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The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses

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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review
of Meta-analyses
Stefan G. Hofmann
Anu Asnaani
Imke J. J. Vonk
Alice T. Sawyer
Angela Fang
Published online: 31 July 2012
Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
Abstract Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a
popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a
variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide
a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the
efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies
and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-
analyses examining CBT for the following problems:
substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic
disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder,
anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders,
insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression,
criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general
medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress
related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal
conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the
efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and
elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of
anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger
control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies com-
pared response rates between CBT and other treatments or
control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than
the comparison conditions in seven of these reviews and
only one review reported that CBT had lower response
rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-
base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is
needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-
controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and
elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have
been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic
minorities and low income samples.
Keywords CBT Efficacy Meta-analyses
Comprehensive review
Introduction
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a class of
interventions that share the basic premise that mental dis-
orders and psychological distress are maintained by cogni-
tive factors. The core premise of this treatment approach, as
pioneered by Beck (1970) and Ellis (1962), holds that mal-
adaptive cognitions contribute to the maintenance of emo-
tional distress and behavioral problems. According to Beck’s
model, these maladaptive cognitions include general beliefs,
or schemas, about the world, the self, and the future, giving
rise to specific and automatic thoughts in particular situa-
tions. The basic model posits that therapeutic strategies to
change these maladaptive cognitions lead to changes in
emotional distress and problematic behaviors.
Since these early formulations, a number of disorder-
specific CBT protocols have been developed that specifi-
cally address various cognitive and behavioral maintenance
factors of the various disorders. Although these disorder-
specific treatment protocols show considerable differences
in some of the specific treatment techniques, they all share
the same core model and the general approach to treatment.
Consistent with the medical model of psychiatry, the
overall goal of treatment is symptom reduction, improve-
ment in functioning, and remission of the disorder. In order
to achieve this goal, the patient becomes an active partic-
ipant in a collaborative problem-solving process to test and
challenge the validity of maladaptive cognitions and to
S. G. Hofmann (&) A. Asnaani I. J. J. Vonk
A. T. Sawyer A. Fang
Department of Psychology, Boston University, 648 Beacon St.,
6th floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA
e-mail: shofmann@bu.edu
123
Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440
DOI 10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
modify maladaptive behavioral patterns. Thus, modern
CBT refers to a family of interventions that combine a
variety of cognitive, behavioral, and emotion-focused
techniques (e.g., Hofmann 2011; Hofmann et al. in press).
Although these strategies greatly emphasize cognitive
factors, physiological, emotional, and behavioral compo-
nents are also recognized for the role that they play in the
maintenance of the disorder.
A recent review of meta-analyses of CBT identified 16
quantitative reviews that included 332 clinical trials cov-
ering 16 different disorders or populations (Butler et al.
2006). To our knowledge, this was the first review of meta-
analytic studies examining the efficacy of CBT for a
number of psychological disorders. This article has since
become one of the most influential reviews of CBT.
However, the search strategy was restrictive, because only
one meta-analysis was selected for each disorder. Fur-
thermore, the search only covered the period up to 2004,
but many reviews have been published since then. In fact,
the majority of studies (84 %) was published after 2004.
The goal of our review was to provide a comprehensive
survey of all contemporary meta-analyses examining the
evidence base for the efficacy of CBT to date. The meta-
analyses included in the present review were all judged to
be methodologically sound.
Methods
Search Strategy and Study Selection
To obtain the articles for this review, we searched PubMed,
PsychInfo, and Cochrane library databases. Searches were
conducted for studies published between the first available
year and January 26, 2012 using the following key words:
meta-analysis AND cognitive behav*, meta-analysis AND
cognitive therapy, quantitative review AND cognitive
behav*, quantitative review AND cognitive therapy.This
initial search yielded 1,163 hits, of which 355 were dupli-
cates and had to be excluded. The remaining 808 non-
duplicate articles were further examined to determine if
they met specific inclusionary criteria for the purposes of
this review. All included studies had to be quantitative
reviews (i.e., meta-analyses) of CBT. In order to limit this
review to contemporary studies, only articles published
since 2000 were included. The final sample included in this
review consisted of 269 meta-analyses (Fig. 1). Out of
those, we described a representative sample of 106 meta-
analytic studies. The complete reference list for the final
sample of included meta-analyses can be obtained by
accessing the webpage www.bostonanxiety.org/cbtreview.
html. As already noted, the majority (84 %) of these studies
was published after 2004, the most recent year covered by
the meta-analysis by Butler et al. (2006). The number of
meta-analytic reviews per year is depicted in Fig. 2.
