Article

What Is This Thing Called Mental Toughness? An Investigation of Elite Sport Performers

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Abstract

The literature on mental toughness is characterized by a general lack of conceptual clarity and consensus as to its definition, as well as a general failure to operationalize the construct in a consistent manner. This study addressed two fundamental issues surrounding mental toughness: how can it be defined? and what are the essential attributes required to be a mentally tough performer? Ten international performers participated in either a focus group or one-toone interviews, from which a definition of mental toughness and the attributes of the ideal mentally tough performer emerged. The resulting definition emphasized both general and specific dimensions, while the 12 attributes covered self-belief, desire/motivation, dealing with pressure and anxiety, focus (performance-related), focus (lifestyle-related), and pain/hardship factors.

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... Many international scholars have delivered scientific articles and reports on mental performance competencies (e.g., characteristics, states, skills) associated with peak, expert, or Olympic/Paralympic performance (e.g., Anderson et al., 2014;Banack et al., 2011;Durand-Bush et al., 2001;Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2002;Fletcher & Sarkar, 2012;Gardner & Moore, 2007;Gould et al., 2002;Gould & Maynard, 2009;Jones, 2002;Jordet, 2015;Krane & Williams, 2015;MacNamara et al., 2010;Miti c et al., 2021;Orlick & Partington, 1988;Swann et al., 2017). The aforementioned contributions contain valuable information that can be used to tailor the development and maintenance of athletes' mental performance for podium success. ...
... The comprehensive and interrelated structure of the GMP-SP is distinct from other works outlining mental performance competencies (e.g., characteristics, states, skills) associated with peak performance in sport (e.g., Anderson et al., 2014;Durand-Bush et al., 2001;Durand-Bush & Salmela, 2002;Gardner & Moore, 2007;Gould et al., 2002;Gould & Maynard, 2009;Jones, 2002;Jordet, 2015;Krane & Williams, 2015;MacNamara et al., 2010;Miti c et al., 2021;Orlick, 2016;Orlick & Partington, 1988;Swann et al., 2017). More specifically, in comparison to the elements in the Wheel of Excellence (Orlick, 2016), the GMP-SP addresses the foundational competency of resilience, as well as three self-regulation competencies (i.e., self-awareness, stress management, emotion and arousal regulation), four interpersonal competencies (i.e., athletecoach relationship, leadership, teamwork, communication) and mental health, which were not included in Orlick's framework. ...
... More globally, although the 11 mental performance competencies in the GMP-SP are uniquely conceptualized, they are individually well supported in the literature. For instance, motivation and confidence have been consistently identified as central constructs in athletic success (Durand-Bush et al., 2001;Gould et al., 2002;Jones, 2002;Orlick, 2016). Resilience, on the other hand, has not always been integrated in previous works, however, it is a more recently advanced competency in the sport psychology literature in comparison to other traditional ones (Fletcher & Sarkar, 2012, 2016. ...
... Studies have shown that mental toughness is a strong antecedent of performance in many human endeavours including academics, management, and sports (McGeown et al., 2015). The term "mental toughness" is used by athletes, coaches, sports psychologists, and sports commentators to refer to an athlete's disposition and ability to deal effectively with challenges, stressors, and pressure in sports (Jones, 2002;Meggs et al., 2014). It is the Journal of Human Kinetics -volume 81/2022 http://www.johk.pl ...
... ability to consistently perform towards the upper range of talent and skill regardless of competitive circumstances (Loehr, 1995). Furthermore, mental toughness has been defined as having the natural or developed psychological edge that enables an athlete to generally cope better with many demands of sports, such as stiff competition, hard training, and a strict lifestyle (Gould et al., 2002;Jones, 2002). The existing studies have suggested that mentally tough athletes are characterized by selfbelief, self-esteem, desire, motivation, willpower, control, courage, focus and concentration, determination, commitment, consistency, high levels of optimism, and confidence (Connaughton & Hanton, 2009;Gucciardi, 2012;Jones, 2002). ...
... Furthermore, mental toughness has been defined as having the natural or developed psychological edge that enables an athlete to generally cope better with many demands of sports, such as stiff competition, hard training, and a strict lifestyle (Gould et al., 2002;Jones, 2002). The existing studies have suggested that mentally tough athletes are characterized by selfbelief, self-esteem, desire, motivation, willpower, control, courage, focus and concentration, determination, commitment, consistency, high levels of optimism, and confidence (Connaughton & Hanton, 2009;Gucciardi, 2012;Jones, 2002). Therefore, mental toughness is a desirable characteristic among athletes as they need to undergo hard training and face tough competition. ...
Article
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Mental toughness is a psychological construct related to successful performance in academics, management, and sports among other sectors. However, studies on the determinants of mental toughness with respect to different human endeavours have remained inconclusive. This study explored mental toughness characteristics of male university athletes in selected sports in relation to contextual factors of athletes’ age, playing experience, year of study, and the type of sport. The Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ48) was used to collect data from male university athletes (n = 140). Results of this study showed significant difference in the following components of MT: lower scores in challenge (p = .015), emotional control (p = .005), and life control (p = .002) among athletes with shorter playing experience, and higher scores in life control (p < .001), emotional control (p = .021), and confidence in abilities (p = .009) in handball as compared to soccer players. Soccer players had significantly higher scores in the challenge component (p = .038) of mental toughness as compared to handball players. It was concluded that playing experience and the type of sport influenced characteristics of mental toughness among university athletes. Coaches, trainers, and sports psychologists need to consider these contextual factors to optimize mental toughness of athletes. Future studies should explore how specific contextual factors influence training environments and outcomes, as well as how stakeholders can leverage on the relationships between playing experience, the type of sport and mental toughness to augment athletes’ mental toughness and sports performance.
... According to Dixson et al. (2016), competition might arise in every single environment in which people evolve in a career. Some people develop strategies to cope with stressful demands without support, but some people don't (Jones et al., 2002). For example, the ability to cope with stressful career transitions and succeed, learning how to control emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in target days and tests might be an enhancer in peoples' careers. ...
... They revealed self-confidence was built by repeatedly training stress levels with the aid of machines before transferring knowledge to training sessions and competitions. Notably, elite athletes describe selfconfidence and stress control as relevant characteristics of psychologically strong athletes (Jones et al., 2002). Athletes' perceptions indicate biofeedback contributed to increasing the confidence they could autonomously control performance over training sessions and competitions. ...
... Athletes have pointed out that information provided by psychologists about periodization requirements and PST tools contributed to enhance their adherence to the PST program. According to Jones et al. (2002), the ability to feel confident under pressure is something that might be natural or developed by PST in sports contexts. The athletes commented about the role of periodization in their preparations, bringing the consciousness of what to do in different training stages. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of psychosocial support training for talent development in sports. . Four elite Brazilian athletes, two males, and two females were interviewed. The grounded theory methodology was employed to analyze the data. The participants evaluated the psychosocial support training as instrumental to their talent development. They highlighted the following dimensions of the training: biofeedback, mentalization techniques, and feelings of knowing what to do under pressure. The findings of this study pointed out that factors associated with psychosocial support training, such as psychological strength, mastery orientation style, and tactical discipline, may contribute to athletes’ eminent performance. When applied to elite athletes, psychosocial support training may improve performance and psychosocial development. Theoretical and practical implications of this study considering talent development in different domains are discussed.
... Liew, Kuan, Chin, and Hashim (2019) summarise the multidimensionality of MT, for instance, revealed through its features of unshakable self-belief, the ability to rebound after failures, persistence or refusal to quit, coping effectively with adversity and pressure and retaining concentration in the face of distractions. The literature has established that MT plays a critical role in sporting successes (Connaughton, Wadey, Hanton, & Jones, 2008;Farnsworth, Marshal, & Myers, 2021;Jones, 2002b). ...
