Article

Collective Autonomy and Absenteeism Within Work Teams: A Team Motivation Approach

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Abstract

This study investigates the role of collective autonomy in regard to team absenteeism by considering team potency as a motivational mediator and task routineness as a moderator. The sample consists of 90 work teams (327 members and 90 immediate superiors) drawn from a public safety organization. Results of structural equation modeling indicate that the relationships between collective autonomy and two indicators of team absenteeism (i.e., absence frequency and time lost) are mediated by team potency. Specifically, collective autonomy is positively related to team potency which in turn is negatively related to team absenteeism. Furthermore, results of hierarchical regression analyses show that task routineness moderates the relationships between collective autonomy and the two indicators of team absenteeism such that these relationships are stronger when the level of task routineness is low. On the whole, this study points out that collective autonomy may exercise a motivational effect on attendance at work within teams, but this effect is contingent on task routineness.

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... To date, only few studies applied a multilevel approach to elucidate the link between characteristics of work group psychosocial environment and work group absence [17]. Relying on self-reported data, but not on independently ascertained absence records, researchers related a specific psychosocial work characteristic, perceived collective autonomy, to sickness absence. ...
... For comparison, hypothetically reducing all health behavior and medical risk factors to the "unavoidable" level observed in the best quartile of work-groups would predict a reduction of sickness absence rate by 31%. To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies examining data at the work-group rather than the individual level [17,18]. Our study arrives at similar estimates as did the Danish registry studies obtained from individual person follow-up data, which more than a decade ago estimated the etiological fraction of sickness absence rates attributable to seven psychosocial work characteristics at 29% [11]. ...
... However, exposure to unfavorable psychosocial work characteristics at the work-group level often does not experience the same rigorous approach. Using the work-group averaged perceived psychosocial work characteristics from random subsampling of the all participants as the best possible proxy estimate of the population exposure, we corroborate previous findings at the ecological level [17]. We add the perspective of simultaneously assessing health behavior and objective medical data at the individual level [33,41]. ...
Article
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Background Absence from work due to sickness impairs organizational productivity and performance. Even in organizations with perfect work conditions, some inevitable baseline sickness absence exists amongst working populations. The excess sickness absence observed above this baseline rate has become the focus of traditional health promotion efforts, addressing preventable physical illness, health behavior and mental health at the personal level. However, a health and safety approach following the TOP-rule would consider work-group psychosocial work characteristics as a potential risk factor amenable to organizational measures. To date, there is a scarcity of studies relating psychosocial work characteristics to possible reduction of excess sickness-absence rates. Methods We aimed to estimate the potentially avoidable excess fraction of absence attributable to work-group psychosocial characteristics. We considered work-group averaged perception of psychosocial work characteristics as a proxy to the methodologically elusive objective assessment of organizational characteristics. Participants were recruited from multiple sites of a German automotive manufacturer with individuals nested within work groups. We predicted 12-month follow-up work-group sickness absence rates using data from a baseline comprehensive health examination assessing work characteristics, health behavior, and biomedical risk factors. We considered the quartile of work-groups yielding favorable psychosocial work characteristics as a realistic existing benchmark. Using the population attributable fraction method we estimated the potentially amenable sickness absence from improving work-group psychosocial characteristics. Results Data from 3992 eligible participants from 29 work groups were analyzed (39% participation rate, average age 41.4 years (SD = 10.3 years), 89.9% males and 49% manual workers.). Work-group absence rates at follow up varied from 2.1 to 8.9% (mean 5.1%, 11.7 missed days). A prediction model of seven psychosocial work characteristics at the work group level explained 70% of the variance of future absence rates. The estimated reduction from improving psychosocial work characteristics to the benchmark level amounted to 32% of all sickness absence, compared to a 31% reduction from eliminating health behavioral and medical risk factors to the benchmark target. Conclusions Psychosocial characteristics at the work-group level account for a relevant proportion of all sickness absence. Health promotion interventions should therefore address psychosocial characteristics at the work group level.
... To date, only few studies applied a multilevel approach to elucidate the link between characteristics of work group psychosocial environment and work group absence [17]. Relying on self-reported data, but not on independently ascertained absence records, researchers related a speci c psychosocial work characteristic, perceived collective autonomy, to sickness absence. ...
... To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies examining data at the work-group rather than the individual level [17,18]. Our study arrives at similar estimates as did the Danish registry studies obtained from individual person follow-up data, which more than a decade ago estimated the etiological fraction of sickness absence rates attributable to seven psychosocial work characteristics at 29% [11]. ...
... However, exposure to unfavorable psychosocial work characteristics at the work-group level often does not experience the same rigorous approach. Using the work-group averaged perceived psychosocial work characteristics from random subsampling of the all participants as the best possible proxy estimate of the population exposure, we corroborate previous ndings at the ecological level [17]. We add the perspective of simultaneously assessing health behavior and objective medical data at the individual level [33,41]. ...
