ArticlePDF Available

Using Ecological Theory to Guide Urban Planting Design: An adaptation strategy for climate change

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Global climate change threatens the structure and function of ecological communities in urban areas, including public and private gardens. An adaptation strategy was developed to accommodate the challenges of urban greenspace design under a changing climate. The strategy offers a protocol for planting design that focuses on adding resilience to plantings rather than matching specific plant species to specific predictions of climate change. The adaptation strategy begins by rating locally-appropriate plant species on ecological criteria for plasticity, functional redundancy, resource diversity and structural diversity. The plant palette is then developed within the confines set by ecological value and aesthetic goals, plus cultural and financial considerations. Collective application of the strategy at smaller scales across the urban landscape has the potential to protect and expand nature corridors that are resilient to climate change and to provide a low cost version of assisted migration. Examples of how to apply the adaptation strategy demonstrate that the approach is not specific to place or scale, and does not require extensive training or bring added expense. The benefits and manageable challenges of the strategy are discussed in relation to biodiversity conservation, economics, social impact, and the opportunity for “designed” experiments that examine urban ecosystem processes.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Landscape Journal 30:2–11 ISSN 0277-2426
© 2011 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System
persist any farther north than southern Ohio / northern
Kentucky in 1990 can now manage the winter cold of
southern Michigan. Beyond effects on individual spe-
cies, differential responses to climate change among
organisms can disrupt networks of community interac-
tions such as predation and pollination, critical compo-
nents of ecosystem health (Brooker et al. 2007; Gilman
et al. 2010).
The capacity of ecosystems to deliver services de-
nes their “health” from the perspective of human need
(Rapport 1998). Healthy ecosystem function depends on
interactions among species and their abiotic environ-
ment that may be compromised by the unpredictable
impacts of climate change (Parmesan 2006). Conse-
quently, there has been a call for the development of
adaptation strategies to buffer ecosystems against un-
certainty (Blanco et al. 2009; Pielke 1998). Adaptation
in this sense refers to “adjustments in individual, group,
and institutional behavior in order to reduce society’s
vulnerabilities to climate change, and thus reduce its
impacts” (Pielke 1998, 159).
Increasingly, researchers and professional practi-
tioners in urban planning and design are identifying and
applying methods to better protect urban ecosystem
services (Baschak and Brown 1995; Botequilha- Leitão
and Ahern 2002; Colding 2007; Li et al. 2005; Lovell and
Johnston 2009; Musacchio 2009; Tratalos et al. 2007;
Zhang et al. 2007). Gardens and managed greenspace
offer the chance to create urban habitats that provide
and enhance urban ecosystem structure, function,
and services. Planting design plays a signifi cant role in
stormwater management, biodiversity conservation,
and human health (Horwitz, Lindsay, and O’Connor
2001). Planting design for green space at any scale, from
front yards to city parks, supports human well being, re-
duces heat island effects, offers refuge for wildlife, and
provides the spatial habitat linkage that is needed for
the long term viability of plants, animals, and benefi cial
microbes (Pickett and Cadenasso 2008).
In urban environments, planting designers and
horticulturalists have begun to realize that protocols
for plant selection must be modifi ed to accommodate
ABSTRACT Global climate change threatens the structure and
function of ecological communities in urban areas, including
public and private gardens. An adaptation strategy was devel-
oped to accommodate the challenges of urban greenspace de-
sign under a changing climate. The strategy offers a protocol for
planting design that focuses on adding resilience to plantings
rather than matching specifi c plant species to specifi c predic-
tions of climate change. The adaptation strategy begins by rating
locally appropriate plant species on ecological criteria for plas-
ticity, functional redundancy, response diversity, and structural
diversity. The plant palette is then developed within the confi nes
set by ecological value and aesthetic goals, plus cultural and fi -
nancial considerations. Collective application of the strategy at
smaller scales across the urban landscape has the potential to
protect and expand nature corridors that are resilient to climate
change and to provide a low cost version of assisted migration.
Examples of how to apply the adaptation strategy demonstrate
that the approach is not specifi c to place or scale, and does not
require extensive training or bring added expense. The benefi ts
and manageable challenges of the strategy are discussed in rela-
tion to biodiversity conservation, social impact, the opportunity
for “designed” experiments that examine urban ecosystem pro-
cesses, and existing model forecasts for climate change.
KEYWORDS climate change adaptation, urban garden design,
biodiversity conservation, ecological resilience, translational
research, habitat connectivity, ecological urbanism, urban green
space, adaptive design, landscape architecture
INTRODUCTION
Ecosystem- level consequences of climate change are
now well documented. Measureable effects within cities
include warmer average temperatures and greater ex-
tremes in temperature and precipitation, both of which
contribute to changes in the timing of seasons (Hamlet
et al. 2007; IPCC 2007). Beyond the urban environment,
climate change has been associated with shifts in plant
and animal phenology (Parmesan and Yohe 2003; Visser
and Both 2005; Wilson et al. 2007) and in the geographic
distribution of plants and animals (Iverson and Prasad
1998; Parmesan 2006; Walther et al. 2009). The real-
ized impact is evident when comparing the geographic
position of US plant cold hardiness zones in 1990 and
2006 (Figure 1). For example, minimum winter lows in
southeastern Michigan have increased by 5.5°C chang-
ing its hardiness designation from Zone 5b to 6a over a
15- year period. This means that plants that could not
Emerging Landscapes
Using Ecological Theory to Guide Urban Planting Design:
An adaptation strategy for climate change
MaryCarol Hunter
174 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
siter 1996, aka MCR Hunter). As plasticity increases,
plant species can persist under a greater diversity of en-
vironmental conditions and are better able to manage
environmental fl uctuations (Charmantier et al. 2008;
Chown et al. 2007). Plasticity is expressed on multiple
axes including temperature, soil moisture, tolerance of
urban pollution, fl ood and drought, etc. For example,
both American mountain ash (Sorbus americana) and
Pin Cherry (Prunus pennsylvanica) are small trees that
are architecturally striking and offer beautiful colored
berries that are a good food source for birds. However,
American mountain ash has a geographic range that
includes plant hardiness zones 2 through 9 while Pin
Cherry has a much narrower and more northerly range,
confi ned to hardiness zones 2 through 6. Mountain Ash
is capable of thriving under a much wider range of cli-
matic conditions including very warm and very cold
winters. Hence, it has more overwinter temperature plas-
ticity than does Pin Cherry. Plant hardiness zone is also a
proxy for capacity to fare well under lengthened periods
of warm weather given its correlation with latitude.
Ecological Resilience
Ecological resilience is the ability of an ecosystem to
maintain function in the face of environmental dis-
turbance (Elmqvist et al. 2003). Ecosystem resilience
depends on the way that biodiversity is partitioned
relative to ecosystem function and emerges both from
functional redundancy—the number of species con-
tributing to an ecosystem function (Lawton and Brown
1993) and response diversity—the range of reaction
to environmental change among species contribut-
ing to the same ecosystem function (Elmqvist et al.
2003). The combination of functional redundancy and
response diversity acts as an insurance policy in the
face of uncertainty (Yachi and Loreau 1999) and both
are essential when designing for adaptation to cli-
mate change.
For example, consider a planting design with goals
that include support for generalist pollinators. It is not
enough to simply select a set of plant species that of-
fer nectar—the timing of nectar fl ow must provide re-
global warming and increasingly unpredictable weather
(Dehnen- Schmutz et al. 2010; Marris 2007; Primack and
Miller- Rushing 2009; Wolfe et al. 2004). However, most
adaptation strategies are focused on urban planning
solutions for sea level rise, heat island effects, health
impacts, and water treatment (Blanco et al. 2009).
Guidance on adaptation of urban plant communities
to global climate change remains limited. Most efforts
have focused on methods to assist migration of tree
species in forested landscapes (Aitken et al. 2008). For
urban plant communities, Hunter (2008) proposed
an adaptive strategy for managing aesthetic aspects
of plant selection to safeguard sense of place within a
changing ecological context. This paper builds on those
ideas and offers methods and examples of an adap-
tive strategy to buffer urban plant communities from
the impacts of climate change. The strategy focuses
on planting designs for urban gardens, the dominant
green infrastructure of cities, but can be extrapolated
to programs for larger scale landscape restoration and
assisted plant migration. The adaptive strategy trans-
lates aspects of ecological theory to practical guidelines
for planting design. Because the guidelines promote
greater biodiversity and ecosystem resilience, they also
offer a general roadmap for ecological planting design.
ECOLOGICAL, AESTHETIC, AND CULTURAL
COMPONENTS OF AN ADAPTIVE STRATEGY FOR
URBAN PLANTING DESIGN
Two ecological concepts are fundamental to the adap-
tation strategy proposed here: plasticity and resilience.
A third concept, structural diversity, is also a corner-
stone of good ecological design, whether or not it is in
response to climate change.
Plasticity
Plasticity describes how well species perform across a
range of environmental conditions. Although beyond
the scope of the current discussion, plasticity emerges
from interactions between genetic variation within spe-
cies and the phenotypic plasticity of individuals (Ros-
Hunter 175
being in part owing to its role in the construction of
place identity (Hull, Lam, and Vigo 1994). Some plant
species become signatures of place such as palm trees
in warm coastal areas or heather in the Scottish high-
lands. After identifying signature species, alternative
species with broader ecological tolerance but similar
aesthetic presence can be added to planting designs as
an adaptation to climate change (Hunter 2008). For ex-
ample, American Basswood is a native tree commonly
found in urban areas of SE Michigan. This species is
likely to disappear from southeastern Michigan under
several scenarios of climate change (Iverson and Prasad
1998). Its loss will change the sense of place and remove
its functional contribution to local urban ecosystem
processes. An aesthetic and ecological substitute exists
in White Basswood, a congeneric and more southerly
member of the same Central Hardwood forest com-
munity. An adaptive planting design would call for use
of both species to maintain sense of place and support
local ecosystem function throughout the transition
brought on by climate change.
Finally, any discussion of ecological design in the
urban environment must consider the use of non-
native species in planting designs, a subject of conten-
tion among designers and ecologists for practical and
ecological reasons (Gould 1997; Warren 2007). Com-
pelling arguments for the use of native species center
on the reliance of co- evolved community members for
healthy ecosystem function (Tallamy 2009). The bias
favoring introduced ornamental species in garden de-
sign has a longstanding tradition in cultures worldwide
and is related to place identity (for migrant peoples) and
the human desire for novelty (Horwitz, Lindsay, and
O’Connor 2001; Jarvis 1973; Kendle and Rose 2000).
Non- native species that become invasive can have
clear negative impacts on ecosystem structure and
function (Alberti 2005). However, current research on
the utility and harm of using non- native species in ur-
ban settings illustrates the complexity of prescribing a
balance between cultural and ecological goals (Bergerot
et al. 2010; Bjerknes et al. 2007; Burghardt, Tallamy, and
Shriver 2009; Calkins 2005; Daniels and Kirkpatrick 2006;
sources throughout the pollinator season (Hunter and
Hunter 2008). To achieve functional redundancy, the
plant palette must include species with overlapping
bloom times to ensure that there are multiple pollina-
tor resources at any given time. For response diversity,
plants providing pollinator resources must collectively
bring broad competence in the face of environmental
variation. For example, at a single point in the season,
there must be both drought tolerant and fl ood tolerant
plant species providing nectar rewards. The plant pal-
ette shown in Figure 2 provides multiple fl owering spe-
cies in each month of summer (functional redundancy
for pollinator support). Within a functional group (for
example, pollinator resources in July), there is compe-
tence for handling variation in soil moisture (response
diversity). If climate change favors some plant species
at the expense of others, there will still be nectar pro-
vided in each month throughout the pollinator season.
