Repair of Peripheral Vertical Meniscus Lesions in Porcine Menisci In Vitro Biomechanical Testing of 3 Different Meniscus Repair Devices
Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky.The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 03/2013; 41(5). DOI: 10.1177/0363546513479775
BACKGROUND:All-inside meniscus repair eliminates the need for an extra incision and decreases neurovascular injury risk. Biomechanical testing can help delineate the efficacy of all-inside device use. HYPOTHESIS:There would be no group differences between 4 peripheral meniscus repair techniques and 3 different devices tested. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:Equivalent-sized menisci with attached tibiae were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 test groups (8 specimens each), as follows: group 1, Fast-Fix using No. 0 braided polyester suture; group 2, inside-out repair using 2-0 braided polyester suture; group 3, Sequent using No. 0 ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture in a continuous "N" configuration; and group 4, Sequent using No. 0 UHMWPE suture in an interrupted configuration. After placement in a clamp, specimens underwent preconditioning from 5 to 20 N for 10 cycles (0.1 Hz), 500 submaximal loading cycles from 5 to 20 N (0.5 Hz), and load-to-failure testing at 12.5 mm/s. A 30-second pause after 10 preconditioning cycles and after 10, 100, and 500 submaximal loading cycles enabled digital photographs to be taken for gapping measurements. Failure mode was recorded. RESULTS:Specimens in group 3 withstood greater failure loads than did those in groups 1 and 4 (P ≤ .027), and group 3 specimens were stiffer than those in groups 2 and 4 (P ≤ .048). Displacement during submaximal loading and load-to-failure testing did not differ between groups. Groups 1, 3, and 4 each gapped less than group 2 during submaximal cyclic loading (P ≤ .05). Groups 1 and 2 failed primarily by suture breakage (P < .0001), while groups 3 and 4 failed primarily by the suture pulling free from an implant (P < .0001). CONCLUSION:Sequent using No. 0 UHMWPE suture in a continuous "N" configuration displayed superior load at failure compared with repairs using Fast-Fix with No. 0 braided polyester suture and displayed greater stiffness and less gapping than inside-out repair using 2-0 braided polyester suture. The suture pulling free from an implant was the primary failure mode for Sequent using No. 0 UHMWPE suture regardless of whether a continuous "N" or an interrupted configuration was used. Study groups that used No. 0 UHMWPE sutures (groups 3 and 4) had more specimens fail by the suture pulling free from an implant. Compared with the weaker braided polyester suture in the inside-out and Fast-Fix groups, the No. 0 UHMWPE suture used in the Sequent groups likely influenced study results, as this suture has stronger material properties. However, the continuous "N" configuration likely also improved the performance of the Sequent with No. 0 UHMWPE suture, as failure load was significantly less with an interrupted configuration. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:All-inside meniscus repair with continuous suture function may translate into improved patient outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the biomechanical properties of four different suture materials for arthroscopic transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears, with special focus on the meniscus-suture interface. Forty fresh-frozen lateral porcine menisci were used. The posterior meniscus root was sutured in a standardized fashion with a simple stitch using four different suture materials: group A, No. 2 PDS™; group B, No. 2 Ethibond™; group C, No. 2 FiberWire™; and group D, 2-mm Fibertape™. Meniscus-suture constructs were subjected to cyclic loading followed by load-to-failure testing using a servo-hydraulic material testing machine. During cyclic loading, group D showed a significantly higher displacement after 100, 500, and 1,000 cycles compared to group A (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.001), and a significantly higher displacement after 100 and 500 cycles compared to group B (p = 0.010 and p = 0.045). Group C showed a significantly higher displacement compared to group A after 100 cycles (p = 0.008). The highest maximum load was observed in group D, with significant differences compared to group A (p = 0.013). Group B showed a significantly higher stiffness compared to group A (p = 0.023), and both group C and group D showed a significantly higher stiffness compared to group A and group B (p < 0.001). None of the evaluated suture materials provided clearly superior properties over the others during both cyclic loading and load-to-failure testing. Based on the results of this study, FiberWire™ may be the preferred suture material for transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears because of comparably low displacement during cyclic loading and high values for maximum load and stiffness. In the clinical setting, FiberWire™ may improve healing rates and avoid progressive extrusion of the meniscus after transtibial pull-out repair of posterior meniscus root tears.