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Background: Absence from work due to sickness impairs organizational productivity and performance. Even in organizations with perfect work conditions, some inevitable baseline sickness absence exists amongst working populations. The excess sickness absence observed above this baseline rate has become the focus of traditional health promotion efforts, addressing preventable physical illness, health behavior and mental health at the personal level. However, a health and safety approach following the TOP-rule would consider work-group psychosocial work characteristics as a potential risk factor amenable to organizational measures. To date, there is a scarcity of studies relating psychosocial work characteristics to possible reduction of excess sickness-absence rates. Methods: We aimed to estimate the potentially avoidable excess fraction of absence attributable to work-group psychosocial characteristics. We considered work-group averaged perception of psychosocial work characteristics as a proxy to the methodologically elusive objective assessment of organizational characteristics. Participants were recruited from multiple sites of a German automotive manufacturer with individuals nested within work groups. We predicted 12-month follow-up work-group sickness absence rates using data from a baseline comprehensive health examination assessing work characteristics, health behavior, and biomedical risk factors. We considered the quartile of work-groups yielding favorable psychosocial work characteristics as a realistic existing benchmark. Using the population attributable fraction method we estimated the potentially amenable sickness absence from improving work-group psychosocial characteristics. Results: Data from 3992 eligible participants from 29 work groups were analyzed (39 percent participation rate, average age 41.4 years (SD = 10.3 years), 89.9% males and 49% manual workers.). Work-group absence rates at follow up varied from 2.1% to 8.9% (mean 5.1%, 11.7 missed days). A prediction model of seven psychosocial work characteristics at the work group level explained 70 percent of the variance of future absence rates. The estimated reduction from improving psychosocial work characteristics to the benchmark level amounted to 32% of all sickness absence, compared to a 31% reduction from eliminating health behavioral and medical risk factors to the benchmark target. Conclusions: Psychosocial characteristics at the work-group level account for a relevant proportion of all sickness absence. Health promotion interventions should therefore address psychosocial characteristics at the work group level.
... To date, only few studies applied a multilevel approach to elucidate the link between characteristics of work group psychosocial environment and work group absence [17]. Relying on self-reported data, but not on independently ascertained absence records, researchers related a specific psychosocial work characteristic, perceived collective autonomy, to sickness absence. ...
... To our knowledge, this is one of the few studies examining data at the work-group rather than the individual level [17,18]. Our study arrives at similar estimates as did the Danish registry studies obtained from individual person follow-up data, which more than a decade ago estimated the etiological fraction of sickness absence rates attributable to seven psychosocial work characteristics at 29% [11]. ...
... However, exposure to unfavorable psychosocial work conditions at the work-group level often does not experience the same rigorous approach. Using the work group averaged perceived psychosocial work characteristics from random subsampling of the all participants as the best possible proxy estimate of the population exposure, we corroborate previous findings at the ecological level [17]. We add the perspective of simultaneously assessing health behavior and objective medical data at the individual level [33,41]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Absence from work due to sickness impairs organizational productivity and performance. Even in organizations with perfect work conditions, some inevitable baseline sickness absence exists amongst working populations. The excess sickness absence observed above this baseline rate has become the focus of traditional health promotion efforts, addressing preventable physical illness, health behavior and mental health at the personal level. However, a health and safety approach following the TOP-rule would consider work-group psychosocial work characteristics as a potential risk factor amenable to organizational measures. To date, there is a scarcity of studies relating psychosocial work characteristics to possible reduction of excess sickness-absence rates. Methods We aimed to estimate the potentially avoidable excess fraction of absence attributable to work-group psychosocial characteristics. We considered work-group averaged perception of psychosocial work conditions as the best proxy to an “objective” assessment of organizational characteristics. Participants were recruited from multiple sites of a German automotive manufacturer with individuals nested within work groups. We predicted 12-month follow-up work-group sickness absence rates using data from a baseline comprehensive health examination assessing work characteristics, health behavior, and biomedical risk factors. We considered the quartile of work-groups yielding favorable psychosocial work characteristics as a realistic existing benchmark. Using the population attributable fraction method we estimated the potentially amenable sickness absence from improving work-group psychosocial characteristics. Results Data from 3992 eligible participants from 29 work groups were analyzed (39 percent participation rate, average age 41.4 years (SD = 10.3 years), 89.9% males and 49% manual workers.). Work-group absence rates at follow up varied from 2.1% to 8.9% (mean 5.1%, 11.7 missed days). A prediction model of seven psychosocial work characteristics at the work group level explained 70 percent of the variance of future absence rates. The estimated reduction from improving psychosocial work characteristics to the benchmark level amounted to 32% of all sickness absence, compared to a 31% reduction from eliminating health behavioral and medical risk factors to the benchmark target. Conclusions Psychosocial characteristics at the work-group level account for a relevant proportion of all sickness absence. Health promotion interventions should therefore address psychosocial characteristics at the work group level.
... According to much of the management literature, having motivated, engaged employees and a company strategy focused on innovation helps to generate competitive advantage (e.g. Kesting and Ulhøi, 2010;Pfeffer, 1995;Robinson and Schroeder, 2004). In this search for the determinants of employee engagement and innovation, job quality and characteristics are a key focus in the academic literature. ...
... IWB has only recently been developed as a concept and is mostly used as the dependent variable in studies (as it is here). The literature on related concepts 505 Good employees through good jobs like employee-driven innovation nevertheless shows that employee innovation activities can be a crucial asset for firms aiming to achieve sustainable competitiveness (Kesting and Ulhøi, 2010;Robinson and Schroeder, 2004). ...
... It differs from job autonomy in the sense of being focused on the work in the team, not on the individual tasks of the employee (Schouteten and Benders, 2004). As such it is similar to what is sometimes called "collective" or "team autonomy" (von Bonsdorff et al., 2015;Jønsson and Jeppesen, 2013;Rousseau and Aubé, 2013): the team members' capacity to make decisions together concerning the accomplishment of the work. ...
Article
Purpose This paper identifies different job types in the Belgian electricity sector and their relations with employee outcomes such as work engagement and innovative work behavior. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses a combination of Latent Profile Analysis and Relative Operating Characteristics analysis. Findings Depending on the job resources and demands, five different job types are identified corresponding largely to the Karasek (1990) job types. Their relation with the outcomes is not parallel with low strain jobs performing best for work engagement, and active jobs for innovative work behavior. Research limitations/implications The combination of methods used increases significantly the ease of communication of the findings yet for a external benchmark would be preferable for the ROC analysis. Practical implications To foster engagement and innovative work behavior with employees one should focus on the job content and only increase demands if they are combined with sufficient resources. Originality/value This research is the first in its kind that relates latent job types with different employee outcomes using a combination of Latent Profile and ROC analysis.