... A significant number of current researchers commonly describe MT as an established research concept (Anthony et al., 2016;Crust, 2008;Gucciardi, Hanton, Gordon, Mallett, & Temby, 2015). However, MT is a relatively new concept (Jones, 2002b) that has emerged only over the last 30 years in a fragmented and disparate way (Chang, Chi, & Huang, 2012;Crust, 2007;Gibson, 1998;Loehr, 1986Loehr, , 1995. Some authors even claim that it is not a real construct (Andersen, 2011). ...
... In line with the development, the principal methodologies have changed from exploratory qualitative methods, primarily interviews (e.g. Jones, 2002b), to quantitative research designs (Gucciardi et al., 2015). Many studies have included attempts at MT measurement (Golby & Sheard, 2004;Gucciardi, 2008;Loehr, 1986;Middleton, 2007;Perry, Clough, Crust, Earle, & Nicholls, 2013;Sheard, Golby, & Van Wersch, 2009) and evaluation of different measures (Andersen, 2011;Crust & Swann, 2011;Gucciardi, Hanton, & Mallett, 2012;Vaughan, Hanna, & Breslin, 2018) as detailed in Appendix C. (Bull et al., 2005;Bull, 2006;Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002;Crust, 2007;Dienstbier, 1989;Gibson, 1998;Jones, 2002b;Jones & Moorehouse, 2007;Loehr, 1986Loehr, , 1995Thelwell, Weston, & Greenlees, 2005). ...
Thesis
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This thesis concerns the transfer of Mental Toughness from elite triathlon coaching to top executive coaching in Germany. It analyses how experienced coaches from both contexts understand the concept of Mental Toughness and their views about the ways and the extent to which Mental Toughness may be applicable in German executive coaching. This study is important because it investigates the relevance of Mental Toughness, which is an eminent concept in sports coaching, in an executive coaching context where it has never been subject to empirical research. The value to the research field of executive coaching is that Mental Toughness might offer new ways of understanding how coaching can help with translating goals into action. In addition, practitioners could profit from applying Mental Toughness in improving the client’s ability to withstand better hindrances and challenges, which is one central claim of mental toughness as it is interpreted in the sports literature. The research design for this study is qualitative. Data from 22 interviews with international elite triathlon coaches and German top executive coaches in a one-moment-in-time sampling approach are used to answer the research questions. The findings and analysis reveal that mental toughness can be relevant and valuable in the coaching of German top executives as an important supplement to existing coaching processes. Findings suggest that mental toughness, as a feature of coaching, can build awareness and sensitivity to issues of long-term persistence. The study advances executive coaching theory and practice and shows how Mental Toughness could be integrated into executive coaching theory in its focus on goal pursuit persistence energy.
... Regardless of model, the majority of them so far tend to describe MT as a collection of qualities that allow a sportsperson to successfully confront and overcome negative circumstances. Jones et al. (2002), Gucciardi et al. (2008), and Clough et al. (2002) seem to have gained the most acceptance within the scientific community (Anantasagar et al., 2018). ...
... Most research concerning the conceptualization of MT in sport (e.g. Jones et al., 2002;cf. Weinberg et al., 2020) and the effectiveness of its training (e.g. ...
... Consistent with earlier studies (e.g. Jones et al., 2002), perspectives of MSCCs were overwhelmingly aligned with the notion that MT offers athletes a psychological edge over competitors. MSCCs also indicated that MT can affect optimal performance by more than 61 percentage points and there was consensus that there was value in MT training. ...
Article
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Coaches are key stakeholders involved in creating a climate in which athletes’ mental toughness (MT) can be developed. Although Master Strength and Conditioning Coaches (MSCC) spend a substantial amount of time working with US collegiate athletes, no studies have investigated this elite group of professionals’ opinions about MT. Using a multiphase mixed-method design (Phase 1, N = 71; Phase 2, N = 28), this study explored MSCCs’ perspectives on the conceptualization, measurement, and training of MT. MSCCs value MT highly and believe that it plays an important role in competitive sports. However, a majority of the participants were uncertain about what constitutes MT. Although MSCCs primarily used anecdotally-based physical protocols to develop athletes’ MT, they rarely assessed the effectiveness of those training approaches using psychometrically-sound instruments. MSCCs highlighted the need to prioritize evidence-based MT training protocols. Resources are required to educate MSCCs and support their work on MT development.
... Research has found that athletes with high mental toughness have high control beliefs about stress situations, tend to evaluate stresses as challenges rather than threats, have high coping self-efficacy, and adopt more problemfocused coping strategies [26]. Athletes with this advantage may be better able to deal with the pressure in competition, training, and life than their competitors, be more firm, focused, and confident in a pressure situation, and maintain self-control, to perform better than their competitors [27]. Therefore, mental toughness significantly improves the individual's sports state, wherein athletes rarely experience the psychological and physiological discomfort that limits the exertion of personal ability [25]. ...
... In addition to the protective effect in stress situations, the study found that mental toughness also has obvious advantages. For example, it can enhance the athletes' optimism, flow experience, and self-determination motivation, and improve competition results [25][26][27]. Gucciardi et al. [28] found through qualitative research that athletes with high mental toughness will not only have greater individual positive cognition, but also devote themselves to training and competition with positive attitudes, such as task focus, active self-discipline, and perseverance. In addition, Wang (2014) found that mental toughness significantly negatively predicts athletes' burnout, whereas athlete engagement, as the opposite of burnout, may be positively affected by mental toughness. ...
... In terms of the literature review, we found that the development of mental toughness involves several unique mechanisms that operate together over a long period of time and through unique developmental stages [25]. In addition to psychological skills and strategies, features relating to the motivational climate, external assets (i.e., coaches, peers, parents, senior athletes, sport psychologists, team-mates) [26][27][28][29], and both sport and non-sport related developmental experiences were discussed as the most important mechanisms. Jones (2006) summarized a mental toughness theory and divided the process of mental toughness into three stages: mental toughness behavior is controlled by mental toughness thinking, and mental toughness thinking is influenced by environment and personality. ...
Article
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Background: Cohesion is an important factor affecting sports performance. This study constructed a mediating model to explore the mechanism of cohesion toward psychological collectivism, mental toughness, and athlete engagement of Chinese team sports athletes, and to investigate the mediating effect of psychological collectivism and mental toughness on cohesion and athlete engagement. Methods: A total of 326 active Chinese athletes (54% males, 46% females) aged 14 to 26 years (M = 19.63, SD = 6.51) from eight sports were investigated by questionnaire. Results: The athlete engagement can be predicted significantly and positively by cohesion and its dimensions, and ATG-T is more important in advantage analysis. Direct and indirect paths indicate that cohesion affects athlete engagement, through the mediating effects of psychological collectivism, the mediating effects of mental toughness, the serial multiple mediating of psychological collectivism and mental toughness. The mediating effect model had a satisfactory goodness of fit and explained 50.5% of the variance in athlete engagement, and the SEM revealed the mechanism of cohesion in Chinese athlete engagement to a certain extent. Conclusion: Psychological collectivism is the embodiment of high-quality cohesion in Chinese team sports. The increase in cohesion and psychological collectivism can improve Chinese athletes' ability to cope with stressful situations in sports, which may allow them to achieve a better performance through athlete engagement.
... According to Jones et al. (2002), it is directly related to their mental toughness which means athletes can perform and concentrate better than opponents and be in control under pressure. Bilbey and Akbayırlı (1998) suggest that In Turkey, students start competing with each other at a younger age. ...