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Posterior medial meniscus root (PMMR) tears have a serious effect on knee joint biomechanics. Currently used techniques for refixation of the PMMR include the transtibial pull-out repair (TP) and suture anchor repair (SA). These techniques have not been compared biomechanically. HYPOTHESIS:The SA technique provides superior biomechanical properties compared with the TP technique. STUDY DESIGN:Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:A total of 24 fresh-frozen porcine tibiae with attached intact medial menisci were used. The specimens were randomly assigned to 3 groups (8 specimens each). A standardized PMMR tear was created in 16 specimens. Refixation of the PMMR was performed by either the TP or SA technique. The native PMMR was left intact in 8 specimens. All specimens were subjected to cyclic loading followed by load-to-failure testing. Displacement after 100, 500, and 1000 cycles; maximum load to failure; stiffness; and displacement at failure were recorded. RESULTS:Both repair techniques showed a significantly higher displacement during cyclic loading and a significantly lower maximum load and stiffness during load-to-failure testing compared with the native PMMR (P < .05). The SA technique showed a significantly lower displacement after 100, 500, and 1000 cycles (P < .001) and a significantly higher stiffness (P = .016) compared with the TP technique. Maximum load did not differ significantly between the SA and TP techniques (P = .027, Bonferroni adjustment). No significant difference between the 3 groups was observed for displacement at failure (P > .05). CONCLUSION:The SA technique provided superior biomechanical properties compared with the TP technique. Both repair techniques did not reach the strength of the native PMMR. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:The favorable biomechanical properties of the SA technique might be beneficial for healing of the repaired PMMR and restoration of meniscus function. Because of inferior time zero stability compared with the native PMMR, slow rehabilitation is recommended after meniscus root repair.
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ABSTRACT: This in vitro biomechanical study using a porcine model compared peripheral longitudinal vertical meniscus lesion (PLVML) outside-in suture repair fixation strength using either interrupted or continuous "N" configuration No. 2-0 braided polyester sutures. Porcine lateral menisci were randomly assigned to group 1 (continuous) or group 2 (interrupted). Standardized PLVMLs were created in each specimen. Repaired specimens were placed in a specially designed clamp and loaded into a servohydraulic device. Specimens underwent preconditioning for 10 cycles (0.1 Hz, 5 to 20 N) and 500 submaximal loading cycles (0.5 Hz, 5 to 20 N), before load-to-failure testing (12.5 mm/s). A 30-second pause after preconditioning and after 10, 100, and 500 submaximal loading cycles enabled standardized digital photographs to be taken for gapping measurement determination. The failure mode was documented. Displacement and gapping during preconditioning and submaximal loading cycles did not differ between groups. Group 1 withstood a greater failure load (mean, 118.3 N; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.2 to 139.4 N) than group 2 (mean, 63.7 N; 95% CI, 51.2 to 76.2 N) (P < .0001) and displacement during load-to-failure testing (mean, 5.3 mm; 95% CI, 4.2 to 6.5 mm) than group 2 (mean, 3.2 mm; 95% CI, 2.1 to 4.3 mm) (P = .005). Group 1 failed by suture breakage or suture pulling through tissue, whereas group 2 primarily failed by knot slippage (P < .0001). Group displacement and gapping differences were not observed after 500 submaximal loading cycles. PLVMLs repaired with a continuous N configuration, however, withstood greater load at failure and greater displacement before failure than repairs that used interrupted sutures. Continuous suture in an N configuration may improve PLVML repair fixation strength.
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