... Takımın etkinliği için duygusal, davranışsal ve bilişsel aracılık süreçlerine ihtiyaç duyulduğu bilinmektedir (Ilgen ve diğerleri, 2005). Buna ek olarak, takımları tasarlarken kullanılan faktörlerin, özellikle takım üyelerinin motivasyonu ve davranışları üzerinde önemli etkiye sahip olduğu bilindiğinden, takım faktörlerini dolaylı ilişkilerle incelemek suretiyle daha anlamlı bir bilgiye ulaşmak mümkün olabilir (Rousseau ve Aubé, 2013). Bu çalışma, geçmiş araştırmalardan farklı olarak NPD takımlarında; takım otonomisi, takım üyelerinin deneyimi ve takım istikrarı kavramları kullanarak, güven ve öğrenme arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektedir. ...
... Böylece, üyelerin birbirlerini tanıması ve güven geliştirmesi sağlanabilmektedir. Öte yandan, otonomi devamsızlık ile ters yönlü bir ilişki içindedir (Rousseau ve Aubé, 2013). Takım üyeleri otonomi halinde muhtemelen daha az devamsızlık göstermekte ve takım çalışmasına daha düzenli ve etkili bir şekilde katılmaktadırlar. ...
... Another China-based study found that when teams have cooperative goals, they are more likely to develop a strong sense of team potency, and in turn, to achieve higher innovative performance (Wong, Tjosvold, & Liu, 2009). Researchers in Canada have provided support for the roles of leadership type and autonomy levels in the development of team potency (Boies, Lvina, & Martens, 2010;Rousseau & Aubé, 2013). Specifically, while shared transformational leadership demonstrated a positive relationship with potency in a sample of student teams, passive avoidant leadership had a negative impact (Boies et al., 2010). ...
... Specifically, while shared transformational leadership demonstrated a positive relationship with potency in a sample of student teams, passive avoidant leadership had a negative impact (Boies et al., 2010). In addition to identifying team autonomy as a positive antecedent, Rousseau and Aubé (2013) found that team potency can reduce levels of a bsenteeism among team members. Finally, in a collaboration among researchers from Germany, the U.S., and the Netherlands, self-managed work teams representing 60 different nationalities were studied, revealing that dense task networks among team members had a positive effect on team potency, and this effect became stronger as teams became more culturally diverse (Tröster, Mehra, & van Knippenberg, 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the major, and most recent literature on team processes and emergent states, with a particular emphasis on incorporating an international perspective. Categorizing mediator variables into the ABCs – affective, behavioral, or cognitive mechanisms – provides a useful heuristic for analyzing and integrating the large, often diverse body of research that characterizes the teams literature. Thus, consistent with prior reviews, the chapter is organized around these three major types of team mediating variables. At a basic level, affective mechanisms reflect what teams feel, behavioral mechanisms capture what teams do, and cognitive mechanisms encompass what teams think. Affective mechanisms involve team processes and emergent states that reflect relationships among team members, shared motivational characteristics, and affective reactions, such as team moods and emotions. The chapter focuses on cohesion, team confidence, and trust; not an exhaustive list of all affective mechanisms, but those that have received perhaps the most attention in the literature.
... The vast majority of studies in this field have conceptualized and investigated absenteeism as an individual-level factor and looked how, for example, health (Vargas-Prada et al., 2016;Weng, Ali, & Leonardi-Bee, 2013), age (Martocchio, 1989), or organizational factors (Farrell & Stamm, 1988) affect perceived or objective absenteeism behaviours of employees. Only in the last decade has this perspective partly shifted, and researchers have started to consider absenteeism also as a collective construct that can emerge in collective entities such as teams (Nielsen, 2008;Rousseau & Aubé, 2013) and work units (Hausknecht, Hiller, & Vance, 2008;Kristensen et al., 2006). There is increasing empirical evidence that absenteeism within the same organization is characterized by systematic team-level variance, indicating that work teams vary in their average absenteeism level (e.g., Markham & McKee, 1995;Mason & Griffin, 2003). ...
Article
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Organizations in the twenty-first century face the challenges of an increasingly ageing workforce, which have an effect on organizational health and productivity. As chronological age has shown to be an insufficient indicator of employees’ health and, in particular, absenteeism, we apply the subjective age concept (i.e., how old an employee feels) at the team-level to explain the average chronological age/average short-term absenteeism relationship. We develop a theoretical framework for underlying processes, combining the subjective age research with the socioemotional selectivity theory and team contagion processes. We test our predictions in a time-lagged team-level sample of 1,015 teams with 12,926 employees to find a significant interactive effect of average chronological age and average subjective age on average short-term absenteeism in teams. The relationship is negative and significant when average subjective age is low. Under high-average subjective age, the relationship is non-significant. Furthermore, this interactive effect (average chronological age/average subjective age) is moderated by job type (white versus blue collar) in the form of a three-way interaction, indicating that the effect is only significant among white collar teams. We hope to enrich the theoretical debate on age and absenteeism and provide organizations with a new perspective on ageing work teams.