... The literature review reveals that some studies support these findings. It is understood fromJones et al. (2002) andJones (2015) that the concept of mental toughness is a concept that is closelyrelated to the concept of individual competitiveness. Crust et al., (2014), Demir &Çelebi (2019) and Yilmaz & Yilmaz, (2017) suggest that as the age of athletes increases, their confidence, continuity, and mental toughness increases. ...
Conference Paper
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Competition refers to a phenomenon that can affect and direct observable human behaviour. Competitiveness can be a triggering factor in achieving success and focusing on the target. The individual competitiveness scale can provide an opportunity to observe and evaluate students participating in various competitions within the scope of exams. This study seeks to examine the individual competitiveness perceptions of the students who take special talent exams according to some demographic variables. This quantitative study was carried out in a descriptive survey model. The sample of the study consists of 218 students who participated in the special talent exams held in September 2021 at Kahramanmaras Sutçu Imam University Faculty of Sports Sciences. Data were analysed using the statistical software program Jamovi 1.6.12. Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were determined for data analysis while t-Test and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to determine the differentiation status of participant views in terms of demographic variables, and Post-Hoc tests were used to determine the groups with difference for the significant F value. As a result of the research, it was observed that there were significant relationships between the participants' Individual Competitiveness Scale and the CPT (Core Proficiency Test/Exam) score, age, sports branch and weekly work-out variables according to the "Enjoyment of Competition" sub-scale. According to the ' Competition Avoidance' sub-scale, there were significant relationships in terms of the CPT score, age, and weekly work-out number variables and that there was no significant relationship in terms of sports branch variable. As a result, students' individual competitiveness perceptions were determined in terms of different variables. Keywords: Individual Competitiveness, Special Talent, Exam, Student
... Focus: Remain fully focused on the task at hand in the face of competition-specific distractions, Able to switch focus on and off as required. Not being adversely affected by others performance or your own internal distractions (worry, negative mind chatter) Composure/Handling Pressure: Able to regain psychological control following unexpected events or distractions, Thriving on the pressure of competition (embracing pressure, stepping into the moment), Accept that anxiety is inevitable in competition and know you can cope with it (Jones et al, 2002). Other ability that significantly effect on it is teamwork power especially in team sports. ...
... This was in accordance with cognitive approach. 100 meters sprinters' accomplishment is a manifestation of a series of proper understanding towards what has to be done, the appropriate skill needed and proficiency to eficiently apply the solution during the competition (Jones, 2002 andRaglin, 2001). ...
Conference Paper
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Track and field or Athletics in its modern name is considered the oldest sport played in Olympic history. One of the most difficult events in the Track and Field event is the 110 meter hurdles. Coaches, athletes and sport scientist continuously searched for and tried to develop an effective training program which could support the technical demands of high hurdles. This report tackles the strength and the conditioning program that is involves in the 110 meter hurdles. Understanding the concepts of the strength and conditioning is an essential guide for the coaches and the athletes in order to achieve better hurdle performance. The 110 meter hurdles event requires speed, power, flexibility, rhythm, and coordination so as to achieve a high level of performance. Also, the efficiency in running the hurdle is crucial depending on the take-off and landing position of the hurdler. Moreover, efficiency in techniques for trail leg and lead leg which should be done quickly in order to clear the hurdle without any breaking action. Furthermore, training principles and a periodization model is indicated to support the entire training program. In addition, traditional and modern training methods discussed has identified the advantages of both. Overall, this technical report aims to provide useful information for practitioners and adapt different techniques in order to achieve better hurdle performance. Key words: training principles, periodization, track and field
... Mental toughness (MT, hereinafter) research has grown tremendously in the past two decades (Ruparel, 2020). MT is defined as "having the natural or developed edge that enables you to: (1) generally, cope better than your opponents with the many demands (competition, training, lifestyle) that sport places on a performer; (2) specifically, be more consistent and better than your opponents in remaining determined, focused, confident, and in control under pressure" (Jones, 2002). The most recent definition of the construct is "the personal capacity to produce consistently high levels of subjective (example, personal goals or strivings) or objective performance (example, sales, race time, GPA) despite challenges and stressors as well as significant adversities" (Gucciardi et al., 2015). ...
... Following Gucciardi (2020)'s suggestion to revisit the concept of MT, our first objective is to derive conceptual consensus for MT. The evolution of MT sprouted with qualitative in-depth interviews of athletes, coaches and professionals (Jones, 2002;Clough et al., 2002;Bull et al., 2005;Jones et al., 2007;Crust, 2009). Thereafter, multiple studies have used qualitative techniques to define MT. ...
Purpose Time and again, scholars have emphasized the vitality of mental toughness for success in performance-oriented contexts. Despite the awareness about the significance of mental toughness, there is ambiguity in the conceptual consensus of the factors that comprise of the construct in an organizational setup. Second, there is a dearth of a psychometrically sound measure that assesses mental toughness among employees. Design/methodology/approach The study follows a multi-method approach to develop a mental toughness questionnaire. First, to arrive at a consensus of the factors that construe mental toughness, a meta-ethnography was done. Subsequently, a measure of mental toughness was developed and tested following scale development norms. Findings Drawing from the results of qualitative inquiry, four factors of mental toughness were derived, namely, perseverance, control, challenge and commitment. Then, the scale development process was followed. Results of psychometric testing using three samples were above the acceptable range, justifying the use of developed scale for academic and professional purposes. Originality/value This study is a novel attempt in the literature to extract factors of mental toughness through meta-ethnography and consequently develop a scale.
... Mental toughness is an undiscovered key to quality in athletes' performance (Jones, 2002). Jones (2002) investigated the mental toughness framework with elite athletes to develop a definition and a deeper understanding of the concept. ...
... Mental toughness is an undiscovered key to quality in athletes' performance (Jones, 2002). Jones (2002) investigated the mental toughness framework with elite athletes to develop a definition and a deeper understanding of the concept. The researchers reported 12 dimensions, such as self-belief, desire/motivation, dealing with pressure and anxiety, focus (performance-related), focus (lifestyle-related), and pain/hardship factors. ...
... Gucciardi et al. (2015a) defined MT as the capacity to achieve high levels of personal or objective performance (i.e., goals). Likewise, Jones et al. (2002) defined MT as an athlete's ability to be better than their opponent (e.g., in how they cope or stay determined) -linking MT with a particular outcome (goal). A common thread connecting these conceptualisations is the positioning of MT as a way to achieve certain goals. ...
... The extreme scores, homogenous nature, and limited number of Remi's football-related strivings suggest he has a clear and obsessive agenda regarding what he wants (e.g., "win everythingping pong, footy, life"). This fixated focus is characteristic of super-elite performers (Hardy et al., 2017) and ideals inherent to many MT conceptualisations (e.g., Jones et al., 2002). ...
Article
The current study examined the personal strivings of mentally tough Australian Rules footballers. Data collection occurred in two phases. Phase one included conducting two focus groups with coaches and performance staff from an Australian Football League (AFL) club/franchise, to gain a culturally-specific MT conceptualisation. This conceptualisation was used to identify mentally tough footballers (N = 7) from the club’s playing group. In phase two, the selected footballers completed a personal goal strivings exercise (e.g., listing strivings, rating their commitment to them), which was subsequently coded for general and motivational themes, through nomothetic and idiographic lenses. Nomothetic analysis revealed broad trends consistent with previous MT research. Key themes included a high commitment to goals, high confidence, and achievement orientation. Focusing on four specific players, an idiographic analysis revealed different motivational agendas, including characteristically mentally tough motives, narcissistic motives, communion and growth motives, and vulnerable/anxious motives. In conclusion, despite broad themes aligning with current perspectives of mental toughness, on an individual level, mentally tough athletes’ motivational concerns may vary. These findings stress the potential importance of examining goals as a central construct in conceptualising mental toughness. Moreover, they challenge a universal assumption that mental toughness operates in the same way across all performers, highlighting the need for greater idiographic analysis in mental toughness research.