Structural Diversity
Structural diversity describes the spatial complexity
offered by plant form and is generally applied to a col-
lection of plants, rather than an individual. Diversity
of physical or architectural form within a collection of
plants produces structural diversity. Although struc-
tural diversity is not a direct casualty of climate change,
it ranks high in importance for healthy ecosystem struc-
ture. The physical form of trees, shrubs, and ground-
covers, some deciduous, some evergreen, determines
the availability of shelter and space for organisms to
nest, forage and reproduce throughout the year (God-
dard, Dougill, and Benton 2010). As plants are chosen
to increase plasticity, ensure functional redundancy,
and provide response diversity, they must also provide
diversity in architectural form because structural com-
plexity supports biodiversity (Hansen et al. 1991).
In the design fi elds, there are considerations be-
yond ecological function that demand adaptation strat-
egies for climate change. Chief among these, aesthetic
matching of signature species aims to protect sense of
place under circumstances of change (Hunter 2008).
The urban plant community supports human well
176 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
(USDA- NRCS 2011) was especially useful for data on
plant water requirements. Since adaptation strategies
for climate change must be tailored to local character-
istics (Blanco et al. 2009), the best information on phe-
nology often came from local or regional sources (for
example, Boland, Coit, and Hart 2002; Shaw et al. 2007)
and the Missouri Botanical Garden (2011). When these
sources failed, I drew a consensus from data published
by multiple sources including commercial horticulture
companies (for example, Monrovia 2011).
Coding plasticity characteristics. In addition to hor-
ticultural traits typically used by ecological plant de-
signers, I added plasticity characteristics. The plasticity
traits summarize the capacity of plant species to ac-
commodate variation in temperature, light, soil type,
soil moisture conditions, and bloom period (Table 1).
Based on the number of hardiness zones a species can
occupy, the temperature plasticity trait addresses the
ability of a species to withstand a range of temperatures
and seasonality. Values range from 1 to 8 where higher
values indicate greater plasticity. The soil moisture plas-
ticity trait is the sum of acceptable moisture categories
(dry, moist, and wet) for a given species; values range
from 1 to 3. Higher values indicate greater likelihood
that a species will persist under increased amplitude of
rainfall typical of climate change.
Several other plasticity traits were included in the
database to refl ect challenges faced in urban planting
design, in addition to those of climate change. For each
trait defi ned below, higher values indicate greater ca-
pacity for managing unpredictable variation in condi-
tions of the urban landscape. Light plasticity is the sum
of acceptable light conditions for a species (full sun =
6 or more hours of direct sunlight, partial shade = 2 6
hours, full shade = less than 2 hours); values range from
1 to 3. Light plasticity is valuable where climate change
impacts cloud cover and in settings where maturing
shade trees and development alter light availability. The
number of major soil types (clay, loam, and sand) ac-
ceptable to a plant species defi nes soil plasticity; values
range from 1 to 3. The relevance of soil plasticity comes
Heneghan and Hunter 2004; McKinney 2006; Tallamy
and Shropshire 2009), particularly in light of climate
change (Bardsley and Edwards- Jones 2007; Hahs et al.
2009). An adaptation strategy for climate change using
the ecological characteristics described above empha-
sizes the use of native plants, but allows incorporation
of popular non- invasive, non- native ornamental spe-
cies to achieve ecological goals and acknowledge socio-
cultural sensibilities.
METHODS
Assembly of a Plant Database to Enable Adaptive
Design
In brief, the adaptation strategy proposed here for the
design of urban plantings that are resilient to climate
change includes exploiting plasticity in the ecological
traits of plants, in concert with structurally diverse de-
sign that exhibits functional redundancy and response
diversity. Implementation requires a catalogue of horti-
cultural and plasticity traits for commercially available
plants that are appropriate for the region of interest.
Cataloging species in this way provides a structurally di-
verse palette for choosing plants to meet ecological, aes-
thetic, cultural, and fi nancial parameters of a project.
Coding species characteristics. To apply the adap-
tive strategy for planting design, I compiled a list of
plants suitable for urban areas in southeastern Michi-
gan. The majority of species were native to the region.
Some locally popular non- native species that are not
considered invasive (Brooklyn Botanic Garden 2006;
USDA- NISC 2010) and were readily available from
nurseries were included for reasons of practicality
and cost. Coding for each species involved character-
ization of aesthetic features, life history, and ecologi-
cal traits based on data corroborated across multiple
sources (Table 1). Data came from reference books
including Aniski (2008) for perennials, Dirr (1998) for
woody plants, Shaw et al. (2007) for stormwater man-
agement plants, and Darke (2007) for ornamental
grasses. The US Department of Agriculture’s website
Hunter 177
selfi ng reproduction) and its capacity to accommodate
unpredictable timing of pollinators and other fauna
that use its fl oral resources.
Development of Two Case Demonstrations of Urban
Planting Designs Illustrating Use of Climate Change
Adaptation Strategy
Two urban planting design case demonstrations illus-
trate use of the database (see Hunter 2009) in develop-
ing climate change adaptation strategies. The two case
from the reality that soil type is often unknown or the
planting beds are amended with commercial garden soil
mixes that be may unable to ameliorate poor drainage
or mitigate adverse effects of deeper soil layers. Conse-
quently, a high value for soil plasticity indicates greater
likelihood that a plant species will accommodate urban
soil. Bloom period plasticity is the sum of months dur-
ing which a species can produce fl owers; values range
from 1 to 5. Bloom period is a plasticity trait because it
describes the plant’s opportunity for outcrossing (non-
Table 1. List of plant traits for each species entry with effi cient coding conventions; emergent plasticity traits are preceded
by an asterisk.
Plant Type: 1 = tree, 2 = shrub, 3 = flowering herbaceous perennial, 4 = grass/rush/sedge, 5 = fern, 6 = vine, 7 = groundcover,
8 = annual
Botanical Name
Common Name
Persistence: 1 = deciduous, 2 = evergreen, 3 = facultative evergreen ( = semi-evergreen)
Nativity: 0 = not native to US, 1 = US native, 2 = Great Lakes native
Hardiness: USDA (1990) overwintering hardiness zone range; e.g., 4–9 or 4b-9a
*Temperature Plasticity: count number of overwintering hardiness zones
Light Type: F = full sun, PSh = partial shade, Sh = shade
*Light Plasticity: count number of acceptable light types; range = 1–3, least to most plastic
Light preference: notes; e.g., greater blooms in full sun; avoid afternoon sun
Soil Type (if known, preferred condition first): C = clay, L = loam, S = sand, SL = sandy-loam, SCL = sandy-clay-loam
*Soils Plasticity: count number of acceptable soil types; range = 1–3, least to most plastic
Soil pH: AC = acidic (<6.8); ALK = alkaline soil (>7.2); N = neutral (6.8–7.2); sl = slightly
Soil Moisture (if known, preferred condition first): D = dry, DM = dry to moist, MD = moist to dr y, M = moist, MW = moist to wet,
WM = wet to moist, W = wet, WMD = plant do well under all conditions
*Soil Moisture Plasticity: count number of acceptable soil moisture conditions; range = 1–3, least to most plastic
Details on soil moisture needs: preferences, e.g., can handle standing water
Drought Tolerance: 0 = no drought tolerance; 4 = yes; and 1 = low tolerance; 2 = medium tolerance, 3 = high tolerance
Salt Tolerance: ST = salt tolerant; SS = salt sensitive; undocumented for many species
Heat Tolerance: HT = heat tolerant; HS = heat sensitive; undocumented for many species
Typical Height: height range (feet)
Typical Height in bloom: height range (feet)
Typical Width: width range at widest point (feet)
Plant Form: C = columnar, CL = clumped, E = erect, H = horizontal, I = irregular, M = mounded, O = oval, P = prostrate,
Py = pyramidal, R = rounded, S = spreading
Plant Texture: F = fine, M = medium, C = coarse
Foliage Color: B = brown, BG = blue-green, Cr = cream, DG = dark green, G = bright green, Gr = Gray, GrG = Gray Green,
MG = medium green, O = olive, P = purple, PG = pale green, R = red, Si = silver , V = variegated, Y = yellow, YG = yellow-green
Fall Color: B = brown, Cr = cream, DG = dull green, G = green, M = maroon, O = orange, OG = olive, P = purple, R = red,
Sc = Scarlet, Y = yellow, YB = yellow-brown, YG = yellow-green
Bloom Time: Jn = January, F = February, Mr = March, A = April, My = May, Jn = June, Jl = July, Ag = August, S = September,
O = October, N = November, D = December
*Bloom Time Plasticity: count number of months when blooming occurs
Bloom Color: B = blue, Br = brown, Cr = Cream, i = inconspicuous, G = green, L = lavender, O = orange, p = pale, P = pink,
Pr = purple, R = red, Ro = rose, S = silver, W = white, Y = yellow
Fruit/Edible Type: C = cone, B = berry, F = fruit, S = seed
Fruit/Edible Type Color: B = blue, Br = brown, Cr = Cream, G = green, L = lavender, O = orange, P = pink, Pr = purple, R = red,
Ro = rose, S = silver, W = white, Y = yellow
Winter Form: A = architectural (e.g., interesting branching patterns), B = bark of interest, F = fruit thru winter, S = seed head
Wildlife Value: B = bee, Bd = bird, Bf = butterfly, D = deer, Ma = Mammal, Mi = mice, Sq = squirrel
Ecosystem Restorative Value: BT = bioremediation ability, EC = erosion control, NF = nitrogen fixer
Human Health Restorative Value: F = food, HM = herbal medicine, give details
178 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
RESULTS
The following discussions evaluate the two case dem-
onstrations using the criteria of temperature plasticity,
functional redundancy, response diversity, and struc-
tural diversity.
Temperature Plasticity
Plants chosen for both designs exhibit high tempera-
ture plasticity with overwintering hardiness spanning a
minimum of 5 zones and an average of 6.7 zones. For all
species but one, the most southerly acceptable growing
area is Florida—zones 9 to 10 (Table 2). Use of plants
with this type of plasticity serves as an adaptation strat-
egy for climate change because each species can per-
sist under temperatures typical of the recent past and
under the warmer temperatures predicted in Michigan
under climate change.
Functional Redundancy
In both designs, biodiversity is supported by the simul-
taneous fl owering of multiple plant species that pro-
vide butterfl y resources (nectar, pollen, and habitat)
throughout the summer (Figure 5). For Design A, the
period of functional redundancy lasts from July (three
species fl ower in unison) through August (three spe-
cies) and September (three species). By contrast, Design
B expresses greater functional redundancy beginning
in June (four species fl ower in unison) followed by July
(eight species), August (nine species), and Septem-
ber (eight species). Greater functional redundancy for
bird resources exists in Design B compared to Design
A, based on availability of food and year round habitat
from multiple sources (see “totals” for each design in
Figure 5).