... It has long been suggested that absenteeism is indicative of employee morale, attitudes (such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and workplace behaviors (Johns, 2003;Navrbjerg & Minbaeva, 2009). Typically measured by average number of work absences per employee/unit per set period, absenteeism has been conceptualized as an attempt to minimize participation in work tasks while still maintaining organizational membership (Boon, Belschak, Den Hartog, & Pijnenburg, 2014) and as a means for employees to escape from a dissatisfying work environment (Rousseau & Aubé, 2013). 1 Kehoe and Wright (2013) recently pointed out that absenteeism is an important variable in HRM research due to its relevance and generalizability. As such, we consider absenteeism as an appropriate variable to act as a proxy for a generalized measure of behavioral engagement with work. ...
Article
In the present study we examine the relationship between subsidiary HR autonomy and organizational outcomes (performance, absenteeism and turnover) and the moderating effects of cultural and institutional distance in MNC subsidiaries operating in a wide variety of societies from North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The results partially support our hypotheses main and moderating effects. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the results. Full-text is available at: http://proceedings.aom.org/content/2013/1/17073.short
... Au niveau de l'organisation du travail en groupe ou en équipe, là aussi, les salariés peuvent prendre des décisions concernant la répartition des tâches à accomplir, leur coordination, etc. Cette autonomie laissée à l'équipe ou au groupe est vecteur de motivation et limite l'absentéisme des salariés. Vincent Rousseau et Caroline Aubé montrent ainsi qu'au sein d'une même entreprise, le taux d'absentéisme peut varier de façon importante entre les équipes en fonction du degré d'autonomie collective, certains managers déléguant plus que d'autres [23]. ...
... It has long been suggested that absenteeism is indicative of employee morale, attitudes (such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and workplace behaviors (Johns, 2003;Navrbjerg & Minbaeva, 2009). Typically measured by average number of work absences per employee/unit per set period, absenteeism has been conceptualized as an attempt to minimize participation in work tasks while still maintaining organizational membership (Boon, Belschak, Den Hartog, & Pijnenburg, 2014) and as a means for employees to escape from a dissatisfying work environment (Rousseau & Aubé, 2013). 1 Kehoe and Wright (2013) recently pointed out that absenteeism is an important variable in HRM research due to its relevance and generalizability. As such, we consider absenteeism as an appropriate variable to act as a proxy for a generalized measure of behavioral engagement with work. ...
... This study affirmed previous research indicating that higher autonomy at work decreases the absence rate. This is related to reduced problems due to disliking work, disagreements with superiors, fatigue related to length of shift, and inclement weather (Enns et al., 2015;Humphrey et al., 2007;Rousseau and Aube, 2013). Higher absenteeism is connected to more stressful working conditions, and workers with increased autonomy generally experience less stress. ...
Article
This paper determines productivity loss due to nursing absenteeism, identify causes and frequencies of absenteeism, describe working conditions, and determine predictors of absenteeism. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out amongst 306 nurses in a university hospital using stratified random sampling. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of absenteeism. The study found that productivity loss due to absenteeism in the studied teaching hospital was 425,749 USD annually. The most common cause of absence was minor aliment, followed by fatigue related to working overload. The predictors of absence among nurses were: nurses working in A shift, having children, working in ICUs, having normal BMI. The study indicates that the impact of absenteeism on productivity loss is high. More research is required to develop a deeper understanding of the relationship between absenteeism and its related factors.
... Therefore, it is 68 not surprising that absenteeism has a long research tradition in the field of management and organisational behaviour (Darr & Johns, 2008 (Martocchio, 1989), or organisational factors (Farrell & Stamm, 1988) affect perceived or objective absenteeism behaviours of employees. Only in the last decade has this perspective partly shifted, and researchers have started to consider absenteeism also as a collective construct that can emerge in collective entities such as teams (Nielsen, 2008;Rousseau & Aubé, 2013) and work units (Hausknecht, Hiller, & Vance, 2008;Kristensen et al., 2006). There is increasing empirical evidence that absenteeism within the same organisation is characterised by systematic team-level variance, indicating that work teams vary in their average absenteeism level (e.g., Markham & McKee, 1995;Mason & Griffin, 2003). ...
... Autonomy. Team autonomy is concerned with how team responsibilities are organized within the broader organizational context and captures the extent to which the team, as a whole, has the freedom to determine its own tasks and courses of action (Rousseau & Aubé, 2013). Positive relationships between team autonomy and team outcomes rely on organizational leadership and team members similarly perceiving how much autonomy is required to perform work tasks (Gibson, Cooper, & Conger, 2009). ...
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This article presents a comprehensive synthesis and quantitative review of studies examining relationships between team design characteristics and team performance. Across 398 primary studies, the present study meta-analytically investigated the effects of team composition, team task design, and team leadership characteristics on team performance. The study further investigates how the effects of these team design characteristics differ according to the industry context within which the team is embedded (high technology, manufacturing, service, or student). Overall, this review emphasizes the importance of continued inquiries focusing on team design while also discussing the implications of this review for theory, practice, and future research.
... Members can develop trust by showing their behavioral and social differences more freely and finding opportunities to know each other (Barrick & Mount, 1993). Besides, team autonomy is related with less absenteeism (Rousseau & Aubé, 2013). Since members participate to team works more regularly and effectively, they do not think about unfair distribution of workload and this contributes to build trust. ...
