MR Imaging of the Elbow in the Injured Athlete
University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, 924 East 57th Street, Suite 104, Chicago, IL 60637-5415, USA. Electronic address: .Radiologic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.98). 03/2013; 51(2):195-213. DOI: 10.1016/j.rcl.2012.09.013
This article summarizes key MR imaging findings in common athletic elbow injuries including little leaguer's elbow, Panner disease, osteochondritis dissecans, olecranon stress fracture, occult fracture, degenerative osteophyte formation, flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament tear, lateral ulnar collateral ligament and radial collateral ligament tear, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, biceps tear, bicipitoradial bursitis, triceps tear, olecranon bursitis, ulnar neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and radial tunnel syndrome. The article also summarizes important technical considerations in elbow MR imaging that enhance image quality and contribute to the radiologist's success.
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ABSTRACT: The bicipitoradial bursa lies at the insertion of the biceps tendon on the radial tuberosity. It is an unusual site for chronic bursitis and most often results from repetitive mechanical trauma or overuse. Other causes include tuberculosis, immunological complications of rheumatological disease and synovial chondromatosis. Accurate diagnosis requires imaging studies and sometimes histological study. It can be treated conservatively with aspiration and steroid injection. Surgical excision of the bursa is indicated in the case of infection cause, failed conservative treatment with recurrence of the enlarged bursa and pain after aspiration, presence of nerve compression with neurological impairment, mechanical limitation to flexion, and extension of the elbow or biceps tendon degeneration and/or functional impairment.
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ABSTRACT: Triceps injuries are relatively uncommon in most traumatic events, and the distal triceps tendon ruptures are rare. Recently, the knowledge of this tendon lesion has increased, and it seems to be related to more precise diagnostic and clinical assessments. The most common mechanism of injury remains a forceful eccentric contraction of the muscle, while several other risk factors have been studied as chronic renal failure, endocrine disorders, metabolic bone diseases as well as steroid use. Olecranon bursitis and local corticosteroid injections may also play a role. The commonest site of rupture is at the tendon's insertion into the olecranon and rarely at the myotendinous junction or intramuscularly. The surgical intervention is recommended in acute complete ruptures, and non-operative treatment is reserved for patients with major comorbidities, as well as for partial ruptures with little functional disability and in low demanding patients. Various techniques and approaches as the direct repair to bone, the tendon augmentation, the anconeus rotation flap and the Achilles tendon allograft have been proposed for the management of these challenging injuries. The goal of surgical management should be an anatomical repair of the injured tendon by selection of a procedure with a low complication rate and one that allows early mobilization. This manuscript focuses the triceps tendon ruptures starting from the anatomy to the diagnosis and entity of the triceps tendon injuries, as well as the indications and guidelines for the management.
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