ArticlePDF Available

Kombucha microbiome as a probiotic: a view from the perspective of post-genomics and synthetic ecology

Authors:

Abstract

Probiotics are essential for establishing and maintaining optimal immune health. The probiotic therapy is known from alternative medicine for ages; however, the recent demonstration of the normal microflora to induce innate immunity has introduced the science-based concept of therapeutic application of potentially beneficial probiotic microorganisms for a treatment of functional disorders. Traditionally, probiotics are associated with dairy products, however, novel formulations are needed, first of all, originated from naturally occurring symbiotic microbial communities as the most robust assemblages. Especially, safe and robust probiotics are needed for longterm expeditions, outposts, extraterrestrial permanently-manned bases, where humans are exposed to adverse environmental factors. Kombucha beverage is Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) and associated with health-promoting effects. Kombucha tea/mat is being in use in human livings within millennia as a probiotic drink for healing and health prophylaxis effects, however, new research opportunities promise its «renaissance », going to be used pharmacologically.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Probiotics have several health promoting effects such as preventing intestinal tract infections, reducing serum cholesterol level, enhancing immunity, improving protein digestibility and synthesis of vitamins as well as counteracting the effects of food-borne pathogens (Panghal et al., 2018). Prebiotics, a nondigestible fibers must also be present in the diet for improving probiotic activity (Kozyrovska, Reva, Goginyan, & De Vera, 2012). ...
... This culture is a multimicrobial community with strong mutualistic relationships between bacteria and yeasts (Zaets, Podolich, Reva, & Kozyrovska, 2016). It has been noted by many researchers that the kombucha culture is promising for the creation of a consortium with the desired probiotic properties (Kozyrovska et al., 2012;Fu, Wu, Lv, He, & Jiang, 2015;Reva et al., 2015;Zaets et al., 2016;Panghal et al., 2018;Neffe-Skocińska, Dybka-Stępień, & Antolak, 2019). ...
... During fermentation, the microorganisms present in kombucha release some enzymes and produce a wide range of metabolites such as organic acids, ethanol, carbon dioxide etc., which result in profound changes in flavor (Kaufmann, 2013;Matei et al., 2018). At the end of the fermentation, kombucha derived microorganisms produce a mixture of diverse metabolites, which contains polyphenols, organic and amino acids (especially lysine), ethanol, carbon dioxide, water soluble vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin B, and vitamin B2, and a variety of micronutrients (Jayabalan, Malini, Sathishkumar, Swaminathan, & Yun, 2010;Kozyrovska et al., 2012;Fu et al., 2014). Organic acids and ethanol protect SCOBY from the colonization of other microorganisms, hence it is protected within ages (Kozyrovska et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a beverage of Manchurian origin, generally prepared from black or green tea by the activity of various strain of yeasts and bacteria, especially acetic and lactic acid bacteria. The products (beverages) is rich in acetic, gluconic and glucuronic acids, and lower concentration of citric acid, as well as limited amount of ethanol and CO2. Synthetized acids cause the decrease of pH value of kombucha tea and contribute to the formation of its characteristic sour taste. This beverage has been consumed by people due to its health benefits for years. Kombucha is considered as a probiotic drink due to the diversity of naturally occurring symbiotic microorganisms. The health-promoting properties of the beverages drives also from short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other metabolites which improve immunity and also show antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects. In this paper, properties of kombucha were reviewed especially by focusing on its probiotic potential.
... According to the literature, the following substances were found in the culture liquid of the tea kvass mushroom: organic acids -acetic, gluconic, oxalic, citric, malic, lactic, pyruvic, kojic, phosphoric; ethanol; vitamins -ascorbic acid, thiamine; monosaccharides, disaccharides; enzymes -catalase, linase, protease, zymase, sucrase, carbohydrase, amylase; lipids -sterols, phosphatides, fatty acids; pigments -chlorophyll; purine bases from tea leaves [2][3][4][5]. ...
... The presence of such active substances as lactic, acetic, oxalic and other acids, as well as alcohol, in the culture liquid of the fungus, turns it into an antiseptic. G.A. Shakaryan and L.T. Danielova proved that tea kvass inhibited the growth of many types of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in doses from 0.05 to 0.4 ml [1,2,11], i.e. tea kvass has pronounced high antibacterial and antibiotic properties [2][3][4][5]. ...