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Although self-efficacy has been demonstrated to be positively associated with performance-related variables, few studies have looked at its possible antecedents in the context of personal selling. Applying social cognitive theory, this study posits that while self-efficacy positively affects performance, the salesperson's learning effort directly affects self-efficacy. Furthermore, two task-related factors (perceived job autonomy and customer demandingness) and one individual difference variable (trait competitiveness) are proposed to affect salesperson learning effort and self-efficacy. Two empirical studies show consistent results regarding the positive effects of learning on efficacy and efficacy on performance as well as the influences of three exogenous constructs on learning and efficacy. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
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The design of work has been shown to influence a host of attitudinal, behavioral, cognitive, well-being, and organizational outcomes. Despite its clear importance, scholarly interest in the topic has diminished over the past 20 years. Fortunately, a recent body of research has sought to reenergize research into work design by expanding our view of work design from a narrow set of motivational work features to one that incorporates broader social and contextual elements. In this chapter we seek to review the literature on work design and develop a framework that integrates both job and team design research. We begin by briefly reviewing the history of work design in order to provide needed historical context and illustrate the evolution of job and team design. We then define work design, particularly as it relates to incorporating job and team design elements and transitioning from a view of jobs to one of roles. Following this, we identify a comprehensive set of work design outcomes that provide the basis for understanding the impact that different work characteristics can have on individuals and teams. We then offer an extended discussion of our integrative model of work design, which includes three sources of work characteristics (task, social, and contextual) and the worker characteristics implied by these characteristics. Having defined the range of work and worker characteristics, we then discuss some of the fit and composition issues that arise when designing work, as well as discuss the mechanisms through which the work characteristics have their impact on outcomes. Finally, we discuss research into informal forms of work design.
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This article uses an ecological approach to analyze factors in the effectiveness of work teams—small groups of interdependent individuals who share responsibility for outcomes for their organizations. Applications include advice and involvement, as in quality control circles and committees; production and service, as in assembly groups and sales teams; projects and development, as in engineering and research groups: and action and negotiation, as in sports teams and combat units. An analytic framework depicts team effectiveness as interdependent with organizational context, boundaries, and team development. Key context factors include (a) organizational culture, (b) technology and task design, (c) mission clarity, (d) autonomy, (e) rewards, (f) performance feedback, (g) training/consultation, and (h) physical environment. Team boundaries may mediate the impact of organizational context on team development. Current research leaves unanswered questions but suggests that effectiveness depends on organizational context and boundaries as much as on internal processes. Issues are raised for research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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From the early 1980s to the present, organizations have increased their reliance on teams. Over the same time period, the amount of traditional small group team research has decreased. The void has been filled by research that is focused on issues facing task-performing teams embedded in organizations. It is argued here that the organizational perspective has produced research that complements and extends past research on groups and teams. A case is made for differences in orientation between traditional team research and work aimed specifically at teams in organizations. Implications of these differences are explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Determined the long-term effects of self-management training given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their job attendance in a 6-month follow-up study. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that enhanced self-efficacy and increased job attendance were effectively maintained over time. Perceived self-efficacy at the end of training predicted subsequent job attendance. The control group ( n = 20) was then given the same training in self-management by a different trainer. Three months later, this group showed the same positive improvement as the original training group with regard to increased self-efficacy and job attendance. These findings lend support to a self-efficacy based theory of job attendance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents methods for assessing agreement among the judgments made by a single group of judges on a single variable in regard to a single target. For example, the group of judges could be editorial consultants, members of an assessment center, or members of a team. The single target could be a manuscript, a lower level manager, or a team. The variable on which the target is judged could be overall publishability in the case of the manuscript, managerial potential for the lower level manager, or a team cooperativeness for the team. The methods presented are based on new procedures for estimating interrater reliability. For such situations, these procedures furnish more accurate and interpretable estimates of agreement than estimates provided by procedures commonly used to estimate agreement, consistency, or interrater reliability. The proposed methods include processes for controlling for the spurious influences of response biases (e.g., positive leniency and social desirability) on estimates of interrater reliability. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Workers (n = 17 275) from 14 European Union (EU) member states provided data on job control, job dissatisfaction, perceived risk of occupational stress, and absence. For each state, level of research and development (R&D) activity was assessed. Associations between individual levels of control and occupational health were stronger where national R&D activity was higher. The moderation occurred for individuals' levels of control in relation to job dissatisfaction, perceived risk of occupational stress, and absence. The findings with job dissatisfaction and absence were replicated in a sample of workers from 10 Eastern European former Communist countries (n = 7926). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study investigated the determinants of team proactive performance amongst 43 shift teams from a UK chemical processing plant. Using external ratings of team proactive performance, the study found that the most proactive teams were those with higher levels of self-management, transformational team leaders, and a higher- than-average level of proactive personality. The relationship between transformational leadership and team proactive performance was mediated by favourable interpersonal norms. In addition, lower diversity of proactive personality amongst team members had an indirect association with team proactive performance via its negative effect on favourable interpersonal norms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology is the property of British Psychological Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Prior research is limited in explaining absenteeism at the unit level and over time. We developed and tested a model of unit-level absenteeism using five waves of data collected over six years from 115 work units in a large state agency. Unit-level job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and local unemployment were modeled as time-varying predictors of absenteeism. Shared satisfaction and commitment interacted in predicting absenteeism but were not related to the rate of change in absenteeism over time. Unit-level satisfaction and commitment were more strongly related to absenteeism when units were located in areas with plentiful job alternatives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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We develop an integrative theory regarding the effects of mean levels and dispersion of satisfaction predicting absenteeism. Differential interactive predictions are derived for two satisfaction foci and tested in two distinct samples. Among student teams, absenteeism from team meetings was highest when team (internally focused) satisfaction mean and dispersion were both lower, but low when course (externally focused) satisfaction mean and dispersion were both lower. Moreover, given lower dispersion, the mean team satisfaction-absenteeism relationship appeared stronger, whereas the same relationship involving course satisfaction appeared weaker than meta-analyzed individual-level relationships. We replicated these results among manufacturing teams using team and job satisfaction foci. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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In this article, we present a qualitative discussion of 28 empirical studies on self-managing teamwork and psychological well-being. We address three questions: (a) Which variables did they include and which results did they obtain?; (b) How did authors deal with issues of level of theory, measurement, and analysis?; and (c) Do such level issues affect the results of the studies? This review demonstrates that only job satisfaction is consistently related to self-managing teamwork. In addition, authors often fail to specify the level of their theory, thereby impeding judgment on the appropriateness of analysis procedures. Finally, we present preliminary evidence that level issues may affect the results. We plead for the incorporation of multilevel theory and analysis techniques into the field of self-managing teamwork and psychological well-being.