Response Diversity
The occurrence of abnormally high rainfall over several
consecutive years is a likely outcome of climate change,
and it serves to illustrate the capacity of response diver-
sity to protect ecosystem function under a typical out-
come of climate change. Design B is better equipped to
demonstrations illustrate the consideration of ecologi-
cal goals within the context of other cultural and aes-
thetic design goals. Not every design can include all
components of the adaptation strategy but even lim-
ited application is a good starting point and valuable in
the context of a collective effort across neighborhoods
and cities.
The demonstrations described here involve a type
of space familiar to residents of American cities—the
easement area, the strip of land in front of a house, bor-
dered by the street on one side and the sidewalk on the
other. In addition to the adaptive ecological strategy,
there are additional design criteria typically established
by the client, local government, and designer. In the fol-
lowing example, developed for southeastern Michigan,
the accompanying criteria fall into several groups:
1. Aesthetic: generate a landscape form that is visually
engaging year round.
2. Cultural: select species for low- input management
that do not occupy space between about 1 and 2 m
from the ground to ensure a safety vision zone for
motorists.
3. Ecological: select species that are drought and salt
tolerant to accommodate lack of irrigation and
winter road salting practices, and that offer food and
shelter for butterfl ies and birds.
Selected species must also meet soil type and soil
pH conditions. Over the short term, it is unlikely that
soil pH would experience rapid shift from climate
change (see Brinkman and Sombroek 1996).
Presented below are two designs, which both ad-
dress all design criteria. Design A (Figure 3) includes six
plant species, is easier to install and maintain but does
not implement adaptation strategies and biodiversity
goals as fully as Design B (Figure 4). Design B includes
15 plant species—six from Design A plus nine new ones
(Table 2; complete trait data for these species in supple-
mental Table S1). A comparison of aesthetic presence
and the spatial location of resources also illustrated for
summer (Figure S1) and winter (Figure S2).
Hunter 179
Table 2. Plant list for Designs A and B with traits used for plasticity, functional redundancy, and response diversity; ID = iden-
tity in Figures 3 & 4.
Design
Design
Plan ID Common Name Botanical Name Hardiness
*Temp
Plasticity
Soil
Moisture
*Soil
Moisture
plasticity
Bloom
Time
A+B CB Coral Bells Heuchera americana
‘Ring of Fire’
4–9 6 MD 2 Jn–Ag
A+B GF Gayfeather Liatris spicata ‘Alba’ 3–8 6 MD 2 Jl–Ag
A+B PC Purple Coneflower Echinacea purpurea 3–10 8 DMW 3 Jl–S
A+B RJ Grey Owl Red Juniper Juniperus virginiana
‘Grey Owl’
3–9 7 DM 2 Mr
A+B SU Gro-Low Fragrant
Sumac
Rhus aromatica
‘Gro Low’
3–9 7 MD 2 A–My
A+B WO White Oak Quercus alba 3–9 7 DMW 3 My
B BS Black Eyed Susan Rudbeckia hir ta
‘Indian Summer’
3–7 5 MD 2 Jn–S
B BW Butterfly Weed Asclepias tuberosa 3–9 7 DM 2 Jn–Ag
B IB Indian Blanket Gaillardia aristata 3–10 8 DM 2 Jl–S
B IBB Indian Blanket-Bijou Gaillardia aristata ‘Bijou’ 3–8 6 DM 2 Jl–S
B MG Pink Muhly Grass Sporobolus capillaris /
Muhlenbergia
capillaris
5–9 5 DMW 3 Jl–S
B SA Stokes Aster Stokesia laevis
‘Blue Danube’
5–9 5 MD 2 Jn–S
B SG Switchgrass Panicum virgatum
‘Shenandoah’
3–9 7 DMW 3 Ag–S
B TC Threadleaf coreopsis Coreopsis ver ticillata
‘Moonbeam’
3–9 7 MD 2 Jn–S
B WC White Coneflower Echinacea purpurea 3–10 8 DMW 3 Jl–S
Figure 1. Shift in plant cold- hardiness
zones between 1990 and 2006. Color
coding relates minimum winter tem-
peratures in increments of 12.2°C
where minimum winter temperature for
Zone 5 = –23.4°C to –26.1°C and Zone
9 = –1.2°C to –3.8°C. (Reprinted from
National Arbor Day Foundation 2006;
updating based on data from 5,000
National Climatic Data Center coopera-
tive stations across the continental
United States)
provide pollinator and bird resources despite wet con-
ditions (see “totals” for each design in Figure 6). How-
ever, neither design will reliably provide resources for
pollinators from April through June. The iterative de-
sign process would proceed to add at least one pollina-
tor resource species that fl owers in each of these early
months, is able to grow in wet soils, and fulfi lls other
criteria for height, drought, and salt tolerance. For ex-
ample, Showy Evening Primrose (Oenothera speciosa)
fulfi lls these criteria during June. A general rule of thumb
for providing response diversity is to choose species at
the outset with the greatest soil moisture plasticity.
180 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
Figure 2. Graphical representations of functional redundancy and re-
sponse diversity for pollinator resources throughout the growing season
with greatest insurance of nectar in July. Bars indicate blooming period.
Moisture requirements range from D = dr y, to M = moist to W = wet soils.
Structural Diversity
Both designs fulfi ll criteria for structural diversity by in-
cluding the architectural form and collective complexity
of a tree, several shrubs, and herbaceous perennials. The
spatial complexity persists year round for both designs,
although Design B offers greater structural diversity
in winter with fi ve species compared to Design A with
three species. In summer, Design B has more structural
diversity owing to a greater range of architectural form
provided by seven additional fl owering perennial spe-
cies. Because all species fulfi ll criteria for temperature
plasticity, the reliability of each architectural contribu-
tion to habitat complexity is greater.
DISCUSSION
Implementation of an adaptation strategy that focuses
on fl exibility rather than accommodation of a specifi c
predicted outcome of climate change is more likely to
be successful (Hallegatte 2009). The adaptive strategy
for climate change presented here provides an approach
to planting design for building resilience of urban eco-
systems in the face of climate change and other distur-
bance, whether natural or anthropogenic. The strategy
emphasizes the creation of planting designs that pro-
vide functional redundancy, response diversity, and
structural diversity. It also emphasizes the inclusion
of plant species that exhibit plasticity, particularly in
response to temperature and rainfall variation. The
ecological framework for planting design can be ap-
plied equally well to new development or to “adaptive
retrofi ts of existing gardens. The adaptation strategy
can be used at many scales—from larger scale projects
such as planting plans for a regional park system or a
citywide pollinator support program, to smaller scale
designs for subdivisions, urban pocket parks, and small
resi den tial gardens.
Benefits and Challenges of the Proposed Strategy
Application of this strategy brings distinct benefi ts and
some manageable challenges described below:
Ecosystem health. Resilience in, or restoration of, even
one ecosystem service, like pollinator habitat, can have
multiplicative effects on ecosystem health owing to the
high degree of dependencies among ecosystem mem-
bers. The adaptation strategy for climate change serves
equally well as a prescription for ecological restoration
because it supports diversity and buffers urban ecosys-
tems from the effects of disturbance. Creating many
small gardens provides the benefi t of enhancing biodi-
versity and ecosystem function citywide or regionally
(Goddard, Dougill, and Benton 2010; Kendal, Williams,
and Williams 2010). With application of the adaptation
strategy to a collective of small spaces, there is poten-
tial to safeguard and enhance a network of urban linked
green space. Greening of cities creates links across
otherwise impermeable barriers to plant and animal
dispersal, thereby supporting both local and regional
environmental health (Angold et al. 2006; Arendt 2004;
Hunter and Hunter 2008; Oprea et al. 2009; Snep et al.
2006; Van Rossum and Triest 2010).
Collective application of the adaptation strategy
to many small gardens across a metropolis also has the
capacity to provide a low cost version of assisted migra-
tion. Assisted migration involves the manual relocation
of species by humans to portions of their expected,
expanded geographic range as predicted by climate
change models. The intervention is valuable because
natural dispersal may not occur with suffi cient speed or
frequency to keep organisms in suitable habitat. Argu-
ments against assisted migration, based on interference
with natural plant communities (McLachlan, Hellmann,
Hunter 181
Figure 3. Design A for support of birds and butterfl ies using 5 plant species. The illustrative plan view conveys the aesthetic intent and the dia-
grammatic plan view gives species identity (key to abbreviations in Table 2) and the number of individuals that occupy each delineated space. The
planting strip is approximately 30 m × 3 m.
and Schwartz 2007), may not be as relevant in urban
settings where ecosystem processes are already modi-
ed. For example, horticultural introduction of species
that can sustain urban conditions typically bypasses or
enhances their natural dispersal capacity. Horticultural
plantings in urban areas have already assisted plant
migration to more northerly reaches (Van der Veken
et al. 2008; Woodall et al. 2010). Therefore, urban areas
may be suitable locations to assess the value of assisted
migration using the adaptation strategy for planting
design. Implementation would require help from the
horticulture industry (Dehnen- Schmutz et al. 2010) and
cooperation from local nursery suppliers.
Biodiversity constraints. The extensive use of highly
plastic species can inadvertently result in lower biodi-
versity in several ways. First, as requirements for plas-
ticity on multiple traits increases, the list of potential
plant species drops. Second, as the use of highly plastic
species increases, there is a drop in the number of spe-
cies available to maintain ecosystem function across a
wide range of environmental variation. Consequently,
biodiversity is best served by choosing plant species
for a given ecosystem function that include a mixture
of highly plastic species and those that contribute to
response diversity by differing in their capacities to
withstand climate extremes. Program goals of a design
project can also result in lower biodiversity. For ex-
ample, site conditions required that all plants for De-
signs A and B are drought and salt tolerant. This caused
a signifi cant reduction in the list of potential plant spe-
cies to meet ecological and aesthetic goals. Compet-
ing demands call for pragmatism, greater creativity to
meet aesthetic goals, and ongoing expansion of the
plant database.
Aesthetic consideration. It is important to keep aes-
thetic goals in sharp focus if an ecological planting
design is to be culturally accepted and supported (in
other words, sustainable) over the long term (Hunter
2006; Nassauer 1995; Parsons and Daniel 2002). The
adaptive strategy presented here allows aesthetic and
ecological considerations to remain on equal footing.
The approach does not require a modifi cation of the
creative design process, leaving a designer free to create
spatial form, color and texture palettes, and a tempo-
ral sequence of sensory experience. However, the de-
signer must be willing to put more consideration into
the choice of plant species in order to fulfi ll eco lo gi-
cal criteria.
182 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
understanding of urban ecosystem processes and per-
formance. Implementation of the strategy will pro-
duce experimental plots in the form of garden spaces
to test hypotheses about urban landscape ecological
processes at multiple spatial scales. Collaboration be-
tween designers and ecologists would constitute an
example of “designed experiments” (Felson and Pick-
ett 2005), wherein designers create a product that bal-
ances ecological, aesthetic, and urban functional goals
and is amenable to criteria for hypothesis testing as set
forth by scientists. “Designed experiments” aim to bal-
ance realistic complexity with experimental control.
This is an ideal approach for evaluating the ability of
the adaptation strategy presented here to support resil-
ience of ecosystems impacted by climate change. Post-
occupancy evaluation, a method used by designers and
permitting agencies to evaluate the success of installed
designs, could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of
implementing the climate change adapted planting
design strategy. Collection of scientifi c data will enable
evaluation of hypotheses about the success of the adap-
tation strategy relative to ecological and management
Long term management. Unlike buildings, plants
grow. Consequently, a planting design should include
a management plan to guide future form and function
(Koningen 2004). The potential of climate change to
adjust plant performance makes the provision of man-
agement more critical. Written documentation should
include directives on how to replace a plant species that
does poorly, how to control a plant that begins to out-
compete companion species, and how to add new plant
species as the needs of other ecosystem members (for
example, pollinators, people) become known.