... Research Dobrynya Yu.M., Timchenko L.D., Rzhepakovsky I.V., Bondareva N.I., Piskov S.I. biologically active substance zooglea Medusomyces gisevii on nonspecific resistance and immunobiological reactivity of the body of white rats under conditions of antibiotic-associated dysbiosis [9] proved a weakening of the functional activity of microbiota as a result of exposure to antibacterial drugs and a decrease in the body's resistance and immunoharmonic defense systems [3,4]. "...The use of a biologically active substance from the stony plant Medusomyces gisevii (Kombucha) contributed to the experiment on correcting the consequences of antibiotic-associated dysbiosis, accelerated recovery and stimulation of the general resistance of the organism of the studied animals, which indicates its immunomodulatory properties..." The results of the study are presented in table 1 [3,4,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. The results of an experimental study (Dobrynya Yu. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article discusses the use of Medusomyces gisevii, fungal liquid in particular, as the main ingredient for the preparation of a filler (jelly) for confectionery. The analysis of studies of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of Medusomyces gisevii research, proving the possibility of using Medusomyces Gisevi as probiotics that normalize the activity of the microbiota of the human body, provides the results of the chemical composition of kombucha. At this stage, the aim of the study is: to study the biological processes during the cultivation of the Kombucha mushroom; to determine the physicochemical parameters of liquid for kombucha culture; to study the influence of the culture liquid of kombucha on the technology of preparation of jelly as a filler and its commercial characteristics. On the basis of the fungal liquid, an inoculant was obtained (control sample no. 1 according to the classical preparation scheme and experimental sample no. 2). substances, the change in the content of antioxidants: vitamin C and rutin, depending on the time of fermentation. In order to study the possibility of using samples to obtain a filler (jelly) of confectionery products, the organoleptic characteristics of the resulting drink were determined. The most acceptable organoleptic properties are possessed by a drink with the addition of kombucha and oregano extract with honey.
... Kombucha beverage is a source of bioactive components, such as glucuronic acid and polyphenols displaying antioxidant activity [4][5][6]. The low pH value of this beverage, especially owing to the presence of acetic acid in particular and a range of other organic acids, makes kombucha a drink with remarkable antimicrobial activity against a broad range of microorganisms [7][8][9][10] having also probiotic and symbiotic properties [11]. ...
... Many claimed beneficial effects of kombucha may be associated with its antioxidant activities, but when kombucha tea is stored at ordinary temperatures, the biofilm due to the presence of microorganisms continues to form, and might also affect the antioxidant activity. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin-3-gallate are converted into the corresponding epigallocatechin (EGC) and epicatechin (EC), the phenolic concentration in kombucha tea shows a linear increase during the fermentation time [11]. It is worth to note that the beneficial outcomes of the kombucha drink are mainly attributed to the activity of polyphenols, which in turn can act epigenetically [12,13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a fermented beverage. Its consumption has significantly increased during the last decades due to its perceived beneficial effects. For this reason, it has become a highly commercialized drink that is produced industrially. However, kombucha is still also a homemade beverage, and the parameters which, besides its organoleptic characteristics, define the duration of its potential beneficial properties over time, are poorly known. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 9-month storage at 4 °C with 30-day sampling on the pH, total phenolic, and flavonoid contents, free radical scavenging properties of kombucha fermented from black tea. Our results highlighted that, after four months, the phenolic content decreased significantly from the initial value of 234.1 ± 1.4 µg GAE mL−1 to 202.9 ± 2.1 µg GAE mL−1, as well its antioxidant capacity tested by two in vitro models, DPPH, and ABTS assays. Concomitantly, the pH value increased from 2.82 to 3.16. The novel findings of this pilot study revealed that kombucha from sugared black tea can be stored at refrigerator temperature for four months. After this period the antioxidant properties of kombucha are no longer retained.
... Mostly, the bacterial components of a probiotic material come from Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus or a combination of these two strains. In this case, there can be a few usual yeast types such as S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces boulardii in the mixture as well [75]. ...
... A prebiotic selectively helps the activity and growth of the consortium of beneficial microbes present in the human gut [77]. e yeast and bacteria in this beverage operate as probiotics, and the present microcellulose can help in the growth of the useful microbes in the intestine [75]. One of the health benefits related to this beverage in Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital from Lagarto, SE, Brazil, is utilizing the present microbial mat in the fermentation for producing artificial skin [78]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kombucha is a valuable traditional natural tea that contains beneficial compounds like organic acids, minerals, different vitamins, proteins, polyphenols, and several anions. Kombucha possesses anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antifungal activity as well as hepatoprotective effects. Considering the unique properties of Kombucha, several investigations have already been conducted on its nutritional properties. In this review, an effort has been devoted to pool recent literature on the biomedical application of Kombucha under the objectives, including the chemical composition of Kombucha and industrial production, and highlight different properties of Kombucha. Finally, we explain its adverse effects and prospect. This review is an active, in-depth, and inclusive report about Kombucha and its health benefits.
