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A Methodological Proposal for the Development of Natura 2000 Sites Management Plans

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This paper makes recommendations for the development of Management Plans for Natura 2000 Sites, enabling future managers and decision-makers to elaborate and implement their own plans more efficiently and in a more informed fashion. The original methodology entailed a 10 phase plan, starting with “Problem Classification and Stakeholder Identification” and ending with Revision and/or Reformulation of the Management Plan”. It was utilized during the Pico da Vara Special Protected Area Management Plan elaboration process in 2005 by SPEA, on the behalf of the LIFE Priolo Project. Subsequent feedback led to an improved, more complete and balanced methodology capable of avoiding the repetition of similar and future errors (about 80% of scheduled activities were achieved). Although it was not successful in obtaining full financing, this process succeed in characterizing the SPA and its conservation issues and in unifying the divergent interests of public and private organizations by involving them in the plan’s development . This proved that the success of effective Nature conservation and particularly of Natura 2000 depends on the synergy of fundamental practices, such as the production and sharing of accurate thematic geographic data (for characterization, analysis and monitoring), and also on guaranteeing the participation and co-responsibility of all stakeholders in the site management.
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... This failure is even more critical when the diagnostics and policy change demands that these integrated perspective implications are considered (e.g. Beddoe et al., 2009) and the importance of the institutional relevance, involvement, accountable empowerment and representativeness of stakeholders for an effective and successful decision-making and law enforcement process is recognized Gil et al., 2011b). ...
... Co-management methods in which all involved actors are learning and are included in the decision-making process and in the post-evaluation and adjustment procedures (e.g. Gil et al., 2011aGil et al., , 2011b. This is a particularly complex process due to the need of bringing together very different and normally opposed acting cultures (Leys and Vanclay, 2011): decision-makers, populations, among others. ...
... effect, the effect, the process of process of responsibility (insurance) costs, responsibility (insurance) costs, compensation compensation Therefore, trade-offs will only be successful when actively involving all actors. The unavailability or absence of some relevant stakeholders or even the unreliability of others such as, in too many cases, the administration may determine the partial or total failure of the management process (Gil et al., 2011b). However, considering the law and political challenges of ecological service provision presented by Ruhl and Salzman (2007, pp.167), ...
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The paper analyses the current limitations of the constraints of decision and action processes in land-use, resource management and conservation policies and approaches, identifying their main factors, proposing alternative strategies to solve the present gaps and limitations. It identifies the need for a new paradigmatic approach based on innovative forms of involvement, commitment and individual and community rewarding systems. This approach is developed based on the characterization of the main drivers of land-use, resource management and conservation policies, namely α-perceptions (immediate and primary satisfaction) and k-perceptions (more mediate and complex consideration of satisfaction, implying long-term perceptions and collective benefits beyond the individual interests). It also analyses the effects of the introduction of new forms of income and incentives (such as trade-offs and payments for environmental services) or management approaches such as Ecological-Based Management or the use of Nature-Based Solutions. The main axioms and instruments necessary to build such a new paradigmatic approach (namely trade-offs, accountability and contractualization) are described. On this basis, it is possible to present a concept for an innovative institutional and social culture and a governance system aimed at an effective land-use, resource management and conservation policies. This governance concept is described and its sustaining individual, social and institutional drivers enunciated.
... Consequently, a large diversity of implementation approaches has been adopted, and can be seen as advantageous as it enables learning for improved future functioning [12]. To improve the practical implementation in most countries, the authors suggest the need for more communication and participation with stakeholders [13], the importance of inter-sectoral cooperation [8,14], the need for co-responsibility of all relevant stakeholders who are involved in the process [15], and an awareness of the socio-economic and cultural contexts in which conservation planning takes place [16]. Moreover, research also deals with challenges for the implementation of Natura 2000 in forests. ...
... Still, stakeholders felt that all their responses and proposals were not taken into consideration. To improve the perceived influence of stakeholders, project partners need to connect participation with co-responsibility [15]. ...
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... Fewer research seem to also focus on the private areas of the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, especially those focused on the involvement of stakeholders and experts in the phases of perception of ecosystem services and management of a Natura 2000 site, with a few exceptions [18]. In addition, experts and stakeholders can participate in the formulation and implementation of the Natura 2000 in different ways, but there are no specific recommendations about participation [17]. ...