Research Collaboration between Designers and
Ecologists
The work presented here is an example of translational
research, wherein solutions for complex environmen-
tal problems come from connecting scientifi c theory,
concepts, and principles to the design and planning
of the built environment (Musacchio 2008; Hunter
and Hunter 2008). The adaptation strategy for plant-
ing design under climate change offers a foundation
for collaborative work with ecologists to expand our
Figure 4. Design B for support of birds and butterfl ies using 15 plant species including 2 cultivars of same species. The illustrative plan view con-
veys the aesthetic intent and the diagrammatic plan view gives species identity (key to abbreviations in Table 2) and the number of individuals that
occupy each delineated space. The planting strip is approximately 30 m × 3 m.
Hunter 183
these models exhibit greater uncertainty as variables
related to soil moisture, such as precipitation, cloud
cover, and wind are included (Crimmins et al. 2011;
Troccoli 2010) and as the geographic scale for predic-
tion becomes fi ner (Praskievicz and Chang 2009).
One approach for understanding the nature of fu-
ture climates at fi ner geographic scales (like a state or
city) is to fi nd a climate analog, a present day geographic
location whose weather matches that of the projected
weather patterns in the place of interest. For example,
climate projections were used to identify climate ana-
logs for the states of Michigan and Illinois (Hayhoe et al.
2010). The results show that under a low greenhouse gas
emissions scenario, weather in southeastern Michigan
will be like that of present- day s outhern Ohio in the
near future (2010 to 2039), like that of West Virginia by
goals, the success of biodiversity enhancement in sup-
port of ecosystem functions (like pollination), the ca-
pacity of small linked gardens to serve as vital corridors
for the natural community, etc. Collaborative effort will
reduce the burden of data collection. Adaptive collab-
orative landscape management (Duff et al. 2009) and
citizen science (Bonney et al. 2009) offer approaches for
engaging other user groups and the public at large in
scientifi c data collection.
Prescribing Adaptation Strategies for Uncertain
Climate Projections
Models that predict the impact of climate change on
global weather patterns provide an enormously useful
premise for mitigation and adaptation planning (Kling
et al. 2005; Wilby et al. 2009). However, predictions from
Figure 5. Seasonal resource and
aesthetic presence chart for species
in Designs A and B. Bloom time and
ower color are shown for butterfl y
resources; fl ower and fruit / seed color
and availability are shown for bird
resources. Totals indicate the number
of species / varieties contributing to
functional redundancy in resource
provisioning by month (pollinators) or
season (birds).
184 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
be able to customize plant lists based on projected cli-
mate scenarios and knowledge of current microclimatic
relationships with the land. Third, as forecasting models
are improved and predictions modifi ed, the constitu-
tion of the protective plant palette must be reevaluated.
While the reliability and local specifi city of forecasting
models improve, planting designers and city planners
need immediate guidance in how to plan for ecosystem
resilience in the face of uncertainty about the local im-
pact of climate change. For these reasons, it is effi cient
to use plant overwinter hardiness as the starting point
for selecting an adaptive plant palette. Hardiness data
is universally available and easy to interpret by both ex-
pert and layman.
Despite the perils of using climate predictions
to develop adaptation strategies, countries and com-
munities are developing place- specifi c strategies. For
mid- century, and like that of Tennessee by the end of
the century. Under a high emissions scenario, the cli-
mate analogs are even further south and west. These
predictions provide additional criteria for creating
adaptive plant palettes. For example, a climate adapta-
tion plant list for southeastern Michigan could include
native species that are currently successful in urban
areas of southern Ohio.
This approach to adaptation while promising has
several limitations. First, the application of model pre-
dictions can be used only where downscaled climate
projections are available. Second, the simulation mod-
els, even with downscaling, are insensitive to the impact
of topography and land cover on microclimate at any
given location (Praskievicz and Chang 2009). Since skill-
ful planting designers always account for microclimate
during plant choice, it is conceivable that designers will
Figure 6. Evaluation of response diver-
sity in Designs A and B for year(s) of ab-
normally high rainfall. Shaded squares
indicate the species able to provide
ecosystem services owing to their
ability to sustain themselves through
extended periods with wet soil. Empty
boxes indicate lost ecosystem function
for species that cannot function when
soils remain wet. Soil moisture capacity
for D = dr y, M = moist, W = wet soils.
Hunter 185
Projections emerged from coupled atmosphere- ocean
general circulation models (AOGCM) to which statis-
tical downscaling was applied to capture the nuances
of regional- scale change. Descriptions of a few of their
results show how climate change projections might be
used in the development of plant palettes that offer
protection for urban ecosystems in southeast Michigan.
For the near future (2010 to 2039), simulation models
predict that average winter and summer temperatures
in southeastern Michigan will be 2°C warmer com-
pared to average temperatures from 1961 to 1990. Over
this time frame, precipitation is projected to increase 5
to 10 percent (spring) and 0 to 5 percent (summer). In
combination with warmer temperatures, the net effect
will be drier summer weather.
example, policy makers and citizens from the City of
Chicago developed an elegant climate change action
plan based on feasibility and cost / benefi t ratio over the
short and long term (Coffee et al. 2010). At least a half
dozen of the adaptation actions require careful choice of
plant species if they are to be successful. These include
city tree planting, development of a performance- based
landscape ordinance and a single- lot storm ordinance,
green alley design, updating of a recommended plant
list, and urban forest and wetland management plans.
The adaptation strategy for plant selection presented in
this paper offers guidance to help meet these goals.
Such visioning still leaves the problem of what fu-
ture to design for. For the Great Lakes region there are
climate projections at three future time periods and
under two emissions scenarios (Hayhoe et al. 2010).
Figure S1. Summer comparison of aesthetic presence and spatial location of butterfl y and bird resources between Design A (above) and Design B
(below).
186 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
futures (for example, increased summer fl ooding),
plant selection can be adjusted accordingly within the
framework of local predictions and in light of the gen-
eral goals of the adaptation strategy.
As an antidote to the imprecision of climate change
projections, adaptation strategies should be designed
with built- in fl exibility features for managed ecosys-
tems that combine multiple options for enhancing eco-
system resistance, resilience, and response capacity to
changing conditions (Millar, Stephenson, and Stephens
2007). The adaptation strategy for urban planting de-
sign embraces all of these goals. Resistance (forestall-
ing the undesired effects of change) is facilitated by
designing gardens with season- long diversity in polli-
nator resources with the collective capacity to protect
These specifi c predictions suggest that an adaptive
plant palette for southeast Michigan should be biased
toward species that have greater capacity for spring
ooding yet higher drought tolerance. Demonstrations
of how to apply the urban planting adaptation strategy
presented earlier show how to plan for this forecast. The
selected plant palette shown in Table 2 will produce a
garden able to handle drier summer weather (owing to
the criterion for drought resistant species) and wetter
springs (owing to high plasticity for moisture availabil-
ity). Moreover, species plasticity will buffer the garden
from greater year round extreme temperature and rain-
fall events, the types of fl uctuation that accompany the
more gradual shift in average climate parameters (CCSP
2008). For geographic areas with different projected
Figure S2. Winter comparison of aesthetic presence and spatial location of butterfl y and bird resources between Design A (above) and Design B
(below).
Hunter 187
Table S1. Complete trait data for plants used on Designs A and B in spreadsheet format, ready for sor ting
Plant type
Common Name
Botanical Name
Persistence
Nativity
Hardiness
*Temp Plasticity
Light Type
*Light Plasticity
Light preference
Soil Type
*Soils Plasticity
Soil pH
Soil Moisture
*Soil Moisture plasticity
Details on soil moisture
needs
*Drought tolerance
*Salt tolerance
3 Butter fly
Weed
Asclepias
tuberosa
1 2 3–9 7 F–PSh 2 L,S,C 3 AC DM 2 Does well
in poor,
dry soils
4ST
3 Threadleaf
coreopsis
Coreopsis
verticillata
‘Moonbeam’
1 1 3–9 7 F 1 full sun S,L 2 AC MD 2 Thrives in
poor soil
w/ good
drainage
4ST
3 Purple
Coneflower
Echinacea
purpurea
1 2 3–10 8 F 1 best in
full sun
L,S 2 ALK DMW 3 Tolerates
poor soil
4ST
3 Indian
Blanket
Gaillardia
aristata
1 1 3–10 8 F 1 full sun S,L 2 AC DM 2 Prefers
well-
drained
soils
4ST
3 Indian
Blanket-
Bijou
Gaillardia
aristata
‘Bijou’
1 1 3–8 6 F 1 full sun S,L 2 AC DM 2 Prefers
well-
drained
soils
4ST
3 Rock
Geranium
Heuchera
americana
‘Ring of Fire’
1 2 4–9 6 F–PSh 2 prefers
afternoon
shade
L,S 2 Neutral MD 2 medium
moisture,
well-
drained
4ST
2 Grey Owl
Red Juniper
Juniperus
virginiana
‘Grey Owl’
2 2 3–9 7 F–PSh 2 L,S,C 3 sl
AC- ALK
DM 2 Intolerant
of wet
soils
4ST
3 Blazing Star Liatris
spicata ‘Alba’
1 2 3–8 6 F 1 L 1 Neutral MD 2 Intolerant
of wet
soils in
winter
4ST
4 Switchgrass Panicum
virgatum
‘Shenandoah’
1 2 5–9 5 F 1 slumps
in shade
L,S,C 3 Neutral DMW 3 Flops in
rich soils,
prefers
moist
2ST
1 White Oak Quercus alba 1 2 3–9 7 F–PSh 2 full sun L,S,C 3 AC DMW 3 Prefers
moist,
acidic soil
4ST
2 Gro-Low
Fragrant
Sumac
Rhus
aromatica
‘Gro Low’
1 2 3–9 7 F–PSh 2 L,S,C 3 sl AC-
Neutral
MD 2 Not
tolerant
of poor
drainage
4ST
3 Black Eyed
Susan
Rudbeckia
hirta ‘Indian
Summer’
1 2 3–7 5 F 1 L,S 2 Neutral MD 2 Best in
moist but
not wet
soils
2ST
4 Pink Muhly
Grass
Sporobolus
capillaris /
Muhlenbergia
capillaris
1 1 5–9 5 F 1 L,S,C 3 Neutral-
ALK
DMW 3 Tolerates
poorly
drained
soils
4ST
3 Stokes
Aster
Stokesia
laevis ‘Blue
Danube’
1 1 5–9 5 F–PSh 2 S,L 2 AC MD 2 Prefers
well-
drained
soils
4ST
188 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
Table S1 (cont.). Complete trait data for plants used on Designs A and B in spreadsheet format, ready for sorting
Common Name
*Heat tolerance
Typical Height
Typical Width
Plant Form
Plant Texture
Foliage Color
Fall Color
Bloom Time
* Bloom Plasticity
Bloom Color
Fruit Type
Fruit Color
Winter Form
Wildlife Value
Notes
Butterfly
Weed
1–2.51–1.5E M, C MG Jn–Ag 3 Y, O G Bf architectural
pods in fall
Threadleaf
coreopsis
HT 1.5–21.5–2M F MG Jn–S 4 Y Bf adundant pale
yellow flowers,
needle-like
foliage
Purple
Coneflower
2–51.5–2E M DG Jl–S 3 P-Pr S Bd, Bf many cultivars
with great
petal-cone color
combos
Indian
Blanket
HT 2–32E–CL M GrG Jl–S 3 R B, Bd,
Bf
forms dense
clumps; bright
red petals with
yellow tips
Indian
Blanket-
Bijou
HT 11E–CL M GrG Jl–S 3 R+O B, Bd,
Bf
forms dense
clumps; dwarf;
orange-red
petals with
yellow tips
Rock
Geranium
1–21E–CL M BG–Si Jn–Ag 3 pP Bf pale pink bloom
on airy stems;
silvery leaf
-bright coral
edge in fall
Grey Owl
Red Juniper
2–34–6S M GrG–Si Mr 1 i F B-G A Bd, Ma silvery green,
fragrant foliage
gives texture,
showy bark
Blazing Star HT 2–42E F MG Jl–Ag 2 W Bd, Bf flowers as
feathery
spikes, grass-
like foliage on
upright stems
Switchgrass 3–62–3E–CL F MG–P O, R, Y Ag–S 2 P A,
S
Bd, Ma lovely winter
form
White Oak 50–8050–80Py C BG R My 1 i S Br A,
B
Bd, Ma handsome
brown acorns,
architectural
form
Gro-Low
Fragrant
Sumac
1.5–26–8R, S M MG O, R A–My 2 i F R F Bd, Bf
Black Eyed
Susan
2–31–3E M MG,
DG
Jn–S 4 Y S B, Bd,
Bf
Pink Muhly
Grass
HT 2–32–3E–CL F MG O, B Jl–S 3 P A,
S
Bd, Ma
Stokes
Aster
HT 1–21.5–2M F DG Jn–S 4 B Bf
Hunter 189
effectiveness. Climate change is not waiting, so neither
should we.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Research was supported with a grant from the US Forest Service
and University of Michigans School of Natural Resources and
Environment. Sara Turner, Allison Krueger, Cara Kappler, Brooke
Nanna, and Miranda Mumford assisted with database devel-
opment. Lauren De Silva illustrated the planting designs.