... Kombucha multimicrobial community (KMC) is a natural assemblage of bacteria and yeasts living in metabolic cooperation and streaky in a cellulose-based pellicle film (Pothakos et al., 2016;May et al., 2019;Barbosa et al., 2021). In astrobiology, KMC is used as a model for researching a natural probiotic drink for astronauts during space travel (Kozyrovska et al., 2012(Kozyrovska et al., , 2021. Recent BIOMEX results revealed that key KMC community members were capable of surviving under space and Mars-like conditions (Podolich et al., 2019) and that the bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by KMC retained its robustness under the impact of Mars-like stressors . ...
Article
Full-text available
Komagataeibacter is the dominant taxon and cellulose-producing bacteria in the Kombucha Microbial Community (KMC). This is the first study to isolate the K. oboediens genome from a reactivated space-exposed KMC sample and comprehensively characterize it. The space-exposed genome was compared with the Earth-based reference genome to understand the genome stability of K. oboediens under extraterrestrial conditions during a long time. Our results suggest that the genomes of K. oboediens IMBG180 (ground sample) and K. oboediens IMBG185 (space-exposed) are remarkably similar in topology, genomic islands, transposases, prion-like proteins, and number of plasmids and CRISPR-Cas cassettes. Nonetheless, there was a difference in the length of plasmids and the location of cas genes. A small difference was observed in the number of protein coding genes. Despite these differences, they do not affect any genetic metabolic profile of the cellulose synthesis, nitrogen-fixation, hopanoid lipids biosynthesis, and stress-related pathways. Minor changes are only observed in central carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways gene numbers or sequence completeness. Altogether, these findings suggest that K. oboediens maintains Frontiers in Microbiology | www.frontiersin.org 1 March 2022 | Volume 13 | Article 782175 Santana de Carvalho et al. Space-Exposed Kombucha Microbial Community its genome stability and functionality in KMC exposed to the space environment most probably due to the protective role of the KMC biofilm. Furthermore, due to its unaffected metabolic pathways, this bacterial species may also retain some promising potential for space applications.
... Kombucha represents a cocktail of metabolites derived from a blend of bacteria (Acetobacter intermedius, A. nitrogenifigens, Gluconacetobacter kombuchae, and G. xylinus) and yeast (Brettanomyces, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces). It has been used over 2,000 years due to its health-enhancing effect (Kozyrovska et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
Food and pharmaceutical industries are facing major challenges in production of functional products to meet the human nutritional and health requirements. One of the potential options is to employ fungi and their metabolites in food and pharmaceutical products. Many fungi are beneficial as food, medicine and possess several biomaterials of industrial significance. Fungal probiotics are known to enhance the human health and their oligosaccharides are compatible prebiotics which are helpful in restoring the equilibrium of normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. Fungal prebiotics as biopolymers also serve as potential ingredients in functional foods or drugs to serve as nutraceuticals. Functions of prebiotics are further enhanced by the combination of suitable probiotic microorganism/s (called synbiotics) in biotherapy to enhance the nutritional and health benefits in infants and immuno-compromised individuals. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is the most studied fungus as probiotic to combat a variety of human diseases. Mushrooms and other filamentous fungi being part of human nutrition, serve dual purpose as probiotics and prebiotics. Fungi are in forefront to produce the enzyme fructosyl transferase (FTase) which provides scope to produce prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on industrial scale, so also the fungal enzyme inulinase. Fungal chitin and their complexes are also potential sources of prebiotics. Knowledge on fungal probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics will create awareness among the consumers and also pave way to produce inexpensive value addition to the existing fermented food stuffs and new food materials with nutraceutical versatilities. Keywords: Polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, synbiotics, functional foods, biotherapy
... Milk fermentation in colder climates promotes the Fermentation 2019, 5, 46 8 of 12 growth of mesophilic bacteria such as Lactococcus and Leuconostoc, whereas beverages produced at higher temperatures usually have greater counts of thermophilic bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus [66,67]. Most often the probiotic bacteria come from Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium or a cocktail of both [68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Non-Saccharomyces are important during wine fermentation once they influence wine composition. In the early stages of wine fermentation, and together with indigenous or commercial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces are able to transform grape-must sugars into ethanol, CO 2 , and other important secondary metabolites. A better understanding of yeast biochemistry will allow the selection of yeast strains that have defined specific influences on fermentation efficiency, wine quality, and the production of human health-promoting compounds. Yeast metabolism produces compounds derived from tryptophan, melatonin, and serotonin, which are found in fermented beverages, such as wine and beer. Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted from the pineal gland and has a wide-ranging regulatory and neuroprotective role, while serotonin, as well as being a precursor of melatonin synthesis, is also a neurotransmitter. This review summarizes the importance of some conventional and nonconventional yeast strains' alcoholic fermentations, especially in the production of metabolites that promote human health and thus, attract consumers attention towards fermented beverages. A brief reference is also made on fermented beverages containing probiotics, namely kombucha, also known as kombucha tea, and its interesting microorganism's symbiotic relationships named SCOBY.