... Unfortunately, the results also showed that only 9% of those same coaches had successfully developed mental toughness in their athletes. "The common lack of clearness and precision nearby the term mental toughness is unfortunate since it is debatably one of the most important psychological attributes in achieve performance excellence" (Jones et al., 2002). ...
... Aside from those mentioned above, mental toughness has the natural or developed psychological edge that enables: 1) generally, cope better than your opponents with the many demands (competition, training, lifestyle) that sport places on a performer; and, 2) Especially, be more consistent and better than your opponents in remaining restricted, directed, confident, and in control under (Jones et al., 2002). ...
Article
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This descriptive-type study assessed the motivation and mental toughness among table tennis athletes and their achievements in sports performance. The respondents of this study were 68 table tennis varsity athletes who officially played in the singles event during the Mindanao Association of State and Tertiary Schools (MASTS) Friendship Games in Tandag, Surigao Del Sur. The data were gathered using questionnaires and observation and were treated using frequency and percentage to measure the significant relationship between and among the variables. In addition, the Pearson Product Moment Correlation of Coefficient or Pearson r was utilized. It was concluded that schools, universities, and college administrators must give adequate support and provide ample budgetary needs for the varsity athletes to participate in local, regional, and national competitions and tournaments. Government and institutions should equip, train, and manage competitive stress among athletes and enhance their mental capacity to handle performance during games. The researchers concluded that institutions must also consider younger players in their selection process of the varsity. Based on the result of the study, more immature players were more motivated and highly mentally tough compared to the older players.
... Mental toughness is one of the most used terms in applied sport psychology (Jones et al., 2002).Mental toughness has been defined by Gucciardi et al (2009) as ''a collection of attitudes, emotions, and cognitions that influence the way in which an individual approaches, responds, and appraises demanding events to consistently achieve his or her goals''. Researchers agreed that mental toughness is characterized by an individual's natural or developed capacity to be consistently successful in coping with the stress and anxiety associated with competitive and stressful situations. ...
... Some research has shown that physical activity results in improved mood after acute bouts of exercise (Ekkekakis & Acevedo, 2006), relationships between physical activity and depressive symptoms (e.g. Azar et al., 2008), linked regular participation in physical activity with levels of perceived stress or burnout symptoms, reduce the negative outcomes associated with negative life circumstances and high-perceived stress with elevated levels of physical activity, Higher scored in most MTQ48 subscales were obtained by adolescents and young adults with higher exercise and physical activity levels, Jones et al (2002) defined mental toughness and identified the attributes required to be a mentally tough performer. The resulting definition emphasized a natural or developed construct that enabled mentally tough performers to cope with the demands of training and competing better than their opponents. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to survey the mental toughness and physical activity among student university of Tabriz. Baecke physical activity questionnaire, mental thoughness48 and demographic questionnaire was distributed between students. 355 questionnaires were collected. Correlation, , multiple ANOVA and independent t-test was used for analyzing the hypotheses. The result showed that there was significant relationship between some of physical activity and mental toughness subscales. Two groups active and non-active were compared to find out the mental toughness differences, Student who obtained the 75% upper the physical activity questionnaire was active (n=97) and Student who obtained the 25% under the physical activity questionnaire was inactive group (n=95).The difference between active and non-active physically people showed that active student was significantly mentally toughness. It is expected that changes in physical activity levels significantly could be evidence of mental toughness changes, it should be noted that the other variables should not be ignored.
... One of the most current models of mental toughness, which is largely empirically confirmed (e.g., Gucciardi et al., 2009), is a model of Jones et al. (2007), who define mental toughness as innate or learned psychological acuity allowing an athlete to cope more successfully with the demands of the sport than its opponent. This psychological acuity contributes to an athlete being more successful than other athletes in determination, focus, self-confidence, and stress coping (Jones et al., 2002). This understanding and interpretation of mental toughness are one of the most accepted definitions, with critics noting that it also primarily refers to the description of what it allows athletes to do and not what it really is (Crust, 2007). ...
Article
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Objectives: Despite the potential link between mental skills and athletic performance, little is done to examine handball players’ present level of mental skills concerning their performance. To begin with, the study has three folded aims; the first one is to examine the factor structure of Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire, which was developed in the United Kingdom to measure selected mental skill, of Serbian athlete population. The second aim is to determine gender differences in those mental skills, and the third aim is to determine differences between the playing positions in the mental skills of handball players to create a mental profile of Serbian handball players. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 170 handball players, aged 14 to 39, who have played handball at the semi-elite, competitive-elite, and successful-elite level. The modified exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the latent dimensions of the Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire. For examining gender differences in the manifestation of mental skills Mann–Whitney U test was used. Results: Compared to the original structure of the questionnaire, which singles out seven factors of mental skills (imagery ability, mental preparation, self-confidence, anxiety and worry management, concentration ability, relaxation ability, and motivation), five factors were singled out in the sample of Serbian male and female handball players (anxiety and concentration management—α = 0.74; self-confidence—α = 0.75; relaxation ability—α = 0.66; mental preparation—α = 0.68, and imagery ability—α = 0.66). With these five subscales as dependent variables, results of the Mann–Whitney U test show that there are significant gender differences in variable anxiety and concentration management (U = 2893.5, p = 0.049) and relaxation ability (U = 2833.0, p = 0.031). Female handball players score higher on anxiety and concentration management and lower on relaxation ability. When playing positions are in question, results of Kruskal–Wallis‘s one-way analysis of variance, i.e., Mann–Whitney’s post hoc analysis, suggest that statistically significant differences were observed between wings and center backs and wings and goalkeepers in the imagery ability. Conclusion: The Bull’s Mental Skills Questionnaire in Serbian sample of handball players show satisfactory psychometric characteristics but has singled out five factors of mental skills compared to the original questionnaire.
... One of the psychological factors that are thought to have an important contribution to the success of athletes is seen as mental toughness. 2 Mental toughness has been defined as the ability to perform under pressure during competition, and it has been emphasized that it is one of the qualities required for success in elite athletes. 3,4 Mental toughness is seen as a necessary feature for success as it involves compelling actions in sports activities that carry all kinds of positive or negative conditions. 5 In order to achieve success, athletes need to overcome negative situations quickly and adapt quickly to the conditions required by the performance. ...
Article
Background: Sports psychology focuses on the analysis of various psychological variables and cognitive processes that affect athletes' performance and focuses on improving their cognitive abilities to maximize efficiency. Aim: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between mental toughness and motivational climate in licensed volleyball players studying in Coaching Education departments. Methods: In this study, the relational screening model was used to determine the relationship between mental toughness and motivational climate in licensed volleyball players studying in Coaching Education departments. Results: it was concluded that the performance climate levels of licensed volleyball players studying in coaching education departments increased as their level of confidence increased, and decreased as their constancy and control levels increased. Again, as a result of the analysis, it was observed that the variables of confidence, constancy and control had a significant role in predicting the performance climate of licensed volleyball players. Conclusion: it can be said that mental toughness predicts motivational climate in licensed volleyball players who study in coaching education departments. Keywords: Mastery Climate, Performance Climate, Mental Toughness, Coaching Education Students, Motivational Climate.
... A study was carried out on the mental toughness of elite sports performers by Jones (2002). Twelve attributes vital for elite athletes to be mentally tough were identified. ...