REFERENCES
Aitken, Sally N., Sam Yeaman, Jason A. Holliday, Tongli Wang,
Sierra Curtis- McLane. 2008. Adaptation, migration or ex-
tirpation: climate change outcomes for tree populations.
Evolutionary Applications 1 (1): 95–111
Alberti, Marina. 2005. The effects of urban patterns on ecosystem
function. International Regional Science Review 28 (2):
168–192.
Angold, Penny, Jon P. Sadler, Mark O. Hill, Andrew Pullin, Ste-
ven Rushton, K. Austin, Emma Small, B. Wood, Richard
Wadsworth, Roy Sanderson, and Ken Thompson. 2006.
Biodiversity in urban habitat patches. Science of the Total
Environment 360 (1–3): 196–204.
Aniski, Tomasz. 2008. When Perennials Bloom: An Almanac for
Planning and Planting. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Arendt, Randall. 2004. Linked landscapes: Creating greenway cor-
ridors through conservation subdivision design strategies
in the northeastern and central United States. Landscape
and Urban Planning 68 (2–3): 241–269.
Bardsley, Douglas, and Gareth Edwards- Jones. 2007. Invasive spe-
cies policy and climate change: social perceptions of en-
vironmental change in the Mediterranean. Environmental
Science and Policy 10 (3): 230–242.
Baschak, Lawrence A., and Robert D. Brown. 1995. An ecological
framework for the planning, design, and management of
urban river greenways. Landscape and Urban Planning 33
(1–3): 211–225.
Bergerot, Benjamin, Benoit Fontaine, Mathilde Renard, Antoine
Cadi, and Romain Julliard. 2010. Preferences for exotic
owers do not promote urban life in butterfl ies. Landscape
and Urban Planning 96 (2): 98–107.
Bjerknes, Anne- Line, Ørjan Totland, Stein Joar Hegland, and An-
ders Nielsen. 2007. Do alien plant invasions really affect
pollination success in native plant species? Biological Con-
servation 138 (1–2): 1–12.
ecosystem function. Resilience (supporting the ability
of an urban ecosystem to return to a desired state after
disturbance) is facilitated by using plants that exhibit
high phenotypic plasticity and can withstand fl uctua-
tions in temperature and moisture. Response capacity
(accommodating rather than resisting change thereby
supporting the ecosystem in its transition to new con-
ditions) is facilitated by populating gardens with native
species that also do well in warmer climates, based on
winter hardiness ratings.
The adaptation strategy for planting design pro-
duces several opportunities for climate change miti-
gation. As planting strategy implementation increases
across a city, the likelihood of producing functional ur-
ban habitat corridors increases because the repetition
of appropriately composed gardens across an urban
area better supports the migration of plants and ani-
mals (Doody et al. 2010; Goddard, Dougill, and Benton
2010). Planting designs that substitute trees and fl ower-
ing shrubs in lieu of herbaceous perennials will increase
carbon sequestration, and the transformation of lawns
to low- input native species gardens will reduce green-
house gas- emissions. Finally, the adaptation strategy
for urban planting design is in line with “no regret” op-
tions, adaptation tactics that deliver benefi ts greater
than their costs, regardless of the extent of future cli-
mate change (Heltberg, Siegel, and Jorgensen 2009).
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Adaptive strategies for climate change that include re-
sistance, resilience, and facilitation actions offer a pro-
ductive method to protect biodiversity during climate
change (Galatowitsch, Frelich, and Phillips- Mao 2009).
The strategy delineated here directly addresses two of
these three recommendations. Resistance is indirectly
addressed because this type of ecological planting de-
sign is a proxy for ecological restoration. The adapta-
tion strategy is also practical, for it requires no policy
change, no bureaucratic support, is relatively inexpen-
sive, and affords a low- cost approach to research on its
190 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
Charmantier, Anne, Robin McCleery, Lional R. Cole, Chris Per-
rins, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, and Ben C. Sheldon. 2008. Adap-
tive phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change in
a wild bird population. Science 320 (5877): 800–803.
Chown, Steven, Sarette Slabber, Melodie A. McGeoch, Charlene
Janion, and Hans Petter Leinaas. 2007. Phenotypic plastic-
ity mediates climate change responses among invasive
and indigenous arthropods. Proceedings of the Royal Soci-
ety B: Biological Sciences 274 (1625): 2531–537.
Coffee, Joyce E., Julia Parzen, Mark Wagstaff, and Richard S.
Lewis. 2010. Preparing for a changing climate: The Chi-
cago climate action plan’s adaptation strategy. Journal of
Great Lakes Research 36 (Supplement 2, Special Issue SI):
115–117.
Colding, Johan. 2007. Ecological land- use complementation for
building resilience in urban ecosystems. Landscape and
Urban Planning 81 (1–2): 46–55.
Crimmins, Shawn M., Solomon Z. Dobrowski, Jonathan A. Green-
berg, John T. Abatzoglou, and Alison R. Mynsberge. 2011.
Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts
in plant species’ optimum elevations. Science 331 (6015):
324–327.
Daniels, Grant, and Jamie Kirkpatrick. 2006. Does variation in
garden characteristics infl uence the conservation of birds
in suburbia? Biological Conservation 133 (3): 326–335.
Darke, Richard. 2007. Encyclopedia of Ornamental Grasses for Liv-
able Landscapes. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Dehnen- Schmutz, Katharina, Ottmar Holdenrieder, Michael
Jeger, and Marco Pautasso. 2010. Structural change in the
international horticultural industry: Some implications for
plant health. Scientia Horticulturae 125 (1): 1–15.
Dirr, Michael. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants: Their
Identifi cation, Ornamental Characteristics, Culture, Propa-
gation, and Uses, 5th ed. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing.
Doody, Brendan J., Jon J. Sullivan, Colin D. Meurk, Glenn H.
Stewart, and Harvey C. Perkins. 2010. Urban realities: the
contribution of residential gardens to the conservation of
urban forest remnants. Biodiversity and Conservation 19
(5): 1385–1400.
Duff, Gordon, David Garnett, Peter Jacklyn, Jill Landsberg, John
Ludwig, Joe Morrison, Paul Novelly, Dan Walker, and Peter
Whitehead. 2009. A collaborative design to adaptively
manage for landscape sustainability in north Australia:
Lessons from a decade of cooperative research. Landscape
Ecology 24 (8): 1135–1143.
Blanco, Hilda, Marina Alberti, Ann Forsyth, Kevin Krizek, Dan-
iel A. Rodriguez, Emily Talen, and Cliff Ellis. 2009. Hot,
congested, crowded, and diverse: Emerging research agen-
das in planning. Progress in Planning 71 (4): 153–205.
Boland, Timothy, Laura Coit, and Marty Hart. 2002. Michigan
Gardener’s Guide, 2nd ed. Nashville, TN: Cool Springs
Press.
Bonney, Rick, Caren Cooper, Janis Dickinson, Steve Kelling, Tina
Phillips, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, and Jennifer Shirk. 2009.
Citizen science: A developing tool for expanding sci-
ence knowledge and scientifi c literacy. Bioscience 59 (11):
977–984.
Botequilha- Leitão, André, and Jack Ahern. 2002. Applying land-
scape ecological concepts and metrics in sustainable
landscape planning. Landscape and Urban Planning 59
(2): 65–93.
Brinkman, Robert, and Wim Sombroek. 1996. The effects of
global change on soil conditions in relation to plant
growth and food production. In Global Climate Change
and Agricultural Production: Direct and Indirect Effects of
Changing Hydrological, Pedological, and Plant Physiologi-
cal Processes, ed. Fakhri Bazzaz and Wim Sombroek, 49–64.
New York: John Wiley and Sons and The Food and Agricul-
ture Organization of the United Nations.
Brooker, Rob W., Justin M. J. Travis, Ewen J. Clark, and Calvin
Dytham. 2007. Modelling species’ range shifts in a chang-
ing climate: The impacts of biotic interactions, dispersal
distance, and the rate of climate change. Journal of Theo-
retical Biology 245 (1): 59–65.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 2006. Native Alternatives to Invasive
Plants, Handbook #185. New York: Brooklyn Botanic
Garden.
Burghardt, Karin, Douglas Tallamy, and W. Gregory Shriver. 2009.
Impact of native plants on bird and butterfl y biodiversity
in suburban landscapes. Conservation Biology 23 (1):
219–224.
Calkins, Meg. 2005. Strategy use and challenges of ecological
design in landscape architecture. Landscape and Urban
Planning 73 (1): 29–48.
CCSP. 2008. Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Cli-
mate. Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Carib-
bean, and U.S. Pacifi c Islands. A Report by the U.S. Climate
Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global
Change Research, ed. Thomas R. Karl, Gerald A. Meehl,
Christopher Miller, Susan J. Hassol, Anne M. Waple and
William L. Murray. Washington DC: US Department of
Commerce, NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center.
Hunter 191
Heltberg, Rasmus, Paul B. Siegel, and Steen L. Jorgensen. 2009.
Addressing human vulnerability to climate change: Toward
a ‘no- regrets’ approach. Global Environmental Change-
Human and Policy Dimensions 19 (1): 89–99.