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Redesigning jobs from a traditional workgroup structure to a semi-autonomous team structure has become increasingly popular, but the impact of such redesigns on employee effectiveness criteria has been mixed. The present longitudinal quasi-experimental study showed that although such a redesign had positive effects on 3 performance behaviors (effort, skill usage, and problem solving), its effectiveness also depended on aspects of the organizational context. In conditions where the organizational reward and feedback and information systems were effective, redesigning work into a semi-autonomous team structure had no discernible effect on performance behaviors. In conditions where these systems were poor, however, such a redesign produced large positive benefits. This suggests that work redesigns that enhance worker autonomy are most effective in contexts where other supportive management systems are absent.
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Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
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Why do employees engage in innovative behavior at their workplaces? We examine how employees' innovative behavior is explained by expectations for such behavior to affect job performance (expected positive performance outcomes) and image inside their organizations (expected image risks and expected image gains). We found significant effects of all three outcome expectations on innovative behavior. These outcome expectations, as intermediate psychological processes, were shaped by contextual and individual difference factors, including perceived organization support for innovation, supervisor relationship quality, job requirement for innovativeness, employee reputation as innovative, and individual dissatisfaction with the status quo.
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We present an integrated theoretical framework that models the development of team situation models and implicit coordination behaviors. We first define these concepts and then examine the role of several team and context variables in facilitating the emergence of implicit coordination patterns, as well as in moderating their effects on team performance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the model for team coordination theory, team cognition research, and effective management of work teams.
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Synthesizing theories of leadership, empowerment, and creativity, this research built and tested a theoretical model linking empowering leadership with creativity via several intervening variables. Using survey data from professional employees and their supervisors in a large information technology company in China, we found that, as anticipated, empowering leadership positively affected psychological empowerment, which in turn influenced both intrinsic motivation and creative process engagement. These latter two variables then had a positive influence on creativity. Empowerment role identity moderated the link between empowering leadership and psychological empowerment, whereas leader encouragement of creativity moderated the connection between psychological empowerment and creative process engagement.
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Four methods for inducing or testing for multivariate normality when using multiple measures of absenteeism are described. They are the elimination of multivariate outliers, the transformation of absence measures to approximate multivariate normality, testing for univariate normality, and testing for multivariate normality. Evidence indicating that application of these methods can enhance the validity of absenteeism studies is presented.
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To examine whether working under stressful circumstances restricts or enhances team effectiveness, a structural contingency model for team effectiveness was tested by focusing on job structuring (mechanistic/organic structuring) as a key factor, which interacts with qualitative and quantitative stress on team attitude (team commitment) and outcomes (team effectiveness). Findings from 73 primary care teams indicated that mechanistic structuring for teams working under quantitative stress was positively associated with team commitment, which in turn fostered team effectiveness, whereas organic structuring for working under qualitative stress improved team effectiveness. Furthermore, team commitment mediated the relationships between stress and structuring and team effectiveness. These findings support a structural contingency model for improving team effectiveness under stress. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The purpose of this paper is to explore unit-level absence by focusing on absence culture research. Relevant unit-level and cross-level absence research is reviewed and is summarized in a conceptual framework. The framework is used to guide the discussion of future unit-level absence research. The discussion of future research includes relevant concepts from the research on organizational culture and work teams that are shown to integrate with or possibly augment future unit-level absence culture research.
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Two separate samples of a hospital's employees (N = 166 and 133) obtained at different points in time are used to test a structural equation model of the developmental and socializing effects autonomy at work has on employees' proactivity and its resultant impact on their support for organizational change. In both samples, autonomy positively affected employee role breadth self-efficacy and personal initiative, which in turn had positive though differential relationships with employee responses to change. The model fitting each cross-sectional sample is supported in a third separate, longitudinal sample (N = 74) of participants in both surveys. Results indicate that the proactivity characteristic of workers enjoying on-the-job autonomy promotes their positive responses to structural change. Promoting worker autonomy itself can be a critical precursor to successful implementation of certain forms of organizational change.
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There is increasing recognition that group members learn not only within the group (i.e., local learning), but also A externally (i.e., distal learning), and these two group learning processes may facilitate group performance in different ways. Yet, despite this recognition, there is much that is not understood about whether they complement or inhibit each other in affecting group performance, and whether group social and task conditions that foster one type of learning do so at the expense of the other. The findings from this field study of teams from four firms show that (1) local learning and distal learning are positively related to group efficiency and group innovativeness, respectively; (2) distal learning negatively interacts with local learning to impede group efficiency; and (3) high levels of group cohesion promote distal learning but diminish local learning. Overall, these findings suggest that there are not only performance trade-offs to engaging in either only local or distal learning, but also performance disadvantages to engaging in both types of group learning because distal learning impedes local learning from achieving a high level of group efficiency. In addition, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that tensions can arise from simultaneously managing both types of group learning because a high level of group cohesion increases distal learning but decreases local learning.
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This article presents a quantitative review of 93 studies examining relationships between team design features and team performance. Aggregated measures of individual ability and disposition correlate positively with team performance. Team member heterogeneity and performance correlate near zero, but the effect varies somewhat by type of team. Project and management teams have slightly higher performance when they include more members. Team-level task meaningfulness exhibits a modest but inconsistent relationship with performance. Increased autonomy and intrateam coordination correspond with higher performance, but the effect varies depending on task type. Leadership, particularly transformational and empowering leadership, improves team performance.