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This study used a descriptive-correlation type of research to assess the mental toughness among MSU Marawi athletes in sports performance in terms of level of competition and rank among male and female varsity athletes in the events of Athletics, Badminton, Basketball, Chess, Sepak Takraw, and Soccer. A total of 83 varsity athletes (16 females and 67 males) of the MSU in Marawi City were the respondents of the study. Data was gathered using the Mental Toughness Questionnaire made by Allan Goldberg (1998). The findings revealed that the playing experience showed significant relationship with the level of participation. It was concluded that the department of Athletics should give more emphasis on training and allow participation of MSU varsity in different competition or tournament in order to improve their talent and skills in various sports that they engaged, in order to manage competitive stress and to enhance their mental capability to handle those pressures, stressors and problems during the competition which contributes to their performance enhancement. To also, encourage more participation of the MSU varsity athletes, particularly newbie regardless of age, gender, and skills status.
... Scrutiny reveals the presence of important differences in competition standard that may influence the effectiveness of interventions. Thus, although much work has used common respondent selection criteria (e.g., Woodman and Hardy, 2001;Hanton and Connaughton, 2002), such as full international honors and represented their country in major events (e.g., Olympic Games) (Jones, 2002), researchers have frequently employed different prescriptions (e.g., Cowden et al., 2014, tennis players;Bull et al., 2005, English cricketers). ...
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The spread of COVID-19 has had a significant impact on global sport. This is especially true at the elite level, where it has disrupted training and competition. Concomitantly, restrictions have disrupted long-term event planning. Many elite athletes remain unsure when major events will occur and worry about further interruptions. Although some athletes have successfully adapted to the demands of the COVID-19 crisis, many have experienced difficulties adjusting. This has resulted in psychological complications including increased stress, anxiety, and depression. This article critically examines the extent to which non-cognitive skills training, in the form of increased awareness of Mental Toughness, can help elite athletes inoculate against and cope with negative psychological effects arising from the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-cognitive skills encompass intrapersonal (motivations, learning strategies, and self-regulation) and interpersonal (interactions with others) domains not directly affected by intellectual capacity. Previous research indicates that enhancement of these spheres can assist performance and enhance mental well-being. Moreover, it suggests that training in the form of increased awareness of Mental Toughness, can improve the ability to cope with COVID-19 related challenges. In this context, Mental Toughness encompasses a broad set of enabling attributes (i.e., inherent and evolved values, attitudes, emotions, and cognitions). Indeed, academics commonly regard Mental Toughness as a resistance resource that protects against stress. Accordingly, this article advocates the use of the 4/6Cs model of Mental Toughness (i.e., Challenge, Commitment, Control, and Confidence) to counter negative psychological effects arising from COVID-19.
... Ein Konzept ist die mentale Stärke, das in diesem Zusammenhang weiter zu untersuchen ist (Jones et al. 2002(Jones et al. , 2007. So stellte sich in einer Untersuchung mit Tennisspielerinnen und -spielern mentale Stärke als Prädiktor für den Beanspruchungszustand heraus (Cowden et al. 2016). ...
Chapter
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Mentale Ermüdung und Erholung rücken immer mehr in das Interesse der Sportpraxis und Forschung. Ermüdungs- und Erholungsprozesse können auf physiologischer, verhaltensbezogener und subjektiver Ebene betrachtet und für Interventionen herangezogen werden. Während die Entstehungsmechanismen mentaler Ermüdung bisher weitgehend unklar sind, können einhergehende Indikatoren am deutlichsten subjektiv erfasst werden. Entspannungsverfahren und sportpsychologische Regulationsstrategien sind mögliche Interventionen vor, zwischen oder nach sportlichen Belastungen. Forschungsbedarf besteht jedoch bzgl. der Effekte auf die Verminderung sowie Prävention mentaler Ermüdung. Ein regelmäßiges Monitoring stellt eine wichtige Maßnahme zur Unterstützung der Trainingssteuerung und effektivem Regenerationsmanagement dar. Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.
... And mental toughness was ranked by almost 83% wrestling coaches as one of the most critical mental aspect for assessing successful achievement in competition (Gould et al, 1987). Jones's et al (2002) states that mental toughness has psychological edge to the athletes which helps them (1) Usually deal better with their competitors in regard to sports requirements and (2) more coherent and stronger in particular than their competitors in remaining cool, calm and composed As per studies conducted in this area men outnumber women in terms of mental toughness and its aspects (Farrokhi et al, 2011, Nicklaus et al,2009). Competition anxiety is one such thing which almost every sportsperson encounters at sometime in his or her career. ...
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Despite the indisputable importance of physical attributes like speed, strength and power in sports, sports are played psychologically as well as mentally. Psychological attributes like mental toughness and sports competition anxiety play equal role in the performance of the sportspersons. Gender difference also plays a major role in these psychological aspects in sports. So in this comparative study we aimed to explore the gender difference in mental toughness and sports competition anxiety between national level wrestlers and boxers of Haryana. For the investigation of the study total 60 wrestling players (30) male and (30) female players and 60 Boxing players (30) male and (30) female within the age group of 16 to 25 were selected as participants from Haryana. For the assessment of mental toughness Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI) developed by James E. Loehr and to measure the level of Sports Competition Anxiety (SCAT) developed by Martens et al (1990) were used. For statistical analysis group statistics, t test and correlation were computed. And we observed significant gender difference between male and female wrestlers on mental toughness and sports competition anxiety. But no significant difference was found between wrestlers and boxers on mental toughness and sports competition anxiety. A clear negative correlation observed (which is significant on 0.05 level) between variable of mental toughness and sports competition anxiety
... For instance, though there is evidence for the importance of psychological factors to TID (e.g. Jones, 2002;Gould & Maynard, 2009), it has been observed that many talent identification programmes still make selection decisions based on physiological factors and performance factors with little emphasis on the role of athletes' psychology (e.g. Abbott & Collins, 2004;Vaeyens et al., 2008;Abbott et al., 2002). ...
... This information would suggest that there are seven components of mental toughness, self-confidence, negative energy control, focus control, imagery and visualisation, motivation level, positive energy control and cognitive and behavioural control. However, Jones et al (2002) argued that there are four main factors with 12 components of mental toughness. ...
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The purpose of the study was to use quantitive research to look at the comparison of competitive state anxiety levels of professional and semi-professional footballers within the UK. A sample size of 24 male football players was used in the research, these participants were invited to partake in the study and were asked to complete a Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 questionnaire (CSAI-2) to gain further research and understanding of how anxiety can affect footballers before competition. Using the data collected a paired samples t-test was used to analyse the data on Microsoft Excel for Mac (Version 16.46). A p value was set at 0.05 to ensure that the results were accurate rather than estimations and inaccurate results. This meant that there was the ability to find out whether there was a relationship between the dependant variables (cognitive, somatic and self-confidence) and the two groups of footballers. The primary findings for this study were that semi-professional footballers possessed a higher level of self-confidence compared to professional footballers. Meanwhile, the professional footballers showed an increase of somatic anxiety levels compared to the semi-professionals. Despite the results showing semi-professionals having a slightly higher levels of cognitive anxiety, the results showed that both sets of footballers had high level of cognitive anxiety before performing. The main recommendations are that future research needs to find out whether the athletes competitive state anxiety changes throughout the season. Additionally, more information needs to be gained to create a more detailed understanding of competitive state anxiety linked with player positioning. i
... Es debido a la disparidad y confusión en la operatividad de la MT la importancia de crear y mantener temas tanto en investigación (Weinberg, Freysinger & Mellano, 2018), como en la práctica (Stamatis, Robinson & Morgan, 2018) y no solo en la abundancia de definiciones 1 (Clough, Earle & Sewell, 2002;Gucciardi, Gordon & Dimmock, 2008;Jones, Hanton & Connaughton, 2002), pero sí en inventarios y/o cuestionarios, lo cual es una indicación de las aún existentes discrepancias de asuntos cruciales en la comunidad científica, tales como, si un modelo Uni -o Multidimensional debiera ser adoptado para conceptualizar la MT basándose en las propiedades psicométricas de varios de esos instrumentos, en donde los resultados del análisis del estudio de la confiabilidad de la MT y de la viabilidad de sus conclusiones aún se encuentran en proceso (Gucciardi, 2017(Gucciardi, , 2018. ...