Heneghan, Liam, and Mary Carol Hunter. 2004. Biodiversity. In
Landscaping with Native Plants: Exploring the Environ-
mental, Social, and Economic Benefi ts Conference. Chicago,
IL. http: // www.epa.gov / greenacres / conf12_04 / conf_
knwldge.html [August 2010].
Horwitz, Pierre, Michael Lindsay, and Moira O’Connor. 2001.
Biodiversity, endemism, sense of place, and public health:
Inter- relationships for Australian inland aquatic systems.
Ecosystem Health 7 (4): 253–265.
Hull, R. Bruce, Mark Lam, and Gabriela Vigo. 1994. Place identity:
Symbols of self and the urban fabric. Landscape and Ur-
ban Planning 28 (2–3): 109–120.
Hunter, MaryCarol R. 2008. Managing Sense of Place in Transi-
tion: Coping with Climate Change. Places 20 (2): 20–25.
Hunter, MaryCarol R., and Mark D. Hunter. 2008. Designing for
conservation of insects in the built environment. Insect
Conservation and Diversity 1 (4): 189–196.
Hunter, MaryCarol. 2006. Ecological Community Restoration In
Landscape Architectural Graphics Standards; Professional
Edition, ed. L. J. Hopper, 792–798. New York: John Wiley
and Sons.
Hunter, MaryCarol. 2009. Nature for Cities. http:// natureforcities
.snre.umich.edu / nature- in- the- city / urban- biodiversity- in
- your- yard / [August 2010].
IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment
Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Iverson, Louis R., and Anantha M. Prasad. 1998. Predicting abun-
dance of 80 tree species following climate change in the East-
ern United States. Ecological Monographs 68 (4): 465–485.
Jarvis, Peter J. 1973. North American plants and horticultural in-
novation in England, 1550–1700. Geographical Review 63
(4): 477–499.
Kendal, David, Nicholas S. G. Williams, and Kathryn J. H. Wil-
liams. 2010. Harnessing diversity in gardens through indi-
vidual decision makers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25
(4): 201–202.
Kendle, Anthony D., and Juliet E. Rose. 2000. The aliens have
landed! What are the justifi cations for ‘native only’ policies
in landscape plantings? Landscape and Urban Planning 47
(1–2): 19–31.
Elmqvist, Thomas, Carl Folke, Magnus Nystrom, Garry Peterson,
Jan Bengtsson, Brian Walker, and Jon Norberg. 2003. Re-
sponse diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience. Fron-
tiers in Ecology and the Environment 1 (9): 488–494.
Felson, Alex J., and Steward T.A. Pickett. 2005. Designed experi-
ments: New approaches to studying urban ecosystems.
Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 3 (10): 549–556.
Galatowitsch, Susan, Lee Frelich, and Laura Phillips- Mao. 2009.
Regional climate change adaptation strategies for biodi-
versity conservation in a midcontinental region of North
America. Biological Conservation 142 (10): 2012–2022.
Gilman, Sarah E., Mark C. Urban, Joshua Tewksbury, George W.
Gilchrist, and Robert D. Holt. 2010. A framework for com-
munity interactions under climate change. Trends in Ecol-
ogy and Evolution 25 (6): 325–331.
Goddard, Mark A., Andrew J. Dougill, and Tim G. Benton. 2010.
Scaling up from gardens: Biodiversity conservation in ur-
ban environments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25 (2):
90–98.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1997. An evolutionary perspective on
strengths, fallacies, and confusions in the concept of na-
tive plants. In Nature and Ideology: Nature and Garden
Design in the Twentieth Century, ed. Joachim Wolschke-
Bulmahn, 11–19. Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks.
Hahs, Amy K., Mark J. McDonnell, Michael A. McCarthy, Peter
A. Vesk, Richard T. Corlett, Briony A. Norton, Steven E.
Clemants, Richard P. Duncan, Ken Thompson, Mark W.
Schwartz, and Nicholas S. G. Williams. 2009. A global syn-
thesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas. Ecology Let-
ters 12 (11): 1165–1173.
Hallegatte, Stèphane. 2009. Strategies to adapt to an uncertain
climate change. Global Environmental Change- Human
and Policy Dimensions 19 (2): 240–247.
Hamlet, Alan F., Philip W. Mote, Martyn P. Clark, and Dennis P.
Lettenmaier. 2007. Twentieth- century trends in runoff,
evapotranspiration, and soil moisture in the Western
United States. Journal of Climate 20 (8): 1468–1486.
Hansen, Andrew J., Thomas A. Spies, Frederick J. Swanson, and
Janet L. Ohmann. 1991. Conserving biodiversity in man-
aged forests—Lessons from natural forests. Bioscience 41
(6): 382–92.
Hayhoe, Katharine, Jeff VanDorn, Thomas Croley II, Nicole Schle-
gal, and Donald Wuebbles. 2010. Regional climate change
projections for Chicago and the US Great Lakes. Journal
of Great Lakes Research 36 (Supplement 2, Special Issue
SI): 7–21.
192 Landscape Journal 30:2–11
Musacchio, Laura R. 2009. The scientifi c basis for the design of
landscape sustainability: A conceptual framework for
translational landscape research and practice of designed
landscapes and the six Es of landscape sustainability.
Landscape Ecology 24 (8): 993–1013.
Nassauer, Joan. 1995. Messy ecosystems, orderly frames. Land-
scape Journal 14 (2): 161–170.
Oprea, Monik, Poliona Mendes, Thiago B. Vieira, and Albert D.
Ditchfi eld. 2009. Do wooded streets provide connectivity
for bats in an urban landscape? Biodiversity and Conserva-
tion 18 (9): 2361–2371.
Parmesan, Camille. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses
to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolu-
tion, and Systematics 37 (1): 637–669.
Parmesan, Camille, and Gary Yohe. 2003. A globally coherent
nger print of climate change impacts across natural sys-
tems. Nature 421 (6918): 37–42.
Parsons, Russ, and Terry C. Daniel. 2002. Good looking: In de-
fense of scenic landscape aesthetics. Landscape and Urban
Planning 60 (1): 43–56.
Pickett, Steward T. A., and Mary L. Cadenasso. 2008. Linking
ecological and built components of urban mosaics: An
open cycle of ecological design. Journal of Ecology
96 (1): 8–12.
Pielke, Roger A. 1998. Rethinking the role of adaptation in climate
policy. Global Environmental Change 8 (2): 159–170.
Praskievicz, Sarah, and Heejun J. Chang. 2009. A review of hydro-
logical modeling of basin- scale climate change and urban
development impacts. Progress in Physical Geography 33
(5): 650–671.
Primack, Richard B., and Abraham J. Miller- Rushing. 2009. The
role of botanical gardens in climate change research. New
Phytologist 182 (2): 303–313.
Rapport, David J. 1998. Biodiversity and saving the earth. Envi-
ronmental Monitoring and Assessment 49 (2–3): 169–175.
Rossiter, MaryCarol. 1996. The incidence and consequences of
inherited environmental effects. Annual Review of Ecology
and Systematics 27: 451–476.
Shaw, Daniel, Rusty Schmidt, Brian Ashman, Hugh Johnson, and
Tony Randazzo. 2007. Plants for Stormwater Design: Spe-
cies Selection for the Upper Midwest, vol. 2. St. Paul, MN:
Great River Greening.
Snep, Robbert, Paul Opdam, Johannes Baveco, Michiel Wallis-
DeVries, Wim Timmermans, R. G. M. Kwak, and Vincent
Kuypers. 2006. How peri- urban areas can strengthen
animal populations within cities: A modeling approach.
Biological Conservation 127 (3): 345–355.
Kling, George W, Katharine Hayhoe, Lucinda B. Johnson, John
Magnuson, Stephen Polasky, Scott K. Robinson, Brian
Shuter, Michelle M. Wander, Donald Wuebbles, and
Donald R. Zak. 2005. Confronting Climate Change in the
Great Lakes Region: Impacts on Our Communities and
Ecosystems, Executive Summary. Cambridge, MA: UCS
Publications, The Union of Concerned Scientists, and The
Ecological Society of America.
Koningen, Hein 2004. Creative Management. In The dynamic
landscape: naturalistic planting in an urban context, ed.
Nigel Dunnett and James D. Hitchmough, 368–415. New
York: Taylor and Francis.
Lawton, John H., and Valerie K. Brown. 1993. Redundancy in
ecosystems. In Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function, ed.
Eernst- Detlef Schulze and Harold A. Mooney, 255–270.
New York: Springer.
Li, Feng, Rusong S. Wang, Juergen Paulussen, and Xusheng S. Liu.
2005. Comprehensive concept planning of urban green-
ing based on ecological principles: A case study in Beijing,
China. Landscape and Urban Planning 72 (4): 325–336.
Lovell, Sarah T., and Douglas M. Johnston. 2009. Designing land-
scapes for performance based on emerging principles in
landscape ecology. Ecology and Society 14 (1): 1–24.
Marris, Emma. 2007. A garden for all climates. Nature 450 (13):
937–939.
McKinney, Michael L. 2006. Urbanization as a major cause of
biotic homogenization. Biological Conservation 127 (3):
247–260.
McLachlan, Jason S., Jessica J. Hellmann, and Mark W. Schwartz.
2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in
an era of climate change. Conservation Biology 21 (2):
297–302.
Millar, Constance I., Nathan L. Stephenson, and Scott L. Ste-
phens. 2007. Climate change and forests of the future:
Managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applica-
tions 17 (8): 2145–2151.
Missouri Botanical Garden. 2011. Kemper Center Plant Finder.
St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Garden. http: // www
.mobot.org / gardeninghelp / plantfi nder / alpha.asp
[April 16, 2011].
Monrovia. 2011. Plant Catalog. Azusa, CA: Monrovia. http: // www
.monrovia.com / plant- catalog / [16 April 2011].
Musacchio, Laura R. 2008. Using Translational Research to In-
crease Sustainability, Resilience, and Regeneration. Land-
scape Journal 27 (1): 1–8.
Hunter 193
Wilby, Robert L., J. Troni, Yvan Biot, Lennard Tedd, Bruce C.
Hewitson, Doug M. Smith, and Rowan T. Sutton. 2009. A
review of climate risk information for adaptation and de-
velopment planning. International Journal of Climatology
29 (9): 1193–1215.
Wilson, Robert J., David Gutierrez, Javier Gutierrez, and Victor J.
Monserrat. 2007. An elevational shift in butterfl y species
richness and composition accompanying recent climate
change. Global Change Biology 13 (9): 1873–1887.
Wolfe, David W.; Mark D. Schwartz, Alan N. Lakso, Yuka Otsuki,
Robert M. Pool and Nelson J. Shaulis. 2004. Climate
change and shifts in spring phenology of three horticul-
tural woody perennials in northeastern USA. International
Journal of Biometerology 49 (5): 303–309.
Woodall, Christopher W., David Nowak, Greg C. Liknes, and Jim
Westfall. 2010. Assessing the potential for urban trees to
facilitate forest tree migration in the eastern United States.
Forest Ecology and Management 259 (8): 1447–1454.
Yachi, Shigeo, and Michel Loreau. 1999. Biodiversity and ecosys-
tem productivity in a fl uctuating environment: The insur-
ance hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 96 (4): 1463–1468.
Zhang, Lingxian, Quing Liu, Nigel Hall, and Zetian Fu. 2007. An
environmental accounting framework applied to green
space ecosystem planning for small towns in China as a
case study. Ecological Economics 60 (3): 533–542.