Poster
In this study, we developed a coffee kombucha beverage with Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus casei and characterized its microbial diversity. Physicochemical properties and cell viability of coffee kombucha inoculums were evaluated during refrigerated storage for 15 days at 4 °C.
Article
Full-text available
Metagenomics studies the collective genomes of the environmental microorganisms using methods of molecular genetics, bioinformatics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Methagenomic analysis gives a possibilitity to reconstract microbial communities, including unculturable microorganisms of practically all ecosystems, to define their functions, interrelationship with macroorganisms etc. In the neasrest time a search for novel genes for biotechnology and pharmaceutic industry will be a key event.
Article
Full-text available
A strategy to understand the microbial components of the human genetic and metabolic landscape and how they contribute to normal physiology and predisposition to disease.
Article
Full-text available
The sanitization at permanently manned lunar bases and consuming germ-free food in a concert with effect of lunar stressors may result in crews disorders, including inflammatory and atopic states and decrease of resistance to indigenous pathogens which present in human organism in suppressed state. The administration of live microbial supplements with presumptive health benefits on human physiology might be reasonable solution to prevent disbacteriosis. Many of microbial species are associated with the fermentation of dairy products, however, they have a short self-life and so far unpractical to be used at lunar habitation. The popular "Tea mushroom" or "Kombucha Tea" is a probiotics proven by FDA that many people are now taking in health promoting diets to detoxify and revitalize the organism (Danielian, 1993; Sreeramulu et al., 2001). Kombucha is composed by symbiotic bacteria and yeasts, surrounded by a permeable membrane. The Kombucha culture is a tiny biochemical factory, producing organic acids, amino acids, enzymes, polyphenols, antibiotic substances, vitamins, enzymes as well as some other products beneficial for human health. Within the ages the Kombucha Tea has been consumed by practically all nations in Far East and now in Eastern Europe and America due to probiotic properties, and within this period the Kombucha microbial ecosystem has been selected to be remarkably adaptive to culturing conditions and resistant to adverse factors. Metagenomic approaches in a study of microbial ecosystems will allow to reconstruct the Kombucha microbiome and to elucidate unknown species and genes on the base of bioinformatics programs. Compared with Kombucha wild type, metabolically engineered strains, expected to exhibit broader substrate specificity, utilizing sugars from waste material which will be used for Kombucha fermentation. References 1. Danielian L.T. (1993) Tea fungus. Publ. House "Armenia", 112 pp. 2. Palmer C., Bik E.M., DiGiulio D.B., Relman D.A., Brown P.O. (2007) Development of the Human Infant Intestinal Microbiota. PLoS Biol 5(7): e177. 3. Sreeramulu G., Zhu Y., Knol W. (2001) Characterization of antimicrobial activity in Kom-bucha fermentation. Acta Biotechnol. 21:49-56. 4. Versalovic J., Relman R. (2006) How bacterial communities expand functional repertoires. PLoS Biol 4(12): e430.