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La fortaleza mental (MT) es un tema ampliamente indagado y relacionado con profesiones, personalidades y la actividad deportiva. El trabajo del psicólogo del deporte es apoyar en el manejo de emociones, el afrontamiento a estresores y establecimiento de metas, haciendo uso de las características multiculturales de los deportistas. Se examinó la invariancia de MT entre atletas estadounidenses y mexicanos a través de la prueba de invarianza, mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio de grupos múltiples con modelos cada vez más restrictivos. El ajuste de los datos del modelo en ambas muestras fue satisfactorio (CFI mexicano = .988, RMSEA mexicano = .085; CFI US = .998, RMSEA US = .032). El modelo de invariancia escalar se seleccionó como el mejor ajuste (escalar CFI = .981, escalar RMSEA = .077). Los resultados implican que el significado del constructo es igual en ambas culturas y sus puntajes pueden compararse directamente. Abstract. Mental toughness (TM) is a widely investigated topic related to professions, personalities and sports activity. The work of the sports psychologist is to support the management of emotions, coping with factors and setting goals, making use of the multicultural characteristics of athletes. The invariance of TM was examined between American and Mexican athletes through the invariance test. It was performed by confirmatory factor analysis of multiple groups with increasingly restrictive models. The fit of the model data in both samples was very good (Mexican CFI = .988, Mexican RMSEA = .085; US CFI = .998, US RMSEA = .032). The scalar invariance model was selected as the best fit (CFI scalar = .981, RMSEA scalar = .077). The results imply that the meaning of the construct is the same in both cultures and its scores can be directly compared.
... 7 Mental toughness has been defined as the possession of psychological skills that enable you to better cope with many demands in life, while remaining more determined, focused, confident and in control while under pressure compared to your opponents. 8 Mental toughness includes an unwavering belief in the self, resilience, a refusal to quit, and the ability to concentrate while faced with many distractions. 9 Athletes who display high levels of mental toughness are thought to be able to strive, survive, and thrive during competition; are more likely to appraise stressors as "challenging" as opposed to "threatening"; and are more likely to foster adaptive self-regulation strategies relative to athletes with lower levels of mental toughness. ...
Article
Varsity athletes face an array of stressors, including balancing academic obligations with athletic competitions. Student-athletes appraising a situation as a “challenge” or “threat” directly impacts coping responses. Objective To investigate whether pre-season self-reported mental toughness and self-regulation strategies predicts post-season stress, mental health, group cohesion, and satisfaction in varsity athletes. Participants Sixty-seven varsity athletes from a U-Sport Canadian university. Methods Athletes completed pre- and post-season measures of mental toughness, emotion regulation, self-control, group cohesion, and satisfaction. Multiple mediation models were employed during analyses. Results Pre-season emotion regulation was a significant mediator for the relationships between mental toughness and post-season ratings of perceived stress, perceived mental health, and group cohesion. Self-control was not a significant mediator. Conclusions Emotion regulation plays a significant role in an athlete’s experience of perceived stress, mental health issues, and their ratings of group cohesiveness. Research on student-athlete health may benefit from examining emotion regulation training techniques.
... The key to improving players' performance and wellbeing lies in their psychological improvement, together with interpersonal relationships. Actually, previous studies have established that the individual s mental toughness seems to be determined by both natural aspects (heritage) and environmental influences together with experiences and learning processes [38][39][40][41]. ...
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Within the determining factors of psychological performance, mental toughness is considered a multidimensional factor, comprising cognitive, affective, and behavioural components together with self-confidence, which is related to success in sports performance as well as psychological health and well-being. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between different factors composing mental toughness and age categories in young football players, in order to determine the presence of specific psychological skills in their formative progression. A total of 118 male players (16.91 ± 2.42 years old) completed the Spanish version by Cernuda (1988) of the original Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI) by Loher (1982, 1986). The results indicated significant differences in four variables (negative energy control, attention control, visual and image control, motivational level) on three different age categories, where the U19 category showed the best results for all the variables, decreasing afterwards in the semi-professional category. Significant correlations were established between mental toughness variables and age categories, where the age category variable was significantly correlated in a positive way with attention control, visual and image control, and motivational level. In the same line, the variable self-confidence correlated positively with negative energy control, attention control, motivational level, attention control, and positive energy. The assessment of psychological variables such as mental toughness, taking into account the formative stage, may be helpful for both coaches and players when selecting adequate mental skill training for improving competitive performance and sporting success, as well as for positive and healthy psychological development and well-being.
... There are various definitions of mental toughness, one of them being the ability to make use of coping strategies effectively [56]. Extant research has been shown to bind the construct of mental toughness with effective coping [57][58][59], which then leads to successful task completion despite having to deal with stressors like pain. In the case of the participants in this study, mental toughness was demonstrated by the willingness of the rowers to continue rowing despite the formation of blisters and calluses and also by adopting a strong cognitive strategy to enable them to complete their task. ...
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Background and Objectives: Rowing is a sport that involves constant gripping, pulling/pushing, and rotational movements of the hands, in a cyclic periodic manner with every stroke, with hundreds of strokes being taken within a short period of time. Dermatological issues on rowers’ hands (fingers and palms) in the form of blisters and calluses are common knowledge within the community, but their prevalence and the rower’s perceptions and pain tolerance to them has never been systematically evaluated. This work addresses these lacunae. Materials and Methods: Analysis of data collected from a survey on a sample of competitive (117) and noncompetitive rowers (28) who row on-water (total 145). Results: It was found that approximately 69% of rowers participating in this study have calluses on their hands for most of their time (considered by them as not painful). The incidence of blisters was found to be lower (but perceived as more painful). Their incidence was found to be fairly independent of the frequency and intensity of training, but they seem to affect most rowers equally at the beginning of season or during a change of position (nonconditioned hands). Blisters and calluses were reported to be mainly located on the proximal phalanges and metacarpo-phalangeal joint area of both hands, i.e., on the lower parts of the fingers and the upper inner palms. Conclusions: Rowers demonstrated a sense of acceptance of these dermatological issues, even a sense of pride in what they represent. The incidence of blisters becoming infected was estimated to be so low that most rowers would not have encountered such serious, albeit rare, consequences.
... Zihinsel dayanıklılıklarını arttıran sporcuların; rahat, sakin ve enerji dolu hissetmelerini sağlayan iki beceriyi geliştirmeyi öğrendikleri görülmektedir. Birincisi, kriz anında ya da aksiliklerde pozitif enerji akışlarını artırma yeteneği ikincisi ise, problemler, baskılar, hatalar ve rekabet ile ilgili doğru tutumların takınılması için olumlu şekillerde düşünmeyi öğrenmişlerdir (Loehr, 1982;Jones, 2002). ...