AUTHOR MaryCarol Hunter is a licensed landscape architect and
research ecologist. She has an MLA from the University of Geor-
gia and a PhD in Ecology from SUNY Stony Brook. She worked in
the academy as an ecologist for 15 years and for several years
at the University of Georgia as landscape architect faculty. Since
2006, she has been a member of the landscape architecture
faculty at the University of Michigan. Current research concerns
design strategies to support the ecological integrity of metropoli-
tan areas, the role of urban nature on wellbeing, and the role of
residential vegetation on energy costs.
Tallamy, Douglas W., and Kimberley J. Shropshire. 2009. Ranking
Lepidopteran use of native versus introduced plants. Con-
servation Biology 23 (4): 941–947.
Tallamy, Douglas W. 2009. Bringing Nature Home: How You Can
Sustain Wildlife with Native Plants. Portland, OR: Timber
Press.
Tratalos, Jamie, Richard A. Fuller, Philip H. Warren, Richard G.
Davies, and Kevin J. Gaston. 2007. Urban form, biodiver-
sity potential, and ecosystem services. Landscape and Ur-
ban Planning 83 (4): 308–317.
Troccoli, Alberto 2010. Seasonal climate forecasting. Meteorologi-
cal Applications 17 (3): 251–268.
USDA- NRCS. 2011. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, LA: Na-
tional Plant Data Center. http: // plants.usda.gov [16 April
2011].
USDA- NISC. 2010. National Invasive Species Information Center.
Beltsville, MD: National Agricultural Library. http: // www
.invasivespeciesinfo.gov / plants / main.shtml [August 2010].
Van der Veken, Sebastiaan, Martin Hermy, Mark Vellend, Anne
Knapen, and Kris Verheyen. 2008. Garden plants get a head
start on climate change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Envi-
ronment 6 (4): 212–216.
Van Rossum, Fabienne, and Ludwig Triest. 2010. Pollen dispersal
in an insect- pollinated wet meadow herb along an urban
river. Landscape and Urban Planning 95 (4): 201- 208.
Visser, Marcel E., and Christiaan Both. 2005. Shifts in phenology
due to global climate change: The need for a yardstick.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272
(1581): 2561–2569.
Walther, Gian- Reto, Alain Roques, Philip E. Hulme, Martin T.
Sykes, Petr Pysek, Ingolf Kuhn, Martin Zobel, Sven Bacher,
Zoltan Botta- Dukat, Harald Bugmann, Bálint Czucz, Jens
Dauber, Thomas Hickler, Vojtech Jarosik, Marc Kenis, Ste-
fan Klotz, Dan Minchin, Mari Moora, Wolfgang Nentwig,
Jürgen Ott, Vadim E. Panov, Björn Reineking, Christelle
Robinet, Vitaliy Semenchenko, Wojciech Solarz, Wilfried
Thuiller, Montserrat Vila, Katrin Vohland, and Josef Settele.
2009. Alien species in a warmer world: risks and opportu-
nities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24 (12): 686–693.
Warren, Charles R. 2007. Perspectives on the ‘alien’ versus ‘native
species debate: a critique of concepts, language, and prac-
tice. Progress in Human Geography 31 (4): 427–446.
... Besides the projected changes in temperature or precipitation, climate change is also indirectly responsible for dramatic changes in ecosystems' patterns and processes (IPCC, 2021). The modification of the urban abiotic conditions can decrease species fitness, affect their physiological, reproductive, and phenological responses, and disrupt interactions at the community level (Hunter, 2011;Starzomski, 2013). Driven by these effects, species shift their distribution patterns and reorganize themselves into unprecedented novel combinations, leading to the emergence of Novel Urban Ecosystems (Kowarik, 2011). ...
... A multifunctional network of green spaces in cities can support both ecological and social goals (Klaus and Kiehl, 2021). Additionally, informed selection and combination of specific plant species in the urban space can be explored due to its potential crucial role in adapting and reducing climate change effects in cities (Dunnett and Hitchmough, 2004;Espeland and Kettenring, 2018;Hunter, 2011). ...
... Growing concern and urgency in preparing cities for current and future environmental conditions (adaptation) and in minimizing the impacts and causes of climate change (mitigation) has led several authors to contribute important planting design and management guidelines grounded on ecological theory, scientific evidence, and specifically focused on climate change-related problems and impacts (e.g., Alizadeh and Hitchmough, 2019;Hami et al., 2019;Hunter, 2011;Köppler and Hitchmough, 2015;Rainer and West, 2015). Nevertheless, these guidelines may remain limited due to the uncertainty and context specificity of climate change effects. ...
Article
Implementing measures to adapt and mitigate climate change effects in cities has been considered increasingly urgent since the quality of life, health, and well-being of urban residents is threatened by this change. Novel communities of plant species that emerge and thrive in the harsh conditions of cities may represent a promising opportunity to address climate change adaptation and mitigation through the planting design and management of urban green spaces. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive planting design and management framework. The proposed framework is grounded on previous adaptive approaches and focuses on the opportunities emerging from novel plant communities in urban conditions. The framework comprises three main steps (1 - Climate change assessment, 2 - Plant species database, and 3 - Planting design/management procedure). A proposal on how the framework could be tested was developed for the city of Porto, Portugal. Still, the application of the framework can also be adjusted to other urban contexts, offering a starting point for experimentation and assessment of plants’ adaptation and mitigation capacities through design and management. As lack of knowledge and uncertainty about climate change limits global capacity to implement robust adaptation and mitigation strategies, building knowledge in an adaptive way and context-specific locations will be of paramount interest to tackle climate change in cities.
... Due to an improved understanding of ecological relationships, elaborated in other chapters of this handbook, there is a continuous refining of the terms used in ecological design. Evolving from previous concerns with stagnant stable systems, resilience now acknowledges the role of biodiversity in the provision of flexibility to change while maintaining system functions, which are characterized by both functional redundancy and functional diversity, thus together providing the required plasticity (Hunter 2011). Furthermore, to deliver ecosystem services, biodiversity not only entails numbers of specific different entities, but requires functional connectivity for processes to occur at different scales, also termed the green infrastructure (Hansen and Pauleit 2014). ...
... These interventions should be guided by a set of core principles (Table 61.1). (Hunter 2011;Lawton and Brown 1993;Elmqvist et al. 2003) 9 Avoid alien invasive species that alter habitats and reduce local diversity (Kümmerling and Müller 2012;Gurevitch and Padilla 2004) (c) Human comfort and concern 10 Consider distribution and access for all human use (Nielsen and Hansen 2007) 11 Consider safety aspects e.g. visual access and surveillance (Hunter 2011) 12 ...
... (Hunter 2011;Lawton and Brown 1993;Elmqvist et al. 2003) 9 Avoid alien invasive species that alter habitats and reduce local diversity (Kümmerling and Müller 2012;Gurevitch and Padilla 2004) (c) Human comfort and concern 10 Consider distribution and access for all human use (Nielsen and Hansen 2007) 11 Consider safety aspects e.g. visual access and surveillance (Hunter 2011) 12 ...
Chapter
The last decade saw certain improvements in attempts to incorporate the benefits of nature in urban settings. This chapter provides an overview of tendencies and contemporary terms in ecological design. The review considers the origins of philosophical constructs that guide design approaches and it highlights the contributions that various designers have made. We identify the present tendencies in ecological design as: knowledge progress with cognizance of its limitations; a desire to include all people and diverse social values in the design process; a pursuit to consider and measure more value outcomes of design; and the need for moral improvisation of knowledge and values in design. Subsequently, we critically reflect on the links and feedback loops in the ecological design process and identify the key components here as the physical environment and the held values of people. We then list fifteen strategic principles for design decisions to maintain ecosystem functions. Finally, we use two case studies from the developing world to indicate how the discussed tendencies physically manifest at different scales. We conclude that to incorporate the benefits of nature in urban settings, ecological design must optimize: 1) the experimental nature of urban areas; 2) the value of inclusionary processes; 3) the role of individuals and small groups to initiate change; and 4) create experiences that can change human perceptions. Experiences that can be created through design have shown potential to influence people’s values and actions more than facts can do.
... From commercial stock available, several regional evergreen species, flowering forbs and dwarf shrubs were included for socially aesthetic reasons, since many native grass and forb species are deciduous or dormant in winter. The plant species were selected to mimic natural plant compositions, allow for overlapping flowering periods [60], and include plant functional types [23] and structural diversity [59], which could positively influence insect diversity and abundance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Progress is required in response to how cities can support greater biodiversity. This calls for more research on how landscape designers can actively shape urban ecologies to deliver contextspecific empirical bases for green space intervention decisions. Design experiments offer opportunities for implemented projects within real-world settings to serve as learning sites. This paper explores preliminary ecological outcomes from a multidisciplinary team on whether purposefully engineered native grassland gardens provide more habitat functions for insects than mainstream gardens in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. Six different sites were sampled: two recently installed native grassland garden interventions (young native), two contemporary non-native control gardens (young non-native) on the same premises and of the same ages as the interventions, one remnant of a more pristine native grassland reference area (old native), and one long-established, non-native reference garden (old non-native). Plant and insect diversity were sampled over one year. The short-term findings suggest that higher plant beta diversity (species turnover indicating heterogeneity in a site) supports greater insect richness and evenness in richness. Garden size, age, and connectivity were not clear factors mediating urban habitat enhancement. Based on the preliminary results, the researchers recommend high native grassland species composition and diversity, avoiding individual species dominance, but increasing beta diversity and functional types when selecting garden plants for urban insect biodiversity conservation in grassland biomes.
... The list of 287 plant species was the starting point for the development of this database. Following that step, we selected a list of traits based in core landscape planting publications and with a particular focus on adaptation, mitigation, and ornamental characteristics [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] . Data was collected in several publications (articles and books) and also in open access and online databases. ...
Article
Full-text available
The database presented in this data article is related to the article “Adaptive planting design and management framework for urban climate change adaptation and mitigation” [1]. It includes a list of 287 plant species presently occurring in Porto, Portugal, more precisely in urban green spaces with high urban ecological novelty levels. The plant species in this list were classified and organized according to several traits with a particular focus on plant species’ adaptation, mitigation, and ornamental characteristics. Data collection resorted to articles, books, and various open access and online datasets. Data were organized in an Excel file that organizes information on more than 50 plant species traits/variables.
... There was a focus on flood resilient and adaptive designs (Van Long and Cheng, 2018;Watson and Adams, 2010), however these were primarily concentrated on the design outcome. A body of work aims at developing design methods and strategies that can support climate change adaptation action, including: the use of ecological theory to guide planting design as an adaptation strategy (Hunter, 2011), design studio models (Cerra, 2016) and the use of visual communication (Sheppard, 2015) to support climate-adaptive designs, and the exploration of 'districts' as the ideal scale to support decision-making for coastal climate change adaptation (Berger et al., 2020). However, there remains minimal consideration for how the designs or processes can be better integrated into the current practice of landscape architecture and production of the built environment. ...