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F. L. Schmidt and J. E. Hunter (1989) critiqued the within-group interrater reliability statistic ( rwg) described by L. R. James et al (1984). S. W. Kozlowski and K. Hattrup (1992) responded to the Schmidt and Hunter critique and argued that rwg is a suitable index of interrater agreement. This article focuses on the interpretation of rwg as a measure of agreement among judges' ratings of a single target. A new derivation of rwg is given that underscores this interpretation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Building from an attraction-selection-attrition framework by B. Schneider (see record 1988-09366-001) and the socialization literature, this study views personality, affect, and behavior as group-level phenomena. Among a sample of 26 work groups, it was found that individual affect was consistent within groups, suggesting that the affective tone of a group is a meaningful construct. Characteristic levels of the personality traits positive affectivity and negative affectivity within groups were positively associated with the positive and negative affective tones of the groups, respectively. In addition, the affective tone of a group was related to group behaviors. More specifically, the negative affective tone of a group was found to be negatively related to the extent to which the group engaged in prosocial behavior. Absenteeism by group members was negatively correlated with the positive affective tone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Teams that have positive beliefs about their capability tend to perform more effectively. However, relatively little is known about the nature and change of different types of team capability beliefs. Team potency and team efficacy are two approaches to understanding team capability beliefs, but few studies have considered these beliefs simultaneously. We investigate their distinctiveness and relative predictive power. Additionally, we propose two types of team efficacy: team outcome efficacy and team process efficacy. In two longitudinal samples of executive MBA study teams (sample 1, N=213 individuals in 41 teams; sample 2, N=360 individuals in 89 teams), we showed that team potency, team outcome efficacy, and team process efficacy are factorially distinct and measure invariant at four time points over 7 months (except for high levels of team outcome efficacy for which factorial invariance emerged). We also show differential predictive validity. Team outcome efficacy was the strongest predictor of objective team performance, whereas team process efficacy was the best predictor of citizenship behaviours. Team potency predicted both outcomes, albeit more weakly. Collectively, the findings show the value of a more fine-grained approach to teams' capability beliefs, including a new validated measure of team process efficacy.
Article
Increased job complexity and autonomy have often been associated with improved performance in work groups. This study examines the mediating effect of group cohesiveness. The moderating effects of individualism/collectivism on the relationship between job characteristics (both complexity and autonomy) and cohesiveness are also tested. The sample consists of 381 teams drawn from the Hong Kong and U.S. branches of an international bank. The findings indicate that an increase in job complexity and/or task autonomy will increase group cohesiveness, which subsequently translates to better performance. The positive effects of job complexity and autonomy on group cohesiveness are also found to be more prominent for individualistic rather than collectivistic work groups. The theoretical implications of the results and the limitations of the study are also discussed. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Employee involvement is an organizational phenomenon that has received increasing empirical attention. Although much research has examined the outcomes of involvement at the organization level, arguments can be made for exploring involvement at the work-unit level and for investigating the processes by which a unit-level climate of involvement may be created or emerge. Building on largely untested suggestions that such processes are likely to be motivational and initiated by employees' immediate supervisors, this paper incorporates two concepts of managerial perceptions and leadership into a work-unit level model of involvement climate. In particular, this study examines the indirect association of managerial perceptions about subordinates' ability to perform and about the utility of organizational practices for facilitating performance, as well as the direct association of transformational leadership, with a climate of involvement. The association of involvement climate with citizenship, absenteeism, and voluntary turnover is also considered. Using structural equation modeling in a sample of 167 work units, results indicate that leadership fully mediates the relationship between managers' perceptions about their subordinates and climate. Further, climate partially mediates and fully mediates the relationship between leadership and citizenship, and absenteeism, respectively. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study examined antecedents and consequences of procedural justice climate (Mossholder, Bennett, & Martin, 1998; Naumann & Bennett, 2000) in a sample of manufacturing teams. The results showed that climate level (i.e., the average procedural justice perception within the team) was significantly related to both team performance and team absenteeism. Moreover, the effects of climate level were moderated by climate strength, such that the relationships were more beneficial in stronger climates. In addition, team size and team collectivism were significant antecedents of climate level, and team size and team demographic diversity predicted climate strength.
Article
Five common themes were derived from the literature on effective work groups, and then characteristics representing the themes were related to effectivness criteria. Themes included job design, interdependence, composition, context, and process. They contained 19 group characteristics which were assessed by employees and managers. Effectiveness criteria included productivity, employee satisfaction, and manager judgments. Data were collected from 391 employees, 70 managers, and archival records for 80 work groups in a financial organization. Results showed that all three effectiveness criteria were predicted by the characteristics, and nearly all characteristics predicted some of the effectiveness criteria. The job design and process themes were slightly more predictive than the interdependence, composition, and context themes. Implications for designing effective work groups were discussed, and a 54-item measure of the 19 characteristics was presented for future research.