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z Orijinal Makale Türkiye'de düzenli tenis oynayan ve antrenman yapan tenisçilerin bazı faktörlere göre zihinsel dayanıklılıklarının araştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada Tenis Federasyonuna bağlı spor kulüplerinde tenis oynayan sporculara "Sporda Zihinsel Dayanıklılık Ölçeği" uygulanmıştır. Araştırma katılımcılarından ölçeği eksiksiz dolduran 308 sporcuya ait veriler çalışma için değerlendirilmiştir. Sheard ve arkadaşları (2009) tarafından geliştirilen "Sporda Zihinsel Dayanıklılık Ölçeği"nin Türkçe uyarlaması Altıntaş ve Koruç (2016) tarafından gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ölçek, üç alt boyut ve toplam 14 sorudan oluşmaktadır. Ölçeğin Cronbach Alpha güvenilirlik katsayıları sırasıyla; güven 0.72, devamlılık 0.71 ve kontrol 0.66 şeklindedir. Elde edilen verilerin analizi SPSS 21.0 paket programında yapılmıştır. Verilerin normal dağılım gösterip göstermediği Shapiro-Wilk testi ile analiz edilmiş ve normal dağılım göstermediği görülmüştür. İkili karşılaştırmalarda Mann-Whitney U, çoklu karşılaştırmalarda Kruskal Wallis Testi kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizi %95 güven aralığında, p<0.05 anlamlılık düzeyinde değerlendirilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda; tenisçilerin zihinsel dayanıklılık düzeyleri üzerinde yaş ve spor yapma yılı arası anlamlı farklar çıkarken (p<0.05), diğer verilerde anlamlı bir fark tespit edilmemiştir. Tenisçilerin yaşları ve tenis oynama yılı yükseldikçe kontrol duygusunun arttığı görülmüştür. Tenisçilerin deneyimlerinin fazla olmasının baskı altında ve beklenmedik durumlarda daha kontrollü ve rahat olmalarını sağladığı söylenebilir. Diğer değişkenlerde ise genelde yakın değerler tespit edilmiştir. : Anahtar kelimeler: Tenis, Spor, Zihinsel Dayanıklılık. Abstract Original Article The training of tennis players who play regular tennis in Turkey and aimed to investigate the mental strength based on certain factors. In a data collection tool in this study to investigate the mental stamina of the athletes who play tennis on the tennis federated clubs in Turkey "Sport Mental Strength Scale" was applied. The data of 308 athletes who filled the scale completely were evaluated for the study. The Turkish adaptation of the Mental Resilience Scale, whose validity and reliability analysis was performed by Sheard et al. (2009), was made by Altıntaş and Koruç (2016). The scale consists of three sub-dimensions and a total of 14 questions. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficients of the scale are respectively; Confidence is 0.72, Continuity is 0.71 and Control is 0.66. The analysis of the obtained data was made in the SPSS 21.0 package program. Whether the data showed normal distribution was analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk test and it was seen that it did not show normal distribution. Mann-Whitney U was used for paired comparisons and Kruskal Wallis Test was used for multiple comparisons. The analysis of the data was evaluated at 95% confidence interval and p <0.05 significance level. As a result of this research; While there were significant differences between age and years of doing sports on the mental endurance levels of tennis players (p <0.05), no significant difference was found in other data. It has been observed that the sense of control increases as the age of tennis players and their years of playing tennis increase. It can be said that tennis players are more controlled and comfortable in unexpected situations and under pressure. Values were found in other variables. :
... Thus, MT plays an important role for an athlete to consistently perform at high levels despite the stress, challenges, and everyday adversities that are deemed necessary to be developed by athletes who seek to achieve their best results (Weinberg, 2013). In this sense, assessing the MT of athletes is crucial, since it encompasses aspects considered to be essential for success (Gould et al., 1987;Jones et al., 2002;Anthony et al., 2020). ...
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This study has assessed the psychometric proprieties of the Mental Toughness Inventory (MTI) within the context of Brazilian sports. About 12 professionals participated in the process of adapting and translating the scale to Brazilian Portuguese. Subjects were 575 athletes (23.54 ± 5.79 years old; 58% males) who answered the MTI and the 10-item Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10). Data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach's alpha (α), composite reliability (CR), average variance extracted (AVE), Spearman correlation, and model invariance tests. Results from CFA showed adequate fit for the original 8-item structure of the scale [Chi-square (χ2) = 27.041; p = 0.078; normalized chi-square (χ2/df) = 1.50; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.988; Tucker–Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.981; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.03 [0.00–0.05]; standardized root mean residual (SRMR) = 0.030] assessing mental toughness (MT) as a single factor and the scale presented satisfactory internal consistency (CR = 0.81; α = 0.82). MT was correlated with resilience (r = 0.607), age (r = 0.276), and time of experience in the sport (r = 0.215). The MTI has also shown partial measurement invariance for sex and complete invariance across sport types. It was concluded that the MTI is a suitable tool for assessing MT in the present sample of Brazilian athletes; this instrument has potential practical application for researchers and sports psychologists who seek to develop the well-being and performance of athletes.
... Clough et al. (9) urge that mentally tough people have high selfconfidence and a firm belief in controlling their fates, and such individuals are not affected by competition and troubles relatively. In addition, Jones (10) reports that mental toughness represents an individual's ability to cope with the demands of education and competition, increased determination, focus, confidence, and maintaining control under pressure. In another study on Olympic and World Champions, Jones et al. (11) suggest mental toughness to be something consisting of attitude, mentality, training, competition, and post-competition. ...
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Study Objectives: This study aimed to examine the relationship between attitudes towards healthy nutrition and mental toughness of athletes (aged X-= 17.77 ± SD= 8.88, 122 females, 245 males, total of 367) in different branches. Method: An ethics committee approval was obtained for the research. Attitude scale for healthy nutrition, mental toughness scale, and personal information form were used to collect data. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was administered for these scales. In addition to descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyzes were performed under the relational model. Result: It was concluded that there was a positive relationship between knowledge on nutrition and positive nutrition with mental toughness. Conclusion: Athletes' knowledge on nutrition and their attitudes towards positive nutrition increase regarding their attitudes for healthy nutrition, their mental toughness will also increase.
... This is especially relevant for athletes while training and even more poignantly, moments before the beginning of a competition. Or actors, dancers, performer before they go on stage: keeping their concentration fixed on the goal at hand, instead of roaming through past failures, worries, and negative thinking, is vital for the success of their performance, and a key ingredient of their mental toughness (Jones, 2002;Crust, 2007). There is a m0ment in which they have to let this negativity go, to maintain their focus and solely focus their attention on their current task. ...
Thesis
The flow of human thoughts is frequently plagued by unwanted cognitive activity, which has the unfortunate power to interfere with task performance, planning, social behaviour, and many other aspects of our lives. Importantly, repetitive negative thoughts and memories play a major role in psychopathology and represent a fundamental transdiagnostic process which deserves experimental and clinical attention. Inhibitory deficits on the one hand and metacognitive beliefs on the other are thought to play a key role in maintaining intrusive repetitive memories and thoughts in a variety of mental health difficulties (Major Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder). This thesis argues against Daniel Wegner’s Ironic Process Theory (Chapter 1) and examines the impact of thought suppression on intrusive Autobiographical Memories with two studies: an fMRI study (Study 1, Chapter 2), and a behavioural study (Study 2, Chapter 3). These two studies represent the first attempt to employ the Autobiographical Think/No-Think task (ATNT), a novel version of the Think/No-Think task solely based on autobiographical memories provided by each participant. In particular, Study 1 investigates the neural correlates of the ATNT task using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Study 2 explores the introduction of trial-by-trial intrusion ratings in the ATNT task and considers the affective consequences of thought suppression using Skin Conductance Response (SCR). This thesis also probes for the first time the relationship between metacognitive beliefs, intrusive memories, and thought control abilities using the standard Think/No-Think paradigm and manipulating participants’ metacognitive beliefs about the usefulness and the uncontrollability of repetitive intrusive thinking (Study 3, Chapter 4). After a general discussion (Chapter 5), this thesis reflects on the philosophical and ethical implications of forgetting, from a personal, psychological, and historical point of view (Chapter 6).
