent measures.
Subjective estimates of physical work intensity are considered of major importance to those concerned with prescription of exercise. This article reviews major theoretical models which might guide research on the antecedents for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). It is argued that an active rather than passive view of perception is warranted in future research, and a parallel-processing model is emphasized as providing the needed structure for such reconceptualization. Moreover, existing exercise research is reviewed as support for this latter approach and several suggestions are offered with regard to needed empirical study.
This study reports an empirical investigation of the influence of felt (internal locus - IL) emotion versus expressed (external locus - EL) emotion upon preference in music. Sixty-fve participants rated IL and EL of emotions for fve pieces of romantic western art music. For each locus task 'emotional strength', 'valence', 'arousal' and 'dominance' were rated and converted into magnitude scores. Ratings of familiarity and preference were also collected. Gap across emotion loci (GAEL) was calculated overall - which combined GAEL scores in polar-coordinate emotion-space, and for each dimension. Familiarity, felt emotional strength and overall GAEL explained 46.9 percent of the variance in preference. Both IL and EL negative valence were correlated with preference suggesting enjoyment of negative emotion in music through dissociation. The study suggests that the way music makes the listener feel is more important in determining enjoyment than noticing the emotion the music is trying to convey. Also, matching of IL and EL emotions (i.e. minimizing GAEL) is more preferred than when IL emotions are lower in magnitude than EL. Hence two principles of enjoyment are identifed in this study: (1) dissociation and (2) GAEL. Copyright
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fast- and slow-tempo music on 500-m rowing sprint performances. Twenty-two rowers performed 500-m sprints 3 times: rowing without music, rowing to slow music, and rowing to fast tempo music. Strokes per minute (SPM), time to completion, (TTC), and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Although RPE did not differ between the rowing conditions, TTC was shortest in the fast music condition. Further, shorter TTC was observed in the slow music condition in contrast to the control condition, indicating that slow music also enhanced performance. The strongest treatment effects emerged, however, in the examination of the SPM that were significantly higher during rowing to fast music in comparison with rowing to slow music or no music. These results suggest that fast music acts as an external psyching-up stimulus in brief and strenuous muscle work.
232 undergraduates participated in 3 experiments that evaluated the feeling scale (FS) by W. J. Rejeski et al (1987) as a measure of affect during exercise. In Exp 1, Ss were instructed to check adjectives on the Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist—Revised that they would associate with either a "good" or a "bad" feeling during exercise. As predicted, discriminant function analysis indicated that the good/bad dimension of the FS appears to represent a core of emotional expression. In Exp 2, Ss rated how they felt during exercise at 3 rates of perceived exertion (RPE). Exp 3 involved 3 4-min bouts of exercise at 30, 60, and 90% of maximum oxygen consumption. RPE and the FS were moderately related, but only at easy and hard workloads. FS ratings evidenced greater variability as metabolic demands increased, and RPEs consistently had stronger ties to physiologic cues than responses to the FS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Objectives: To examine the effects of self-selected asynchronous (background) music on flow and netball shooting performance in three netball players. Based on the research of Karageorghis and Terry (1999) it was hypothesized that music would promote flow and would therefore have a positive impact on netball shooting performance.Design: An idiographic single-subject multiple baselines across-subjects design was employed (Wollman, 1986). The rationale centred upon the work of Patrick and Hrycaiko (1998) who indicated that single-subject designs were the most appropriate methodology for applied research.Methods: The participants comprised three collegiate netball players who were asked to complete 11 performance trials. Each trial involved taking 12 shots from lines located at three shooting positions. After each performance trial, flow and the internal experience of each player were assessed using the Flow State Scale (Jackson & Marsh, 1996) and Practical Assessment Questionnaire. Participants received the intervention of asynchronous music with the length of pre-intervention baseline increasing for each succeeding player.Results: Two of the participants experienced an increase in the perception of flow while all three participants improved their netball shooting performance. In addition, participants indicated that the intervention helped them to control both the emotions and cognitions that impacted upon their performance.Conclusions: Interventions comprising self-selected music and imagery can enhance athletic performance by triggering emotions and cognitions associated with flow.