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... In contrast to top-down governance, which circumvents local communities in decision-making (Nita et al. 2018), a bottom-up participatory PA management approach involves a range of relevant stakeholders covering, for instance, local communities, scientists and environmental interest groups. More holistically, potential stakeholders in a power-sharing network for PA management purposes include (Gil et al. 2011(Gil et al. :1327: (i) public regional administration entities; (ii) public local administration; (iii) research centres; (iv) land-users; (v) landowners within or adjacent to the PA and (vi) environmental and rural development non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The latter has proven to be particularly influential and effective in promoting environmental policies at all levels of governance, ranging from local to global (Nita et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
This chapter aims to contribute to the knowledge on participatory planning (PP) in the protected area (PA) management focusing on areas whose sustainability is significantly affected by excessive tourism activity. The existing literature has shown PP to be both crucial for successful PA management as well as one of the weaker links in current PA management processes. However, the analysis of PPs key features and their implementation in the PAs are not adequately covered in the literature. Thus, this chapter analyses the role and critical elements of successful PP process in PA using the case studies of two Croatian national parks (NP) that have been under significant visitor pressure over the past years (pre-COVID-19). Based on several criteria devised through a critical review of PP literature, an assessment of PP models in two NP is performed, and critical points requiring improvements identified.
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Chapter
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The principal objectives during the development of the lithotheca of the International Institute of Prehistoric Researches have been the creation of a reference collection about known outcrops of lithologic raws of archaeological interest, sampling, sistematic catalogation of the collected items and their integration on a public Geographic Information System for their use on research and public through diverse layers of information, data bases and widgets offered by this lithotheca. At the same time, different levels of geological, geographic, chronological and location information of dated archaeological sites have been integrated, allowing a wide variety of analysis.
... Nevertheless, studies on participation approaches usually focus more on the (lack of) involvement of affected land users rather than the involvement of conservationists or the public. A few studies draw attention to the need for a balanced involvement of all parties [27,51,52] and the need to connect participation with co-responsibility [107]. ...
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Natura 2000 is the core pillar in the European Union’s (EU) biodiversity conservation policy. It is an EU-wide ecological network of protected areas that cuts across countries’ borders, administrative levels, policy sectors and socio-economic contexts. The network is established and managed according to the legally-binding provisions of the 1979 EU Birds Directive (79/409/EEC, revised in 2009) and the 1992 EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC). Natura 2000 aims to achieve biodiversity conservation and to combine it with the sustainable development of land and natural resources. It can allow for continuation of land uses (eg agriculture, forestry) as long as they do not significantly compromise conservation objectives for habitats and species within and beyond the network. The Natura 2000 network now covers almost 18% of the EU’s territory. Forests are of crucial importance for Natura 2000 and vice versa. Almost 50% of the whole coverage of the network is comprised of forests. This means that nearly 25% of the total forest area in the EU-28 is part of the EU-wide network of protected areas. Yet knowledge about the implementation of Natura 2000 in forests and its effects on biodiversity, forest management and other land uses across the EU is fragmented. This science-based study aims to narrow the gaps in the scholarly, practical and policy- related knowledge. It looks from policy, economic and ecological perspectives at the monitoring of forest biodiversity in Europe, as well as the challenges, achievements, effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation of Natura 2000 in forests in the EU- 28. The study provides conclusions and recommendations that can support decisionmaking in policy and practice.
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Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the development of the idea of "stakeholder management" as it has come to be applied in strategic management. We begin by developing a brief history of the concept. We then suggest that traditionally the stakeholder approach to strategic management has several related characteristics that serve as distinguishing features. We review recent work on stakeholder theory and suggest how stakeholder management has affected the practice of management. We end by suggesting further research questions.
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Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach was first published in 1984 as a part of the Pitman series in Business and Public Policy. Its publication proved to be a landmark moment in the development of stakeholder theory. Widely acknowledged as a world leader in business ethics and strategic management, R. Edward Freeman’s foundational work continues to inspire scholars and students concerned with a more practical view of how business and capitalism actually work. Business can be understood as a system of how we create value for stakeholders. This worldview connects business and capitalism with ethics once and for all. On the 25th anniversary of publication, Cambridge University Press are delighted to be able to offer a new print-on-demand edition of his work to a new generation of readers.
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Management Planning for Protected Areas: A Guide for Practitioners and their Bosses. Management Planning for Protected Areas
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Eurosite, 2005. Management Planning for Protected Areas: A Guide for Practitioners and their Bosses. Management Planning for Protected Areas. Peterborough. UK. ISBN 186716-884-4.
The CMS Management Planning Guide
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Alexander, M., 2010. The CMS Management Planning Guide. Talgarth, Wales, UK: CMS Consortium, 205p.
Pico da Vara/Ribeira do Guilherme Special Protected Area Management Plan. Lisbon: Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves
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Gil, A., 2005. Pico da Vara/Ribeira do Guilherme Special Protected Area Management Plan. Lisbon: Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves, 101p.