... 연구를 통해 자신감이나 동기 등 심리기술의 보유 수준에 따라 정 신적 강인함을 설명하고자 하였으나 (Loehr, 1985(Loehr, , 1986, 구체적 인 개념적 준거를 제시하지 못한 한계점을 지닌다 (Crust, 2008 , 개인구성이론 (Kelly, 1991)을 근간으로 개인의 경험과 그 의미에 초점을 두는 귀납적 방식으로 정신적 강인함 을 개념화하였다 Jones et al., 2002Jones et al., , 2007 (Crust, 2008). 이에 따라 연구자들은 각 종목에서 요구 되는 정신적 강인함의 특성을 도출해 내었으며 (Chen et al., 2013;Gucciardi et al., 2008;Jaeschke et al., 2016;Thelwell, 2005), 이러한 노력은 축구 분야에서도 이루어졌다 (Gucciardi et al., 2008;Jang et al., 2020;Thelwell et al., 2005). ...
Article
PURPOSE This study comprehensively compared the perception and interaction of player–coach in the development of mental toughness in soccer.METHODS Data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews from 12 participants (6 athletes and 6 coaches), analyzed using the grounded theory by Strauss and Corbin, and they were compared to the group of athletes and coaches, respectively.RESULTS The following results were obtained: (1) Both athletes and coaches recognized that the experience of coping with the pressure present in competition was a central phenomenon in the development of mental toughness. (2) Regarding the situation and condition that lead to coping with pressure, the athletes emphasized the individual's goal orientation in the context of competitive situations and environmental conditions, while the coaches emphasized the athletic attitude toward competition and development in childhood. (3) The athlete–coach interaction was identified as an intervening condition affecting the experience of coping with pressure. (4) As the action–reaction strategy for the development of mental toughness, the optimistic thinking was emphasized for athlete and achievement-oriented thinking for coach; thus, it differed in the characteristics of mental toughness.CONCLUSIONS This study presented the results of an integrated comparison of mental toughness, which can vary depending on the contextual specificity (soccer) and the subject of perception (athlete– coach), especially indicating the importance of the player–coach interaction, which can contribute to the strategy to be used in mental toughness development.
... Among them, a study by Fourie and Potgieter (2001) identified and highlighted 12 components of mental toughness. The same is true of the study by Jones, Hanton, and Connaughton (2002) also mentions 12 components for the development of mental toughness and considers these factors as essential attributes of mental toughness. In fact, there are studies that reveal more components such as studies by Middleton, Marsh, Martin, Richards, and Perry (2004) highlighted 13 components of mental toughness in their efforts to develop mental toughness measurement instruments. ...
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In Malaysia, the implementation of physical education includes an outdoor education syllabus. Outdoor education is found to be a medium for individual development at various levels of educational institutions, including schools. Mental toughness is one of the major aspects of the psychological development of an individual. There are now numerous studies linking mental toughness with academic performance. One of the mediums for this development is the implementation of outdoor education. The nature of outdoor education is found to have a very high potential to support the development of mental toughness among students. However, a lack of specific adventure-based mental toughness models has been developed. This study attempted to develop the Adventure-based Mental Toughness Model (AbMTM) and was guided based on the modified Design and Development Research (Saedah, Muhammad, & Rozaine, 2020). A total of 507 (N=507) respondents from several educational institutions in Malaysia were involved as respondents for the validity examination through the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach. As a result, AbMTM recorded significant Goodness of Fit (GoF) (χ2 = 1.904; p =.000; GFI=.839; AGFI=.792; NFI=.815; TLI=.924; CFI=.931; RMSEA= .050). This study's findings are considered a new horizon of outdoor education implementation and advancing the current practice in Malaysia.
... Mental toughness is a personality trait that might be developed following critical incidents, the influence of significant others and targeted interventions [12][13][14][15]. Key attributes of this construct include "coping effectively with pressure and adversity, recovering or rebounding from setbacks and failures, persisting or refusing to quit, being insensitive or resilient, having unshakeable self-belief in controlling ones' destiny, thriving on pressure and possession of superior mental skills" [16] (p. ...
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For the general public, BASE jumping is considered the ultimate extreme activity. Among BASE jumpers, those using wingsuits are generally perceived as the most experienced but also as the most risk-taking. Starting from this observation, we wanted to know whether wingsuit users differed in their psychological characteristics from other BASE jumpers. More specifically, we hypothesized that wingsuit users would be characterized by higher levels of mental toughness and by lower levels of harm avoidance. We also expected them to use more mental training techniques than the other jumpers. To this end, we conducted a vast survey on a sample of 183 BASE jumpers. Contrary to our hypotheses, the results did not reveal any significant difference in psychological characteristics between wingsuit users and other BASE jumpers. This absence of significant differences is discussed and recommendations for the use of mixed or multi-methods in the study of extreme sports are proposed.
... In their experiences, athletes face countless hours of training, often repetitive and with implications for stress levels, time to recover from injuries that prevent them from performing, and competitive anxiety with the agony of failure. For these reasons, athletes need physical stamina, talent, and mental toughness [21,90,91]. Thus, they must possess a greater ability to cope with challenges and adversity. ...
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... Lin and Chen [19] investigated senior students in the physical education classes of elementary schools and found that students with more frustrating experiences were less tolerant of frustration because they were affected by failures. All good athletes possess the resilience to bounce back from failures; for example, Jones, Hanton, and Connaughton [20] studied 10 excellent international athletes (in swimming, track and field, gymnastics, middle-distance marathon, triathlon, and golf), and found that they had good mental resilience. Therefore, the higher resilience of dance students may lower their stress in dance learning. ...
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Ninety-four amateur and collegiate wrestlers were studied with the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Personality profiles were studied across different levels of demonstrated achievement in wrestling. Discriminant function analyses failed to establish any profile differences between criterion groups. Groups assessed were (a) a superior group comprised of 28 wrestlers from the United States Olympic team, NCAA or NAIA champions or place winners, (b) an excellent group comprised of 33 collegiate wrestlers who were varsity representatives, rated excellent by their coach, and who had won at least 60 percent of their matches during the season; (c) an average to below average group of the 33 wrestlers remaining on four college teams secured for the study. When compared to norms, wrestlers demonstrated a significant departure from average on factor I indicating tough-mindedness, self-reliance, and masculinity. No support was found for the suggestion that wrestlers may possess a neurotic profile.
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Extensive in-depth interviews were conducted with all 20 members of the 1988 U.S. Olympic Wrestling Team regarding their efforts to cope with stress experienced during the Seoul Olympics. Qualitative analyses revealed that the wrestlers employed a variety of coping strategies including: (a) thought control strategies (blocking distractions, perspective taking, positive thinking, coping thoughts, and prayer), (b) task focus strategies (narrow, more immediate focus, concentrating on goals), (c) behavioral based strategies (changing or controlling the environment, following a set routine), and (d) emotional control strategies (arousal control, visualization). In accordance with the observations of Compas (1987) and Folkman and Lazarus (1985), the coping efforts of the Olympic wrestlers were not limited to particular strategies nor to single approaches to dealing with a particular stressor but, rather, reflected a dynamic complex process involving a number of strategies, often in combination. The results also suggested that the degree to which coping strategies are well learned or automatized is related to their perceived effectiveness.
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