Left hepatic trisectionectomy for advanced perihilar cholangiocarcinoma
Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery Division, National Cancer Centre Hospital, Tokyo. British Journal of Surgery
(Impact Factor: 5.54).
05/2013; 100(6). DOI: 10.1002/bjs.9099
Data on outcomes of left hepatic trisectionectomy (LT) for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are limited. The aim of this study was to clarify short- and long-term outcomes of LT for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent LT between January 2000 and October 2011 were analysed. Surgical variables, mortality, morbidity (Clavien grade I-V), recurrence sites and survival were compared between subjects who underwent LT, right hemihepatectomy or left hemihepatectomy.
A total 214 patients underwent resection for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, 25 (11·7 per cent) of whom underwent LT, 88 (41·1 per cent) right hemihepatectomy and 94 (43·9 per cent) left hepatectomy. There were no deaths among those who had LT, but 20 patients developed complications. The incidence of grade IIIa complications was significantly higher among patients who underwent LT than in patients who had right or left hemihepatectomy (P = 0·001 and P < 0·001 respectively). Only one patient developed a grade IIIb or IV complication (liver failure) after LT. The overall 5-year survival rate after LT was 39 per cent and median survival was 45 months. There were no significant differences in survival between patients who underwent LT and those who had a right or left hemihepatectomy.
LT may provide a good outcome for advanced perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Available from: Michiaki Unno
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ABSTRACT: The International Union Against Cancer (UICC) staging system for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma changed in 2009. The aim of this study was to validate and optimize the UICC system for these tumours.
This retrospective study was conducted in eight Japanese hospitals between 2001 and 2010. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma was defined as a cholangiocarcinoma that involves the hilar bile duct, independent of the presence or absence of a liver mass component. The stratification ability of the UICC tumour node metastasis (TNM) system was compared with that of a modified system.
Of 1352 patients, 35·9, 44·8 and 12·6 per cent had Bismuth type IV tumours, nodal metastasis (N1) and distant metastasis (M1) respectively. T4 tumours (43·2 per cent) and stage IVA (T4 Nany M0; 36·3 per cent) disease were most common. Survival was not significantly different between patients with T3 versus T4 tumours (P = 0·284). Survival for patients with stage IVA disease was comparable to that for patients with stage IIIB tumours (T1-3 N1 M0) (P = 0·426). Vascular invasion, pancreatic invasion, positive margin, N1 and M1 status were identified as independent predictors of survival. When Bismuth type IV tumours were removed from the T4 determinants and N1 tumours grouped together, the modified grouping had a higher linear trend χ(2) and likelihood ratio χ(2) compared with the original system (245·6 versus 170·3 respectively and 255·8 versus 209·3 respectively).
The present data suggest that minimal modification with removal of Bismuth type IV tumours from the T4 determinants and bundling of N1 disease may enhance the prognostic ability of the UICC system. However, this requires validation on an independent data set.
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ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare tumour with dismal prognosis. Only radical resection offers a chance for cure with reported survivals ranging from 25 to 45% at 5 years. Considering the low rate of resectability and lack of efficacy of other treatments, liver transplantation has emerged as a reasonable approach to cure selective patients with unresectable diseases. The use of liver transplantation, however, is associated with the inherent risk of early tumour recurrence due to the need for immunosuppression and the poor survival rate. This review will focus on the role of liver transplantation in treating patients with cholangiocellular cancer.
The indication of liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma has evolved over time moving from an absolute to a relative contraindication until eventually becoming the best indication for a small group of patients presenting with unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, when associated with a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In contrast, the indication of liver transplantation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is far from being established and should be offered only under protocol, mainly for small tumours in the setting of cirrhosis.
The poor outcome of cholangiocarcinoma, irrespective of the therapy, justifies the search for novel approaches. Only selective patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma subjected to a neoadjuvant protocol may qualify for liver transplantation.
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Left hepatic trisectionectomy is a challenging procedure. For an anatomically correct resection, it is necessary to have understanding of the right intersectional plane; however, little is known on this issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3D anatomy of the right intersectional plane and to enable safe and precise left trisectionectomy.
A virtual left trisectionectomy was performed using 3D-processing software, in patients who underwent computed tomography. The reconstructed images were reviewed, and attention was paid to the extent of the right hepatic vein (RHV) exposure on the transected plane and the type of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV).
Of the 200 study patients, 109 (54.5 %) patients showed complete exposure of the RHV on the transected plane, whereas the remaining 91 exhibited partial exposure. In the 109 patients with complete exposure, 58 (53.2 %) patients had no IRHV and the remaining 51 had a small IRHV. None of the patients had a large IRHV. In contrast, of the 91 patients with partial exposure, only 10 (11.0 %) patients had no IRHV, 35 (38.5 %) had a small IRHV, and 46 (50.5 %) patients had a large IRHV. The incidence of IRHV types was significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001).
The RHV does not always run along the right intersectional plane, i.e., the vein is not always fully exposed on the transected plane even after anatomically correct left trisectionectomy. The extent of the RHV exposure is closely related to the type of the IRHV.
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