Article
Full-text available
Tea fungus is symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts, widely used to produce kombucha tea. Due to the rich biomass in tea fungus, it can be utilized as protein supplement in animal feed. The present study aimed to analyze the biochemical characteristics of tea fungus with the effect of fermentation time. Proximate, amino acids, and elemental analysis of tea fungus produced during kombucha fermentation were studied along with total count of microflora. Results suggested that tea fungus is rich in crude protein, crude fibre, and amino acid lysine. The biochemical characteristics of tea fungus studied were increased throughout the fermentation time. Keywordskombucha-tea fungus-fermentation-cellulosic pellicle-proximate analysis
Article
Full-text available
Probiotics can affect the immune homeostasis by altering the gut microbial balance and enhancing the immune system of gut, thus benefits in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, including Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis. Relative gene expression of pro, anti-inflammatory cytokines and other molecules in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis mouse model against Lactobacillus plantarum Lp91 (L. plantarum Lp91) was investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using relative expression software tool (REST 2008 V2.0.7). L. plantarum Lp91 evoked significant down regulation of TNF-α and COX2 to 0.026 and 0.077 fold in colitis mouse model. No significant difference in expression of IL-12a cytokine in colitis mouse challenged with L. plantarum Lp91 was also observed. IL-10 was significantly up-regulated to 37.813 and 1.327 fold in colitis and non-colitis mouse challenged with L. plantarum Lp91. While, other anti-inflammatory markers i.e. COX1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly up regulated in colitis mouse challenged with L. plantarum Lp91. MUC2 gene was significantly up regulated to 2.216 fold in non-colitis group. L. plantarum Lp91, an indigenous probiotic culture, the main subject of this project exhibited strong immunemodulatory properties under in vivo conditions in mouse colitis model.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential radioprotective effect of kombucha musroom tea (KM – tea) on gamma radiation (γ) – induced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. For this purpose, we used in vitro dose-effect relationship, and correlated these data with statistical parameters. CAs were classified into six major types as break, dicentric, acentric, fragment, gap and ring. Mitotic index (MI) and the numbers of aberrant metaphases (AMN) were also calculated for each donor. Six groups of the lymphocytes were prepared by in vitro culture according to the standard protocol. Group I (control) did not receive any γ – radiation or KM – tea, Group II (positive control) was treated with 1000 µl dose of KM – tea alone, Group III was treated with 5 Gy dose of γ – radiation alone, Group IV was treated with 250 µl dose of KM – tea before irradiation, Group V was treated with 500 µl KM – tea before irradiation, Group VI was treated with 1000 µl KM–tea before irradiation. The results indicated that all KM–tea supplemented lymphocytes had lower frequency of CAs than in the group treated with γ -radiation alone (p<0.05). It was seen that KM – tea had a protective effect againist CAs particularly at 500 and 1000 µl doses. Besides, MI values increased and AMN decreased after application of KM – tea in a dose/ dependent manner. In vitro results showed that KM – tea supplementation may decrease the frequency of CAs and its radioprotective action against ionizing radiation is dose-dependent.
Article
BACKGROUND: Traditional kombucha tea (TKT) is produced by mixed tea fungus. We previously proposed Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 as the key functional strain in kombucha culture, because it had strong ability to produce D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL, a crucial functional component in KT). This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of TKT and modified KT (MKT, tea broth fermented by single Gluconacetobacter sp. A4). RESULTS:In vitro, TKT and MKT, but not DSL equally increased the radical scavenging effects and inhibited low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In vivo, the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects were not different between MKT and TKT. Compared with TKT, MKT showed a significantly elevated effect on the increase of antioxidantive enzymes activities (total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase) and the decrease of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile DSL demonstrated an enhanced activity in lipid profile and antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: KT had the hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects. These effects were largely attributed to DSL. MKT was similar to or even more powerful than TKT in antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic effects. Thus, Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 was further established as the main functional microorganism in kombucha culture. Moreover, KT may be useful in treating obesity. Copyright
Article
Summary Biologically active substances (water soluble vitamins and minerals) were analyzed in ‘Kombucha’—a curative liquor, produced by the so-called ‘Kombucha cultivation’ (Macedonian collection of microorganisms, No 734) in sweet black tea decoct. The water soluble vitamins in the Kombucha drink were separated and identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified by the comparison of their chromatographic UV spectra with the reference compounds. Four soluble vitamins have been determinated to have the following concentrations: vitamin B1 0.74 mg ml−1, vitamin B6 0.52 mg ml−1, vitamin B12 0.84 mg ml−1 and vitamin C 1.51 mg ml−1. Mineral elements of nutritional and toxicological importance were determined in dissolved ash using atomic absorption chromatography (AAS). Mineral composition content involved determination of the essential elements: zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt. Investigations of some toxic elements showed that lead and chromium were present in very small amounts, whereas cadmium was not found.
Article
A new ascosporogenous yeast, Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis sp. n. (type strain NRRL YB-4811, CBS 8849), is described; it was isolated from Kombucha tea, a popular fermented tea-based beverage. The four known strains of the new species have identical nucleotide sequences in domain D1/D2 of 26S rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of D1/D2 and 18S rDNA sequences places Z. kombuchaensis near Zygosaccharomyces lentus. The two species are indistinguishable on standard physiological tests used for yeast identification, but can be recognized from differences in restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained by digestion of 18S-ITS1 amplicons with the restriction enzymes DdeI and MboI.