Article
Cities (built environments) produce a significant proportion of global greenhouse gas emissions, making a significant contribution to climate change. They are home to the majority of the world’s population and economic activity yet face increasing risks from climate change impacts. Thus, it is critical that those involved in producing and managing built environments are prepared for climate change. This paper presents a review of literature focused on two key components of professions and professional practice across the built environment sectors urban planning, construction, property, and design (architecture, landscape architecture, urban design): 1) barriers to and facilitators of climate change action (mitigation and adaptation); and 2) climate change preparedness. Barriers to and facilitators of climate change action were found to vary across sectors, with some overlap. A limited understanding of preparedness to address climate change action was found across the sectors reviewed. These findings are important. A limited understanding of climate change preparedness across these sectors may limit capacity to achieve global goals such as the Paris Agreement which seeks to limit global warming to 1.5 oC, and to be well adapted to the changes that will occur. Significant social and economic impacts could result from a lack of preparedness. The published research reviewed lacked a holistic and integrated view of: the built environment; and of climate change action within it. It is recommended that these gaps in research and practice are addressed to facilitate effective climate change action in cities, to avoid further economic, social and environmental impacts of climate change.
... (Misra, 2014) Planting in new climate Using proactive approaches in developing more resistant green areas (P-1). (Hunter, 2011) Using sustainable landscaping methods, such as xeriscaping, that are resistant to extreme weather (P-2). (Fan et al., 2017) Indirect consequences Socio-economic consequences ...
Article
Full-text available
Green Infrastructure (GI) planning firstly developed as an integrated approach to ecological and conservation planning. Then it has advanced and used in several disciplines such as urban and reginal planning and landscape architecture. This diversity has promoted a range of planning initiatives and widespread its usage while make it difficult to define and operationalize GI planning. However, this is a planning strategy that has the potential to promote urban landscape planning by providing a holistic understanding of the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. GI planning, by producing a variety of ecosystem services, and having proactive multi-function and multi-discipline approach in planning, enhances our ability to deal with climate change in urban scale. Significant advances in GI planning have recently been made in integrating adaptation objectives in plans. However, in incorporating urban GI planning strategy to urban adaptive planning to cope with disasters, many challenges remained linked to integrate these two strategic planning in urban ecological planning with opportunistic response, more than only simple unintegrated defensive strategy. This research tries to take a step in this direction and seeks to investigate what constitutes GI as a strategy, and through this strategy how it can be possible to offer an integrated approach in urban planning practice. Then it investigates what are the key concepts and principles of urban adaptive planning, and how urban adaptive planning can be made operational in urban GI planning practice. In this essay, a transdisciplinary framework for adaptive urban GI planning is proposed to integrate science and professional practice. It includes adaptive strategies from climate change adaptation and ecological planning in a structured form to simultaneously support different type of responses in planning and improve transformability and flexibility in planning and practice.
... They often focus on the larger, showy, and endangered pollinators (e.g., the Monarch Butterfly and the Rusty Patch Bumble Bee) or honeybees due to their agricultural importance. Examples of the species-specific guides include Hatfield, Jepsen, Jordan, Code, and Carpenter (2017) and Jordan et al. (2015). Despite their importance, it is worth noting that wild bees, particularly ground-nesting bees, are underrepresented in the habitat conservation and assessment guide literature. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a new web-based planting design tool for assessing urban pollinator habitat quality and resiliency. Worldwide, pollinator populations are crashing. This decline is due primarily to habitat, and plant diversity losses resulted from land development and management practices, homogenous planting design, and climate change. While emerging planting design and site management efforts support pollinators, they often only focus on foraging opportunities and replicate historical plant communities, which are potentially vulnerable to changing climates. Design computing and geospatial analyses can facilitate a better understanding of existing habitat quality and the effectiveness of proposed planting schemes, assisting designers in creating healthy, connected, and resilient landscapes in the face of climate change. Based on existing, paper-based pollinator habitat assessment guides for agrarian and rural landscapes, our protocol identifies four critical assessment categories - foraging, nesting, water, and landscape management. It evaluates planting resiliency with the measures of plasticity, ecological resilience, and floral diversity, emphasizing bloom phenology, biodiversity, and plant responses to extreme events. The app integrates RShiny and databases, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s plant database, from which we derive plant characteristics. The prototype shows significant potential in allowing designers to rapidly iterate planting design assessments across multiple resiliency factors and visually present biodiversity and resiliency deficiencies. However, observations also suggested substantial gaps in the USDA plant database concerning plant climate resiliency characteristics. Future research may expand the app to include plant structural diversity and explore using citizen science to augment the habitat assessment database.
... Consequently, extreme climate changes may be more common during the coming decades. For instance, high temperature waves may be heavier and may last longer specifically in regions that have desert climate, which will increase many heatrelated diseases and heat stress [19][20][21][22]. Recently, urban regions are subjected to global warming, in addition to the urban heat island phenomenon. ...
Article
Full-text available
At present, the environmental quality of urban regions and outdoor spaces has turn out to be one of the main issues facing both climatologists and designers, which could be identified through their research outcomes. It is argued that the urban configuration affects the micro-climate of the urban outdoor spaces. The street's orientation form was identified as an element, which impacts the urban environment with regards of receiving passive solar, solar radiation and reflection against urban absorption, wind flow and the possible urban cooling techniques. The key purpose of this study is to look into the urban configuration factors affecting the human thermal outdoor comfort in Jeddah city as an example of hot humid climate regions. To accomplish its aim, the research is divided to two sections. The first one illustrates the problem of the research, then generally reviews the literature associated with the outdoor human thermal comfort; in addition, it discusses the relationship between street orientation and micro-climate. The second section highlight the assessments carried out between four different orientations of urban streets from two different districts in Jeddah city, using ENVI-met software. The research adopts three environmental variables to be examined, namely air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity together with pedestrian thermal comfort as indicators for predicted mean vote, during summer and winter seasons. The outcomes of the comparison assist to identify decisions related street networks to achieve the desirable human outdoor thermal comfort in such an urban environment.
Article
Regarding planting plans for urban residential green spaces, essential issues associated with tree plantings, such as the species ratio, density, and cost, have been independently addressed. However, it is necessary to explore these issues in an integrated manner for more comprehensive and efficient planting plans. This study addresses a tree-selection optimization problem incorporating variables for planting planning in a mathematical model. Three scenarios are evaluated: minimizing costs, maximizing CO2 absorption, and maximizing species diversity. The proposed optimal tree selection model is applied to a park in an apartment complex. Based on the case study, optimal tree species are selected very efficiently to satisfy various objective functions. The suggested approach and optimal solutions of this study will be helpful in tree planting planning for urban community parks and serve as practical guidelines for decision-makers for comprehensive urban tree plans, residential land development, and urban planning.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors review patterns of disturbance and succession in natural forests in the Coastal Northwest and compare structure and composition across an age gradient of unmanaged stands. Stand and landscape patterns in managed forests are then examined and compared with those in natural forests. They draw on the results to offer guidance on the management of Coastal Northwest forests that are dedicated to both wood production and conservation of biodiversity. Finally, the authors suggest that the lessons learned from natural forests here may be useful in other biomes, where unmanaged forests are rare and standards for designing seminatural forests are not available.
Article
Full-text available
Projected climate warming will potentially have profound effects on the earth's biota, including a large redistribution of tree species. We developed models to evaluate potential shifts for 80 individual tree species in the eastern United States. First, environmental factors associated with current ranges of tree species were assessed using geographic information systems (GIS) in conjunction with regression tree analysis (RTA). The method was then extended to better understand the potential of species to survive and/ or migrate under a changed climate. We collected, summarized, and analyzed data for climate, soils, land use, elevation, and species assemblages for .2100 counties east of the 100th meridian. Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) data for .100 000 forested plots in the East provided the tree species range and abundance information for the trees. RTA was used to devise prediction rules from current species-environment relationships, which were then used to replicate the current distribution as well as predict the future potential distri- butions under two scenarios of climate change with twofold increases in the level of at- mospheric CO2. Validation measures prove the utility of the RTA modeling approach for mapping current tree importance values across large areas, leading to increased confidence in the predictions of potential future species distributions. With our analysis of potential effects, we show that roughly 30 species could expand their range and/or weighted importance at least 10%, while an additional 30 species could decrease by at least 10%, following equilibrium after a changed climate. Depending on the global change scenario used, 4-9 species would potentially move out of the United States to the north. Nearly half of the species assessed (36 out of 80) showed the potential for the ecological optima to shift at least 100 km to the north, including seven that could move .250 km. Given these potential future distributions, actual species redistributions will be controlled by migration rates possible through fragmented landscapes.
Article
We have proposed a framework for transforming landscapes to improve performance by integrating ecological principles into landscape design. This effort would focus on the development of multifunctional landscapes, guided by the rapidly growing knowledge base of ecosystem services provided by landscape features. Although the conventional approach to landscape ecology is based on a model that assumes poor ecological quality in the human-dominated matrix, a review of recent literature reveals important opportunities to improve the quality of the landscape matrix by increasing spatial heterogeneity through the addition of seminatural landscape elements designed to provide multiple ecosystem services. Taken alone, these individual elements might not appear to have a large impact on the environment, but when considered together within the entire landscape, the contribution could be significant, particularly when these elements are intentionally designed to improve landscape performance. Previous attention has focused on the value of large patches of native vegetation for conservation efforts. These efforts have included preserving those areas that still remain, restoring those that once existed, and providing connectivity between them. But great opportunities exist to improve the quality of the matrix by designing multifunctional elements throughout the landscape. Through a synthesis of knowledge in landscape architecture and landscape ecology, we have demonstrated some important applications of the landscape performance framework in urban and agricultural settings. Based on a review of the literature, we have suggested several methods of evaluating and monitoring landscape performance to determine the relative success of a designed landscape.
Article
During a period of horticultural transition in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England the use of plants as parkland and garden ornamentals became more common than the utilitarian approach to horticulture which had characterized the Middle Ages. This is shown in an examination of the uses made of trees and shrubs introduced into England before 1700. Horticultural innovation was affected by social, scientific, and esthetic pressures and by the increasing availability of alien species. The general source areas of the alien species are summarized, and the increasing importance of North America during the seventeenth century is noted. Details of woody North American plants introduced up to 1700 are given, and evidence is presented that this element encouraged horticultural innovation, especially in the changing significance of ornamental plants.
Article
A physically based hydrology model is used to produce time series for the period 1916-2003 of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and soil moisture (SM) over the western United States from which long-term trends are evaluated. The results show that trends in ET in spring and summer are determined primarily by trends in precipitation and snowmelt that determine water availability. From April to June, ET trends are mostly positive due primarily to earlier snowmelt and earlier emergence of snow-free ground, and secondarily to increasing trends in spring precipitation. From July to September trends in ET are more strongly influenced by precipitation trends, with the exception of areas (most notably California) that receive little summer precipitation and have experienced large changes in snowmelt timing. Trends in the seasonal timing of ET are modest, but during the period 1947-2003 when temperature trends are large, they reflect a shift of ET from midsummer to early summer and late spring. As in other studies, it is found that runoff is occurring earlier in spring, a trend that is related primarily to increasing temperature, and is most apparent during 1947-2003. Trends in the annual runoff ratio, a variable critical to western water management, are determined primarily by trends in cool season precipitation, rather than changes in the timing of runoff or ET. It was found that the signature of temperature-related trends in runoff and SM is strongly keyed to mean midwinter [December-February (DJF)] temperatures. Areas with warmer winter temperatures show increasing trends in the runoff fraction as early as February, and colder areas as late as June. Trends toward earlier spring SM recharge are apparent and increasing trends in SM on 1 April are evident over much of the region. The 1 July SM trends are less affected by snowmelt changes and are controlled more by precipitation trends.