Article
In this paper, we seek to account for modest and inconsistent empirical support for a positive relationship between team autonomy and team performance by proposing that team task uncertainty impacts on team performance and moderates the impact of increased autonomy. Task uncertainty is defined in terms of a team's lack of prior knowledge about which operational problems will arise when, and the best way of dealing with them. Results from a longitudinal field study of 17 wastewater treatment teams showed that higher levels of task uncertainty were initially associated with reduced performance, assessed in terms of the quality of treated effluent produced by the teams. An intervention designed to enhance team autonomy led to general improvements in team performance, though moderated by team task uncertainty. Under conditions of enhanced team autonomy, a positive relationship emerged between task uncertainty and team performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The hesitation dimension of action-state orientation refers to the behavioral capacity to start action on tasks. In this study, job characteristics (autonomy and routineness) and job attitudes (satisfaction and involvement) were examined as moderators of the relation between hesitation and supervisor ratings of work behaviors (overall job performance and self-management performance) in 2 different samples. In both samples, routineness moderated the hesitation and self-management performance relation such that individuals low in hesitation performed better than individuals high in hesitation when routineness was low, but no differences in performance were observed when routineness was high. In addition, job satisfaction and job involvement were significant moderators of the relation between hesitation and self-management performance, with individuals low in hesitation performing better than individuals high in hesitation when satisfaction or involvement was low, but no differences in performance were observed when satisfaction or involvement was high.
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that work team characteristics can be related to effectiveness (Campion, Medsker, & Higgs, 1993). This study provides a replication with professional knowledge worker jobs, different measures of effectiveness, and work units that varied in the degree to which members identified as a team. Data were collected from 357 employees, 93 managers, and archival records for 60 teams in a financial services organization. Team characteristics were measured with questionnaires completed by employees and managers. Effectiveness measures included immediate manager judgments at two points in time, senior and peer manager judgments, employee judgments, and archival records of employee satisfaction and performance appraisals. Results were similar to previous findings in that most team characteristics were related to most effectiveness criteria. Relationships were strongest for process characteristics, followed by job design, context, interdependence, and other characteristics. Further, work units higher on single-team identity were higher on many team characteristics and effectiveness measures.
Article
En raison du développement des équipes de travail dans les organisations, on souhaite obtenir des informations sur la meilleure façon de structurer les groupes pour les rendre efficients. Cette étude porte sur la relation de l’expérience de l’autonomie et du travail en équipe, des capacités et des compétences (KSAs) avec la performance du groupe et l’effort émanant de ses membres. Deux modèles ont été mis à l’épreuve à partir d’une recherche théorique et empirique continue. Des données provenant d’un échantillon de 41 équipes de production (174 participants) apportèrent des éléments en faveur du modèle de médiation selon lequel l’autonomie est associée à la perfomance et à l’effort par l’intermédiaire des KSAs. Le modèle alternatif de modération qui suppose que l’autonomie et les KSAs interagissent pour déboucher sur la performance et l’effort ne fut pas corroboré. Given the increasing use of work teams in organizations, interest exists in identifying the best ways to design teams so that they lead to positive outcomes. This study examined how team autonomy and teamwork knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) relate to team performance and member job strain. Based on extant empirical and theoretical work, two models were tested. findings from a sample of 41 production teams (174 team members) showed support for the mediation model—that autonomy is associated with performance and strain through teamwork KSAs. The alternative moderation model, suggesting that autonomy and teamwork KSAs interact in predicting performance and strain, was not supported.
Article
Redesigning jobs from a traditional workgroup structure to a semi-autonomous team structure has become increasingly popular, but the impact of such redesigns on employee effectiveness criteria has been mixed. The present longitudinal quasi-experimental study showed that although such a redesign had positive effects on 3 performance behaviors (effort, skill usage, and problem solving), its effectiveness also depended on aspects of the organizational context. In conditions where the organizational reward and feedback and information systems were effective, redesigning work into a semi-autonomous team structure had no discernible effect on performance behaviors. In conditions where these systems were poor, however, such a redesign produced large positive benefits. This suggests that work redesigns that enhance worker autonomy are most effective in contexts where other supportive management systems are absent.
Chapter
Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
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Methodological studies have materially altered thinking about the nature of absence variables. Because of this research, the research community is now aware that absence variables frequently follow irregular data distributions [J. Appl. Psychol. 66 (1981) 574; J. Appl. Psychol. 74 (1989) 300]. Researchers have also been made aware that the reliability of absence metrics depends on the way the measures are configured [Pers. Psychol. 24 (1971) 463; J. Appl. Psychol. 66 (1981) 574]. What has received less attention are research design decisions (i.e., procedural and operational) impacting the psychometric properties of absenteeism variables. The current discussion focuses on the operational and methodological decisions researchers make that impact the measurement properties of absence variables.
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This Special Issue is the result of the inaugural summit hosted by the Gallup Leadership Institute at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2004 on Authentic Leadership Development (ALD). We describe in this introduction to the special issue current thinking in this emerging field of research as well as questions and concerns. We begin by considering some of the environmental and organizational forces that may have triggered interest in describing and studying authentic leadership and its development. We then provide an overview of its contents, including the diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives presented, followed by a discussion of alternative conceptual foundations and definitions for the constructs of authenticity, authentic leaders, authentic leadership, and authentic leadership development. A detailed description of the components of authentic leadership theory is provided next. The similarities and defining features of authentic leadership theory in comparison to transformational, charismatic, servant and spiritual leadership perspectives are subsequently examined. We conclude by discussing the status of authentic leadership theory with respect to its purpose, construct definitions, historical foundations, consideration of context, relational/processual focus, attention to levels of analysis and temporality, along with a discussion of promising directions for future research.
Article
The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between job characteristics and absence over a 6-year period. Civilian employees from a large military organization participated. The results indicated that job characteristics continued to correlate significantly with a measure of absence frequency up to 6 years after the job characteristics had been assessed. The job characteristics measures also correlated significantly with a measure of time-lost absenteeism. Regression analyses revealed that job characteristics predicted absence frequency significantly over a 6-year period and time-lost absence for up to 4 years after job characteristics were assessed. The magnitudes of these relationships remained fairly constant across time. Results from regression analyses controlling for demographic variables indicated that job characteristics predicted time-lost and absence frequency for most years. Competence and need for achievement failed to moderate the job characteristics-absence relationships. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)