Categorization of Meta-analyses
The 269 meta-analyses were categorized into groups to
provide the most meaningful and extensive examination of
the efficacy of CBT across a range of problem areas and
study populations. The major groupings were the follow-
ing: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psy-
chotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar
disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating
disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and
aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due
to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue,
pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions.
In addition, some meta-analyses specifically examined
CBT for disorders in children and elderly adults. For each
disorder and population grouping, data were described
qualitatively, considering the findings of all meta-analyses
within that group. The 269 meta-analyses included a wide
variety of studies that employed different methodologies
and effect size estimates. Therefore, we used the designa-
tion small, medium, and large for the magnitude of effect
sizes in our review of the 106 representative meta-analyses
(Cohen 1988). In addition, we provide reported response
rates, a widely accepted and common metric in psychiatry,
from a subsample of 11 studies that examined the efficacy
of CBT in randomized controlled trials.
Results
Addiction and Substance Use Disorder
There was evidence for the efficacy of CBT for cannabis
dependence, with evidence for higher efficacy of multi-session
CBT versus single session or other briefer interventions, and a
lower drop out rate compared to control conditions (Dutra et al.
2008). However, the effect size of CBT was small as compared
to other psychosocial interventions (e.g., contingency man-
agement, relapse prevention, and motivational approaches) for
substance dependence, and agonist treatments showed a
greater effect size than CBT in certain drug dependencies, such
as opioid and alcohol dependence (Powers et al. 2008b).
Treatments for smoking cessation found that coping
skills, which were partially based on CBT techniques, were
highly effective in reducing relapse in a community sample
of nicotine quitters (Song et al. 2010), and another meta-
analysis noted superiority of CBT (either alone or in com-
bination with nicotine replacement therapy) over nicotine
replacement therapy alone (Garcı
´
a-Vera and Sanz 2006).
Furthermore, there was evidence for superior performance of
428 Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440
123
behavioral approaches in the treatment of problematic
gambling as compared to control treatments (Oakley-
Browne et al. 2000). One meta-analysis (Leung and Cottler
2009) reported larger effect sizes of CBT when this treatment
was grouped with other non-pharmacological treatments
(such as brief interventions) as compared to pharmacological
agents (e.g., naltrexone, carbamazepine, and topiramate),
but CBT was not more efficacious than these other briefer,
less expensive approaches.
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
Meta-analyses examining the efficacy of psychological
treatments for schizophrenia revealed a beneficial effect of
CBT on positive symptoms (i.e., delusions and/or halluci-
Studies initially identified
(n=808, duplicates removed)
Excluded: Studies
published before 2000
(n=38)
Addictions
(n=18)
Anger or
Aggression
(n=2)
Excluded: Not meta-
analyses/not examining
CBT (n=501)
Anxiety
Disorders
(n=48)
Bipolar
Disorder
(n=10)
Children
(n=66)
Chronic
Med Cond
(n=23)
Chronic
Pain/Fatigue
(n=15)
Criminal
Activity
(n=7)
Depression
(n=35)
Eating
Disorders
(n=4)
Elderly
Adults
(n=10)
Insomnia
(n=3)
Personality
Disorders
(n=3)
Pregnancy or
Female Hormonal
Disorders (n=5)
Schizophrenia
or Psychosis
(n=18)
Stress
Management
(n=7)
Somatoform
Disorders
(n=5)
Studies reporting response
(n = 11)
Studies retrieved for inclusion in
study (n = 307)
Studies included in final review
(n=269)
Further divided into 17
disorder/population categories
rates
Fig. 1 Flow diagram showing
effects of inclusionary and
exclusionary criteria on final
sample selection
Fig. 2 Number of meta-analyses published by year since 2000. Note
that the number of studies corresponding to 2011 only covered studies
until September of that year
Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440 429
123
nations) of schizophrenia (e.g., Gould et al. 2001; Rector
and Beck 2001). There was also evidence (e.g., Zimmer-
mann et al. 2005) that CBT is a particularly promising
adjunct to pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia patients who
suffer from an acute episode of psychosis rather than a
more chronic condition.
CBT appeared to have little effect on relapse or hospital
admission compared to other interventions, such as early
intervention services or family intervention (e.g., Bird et al.
2010;A
´
lvarez-Jime
´
nez et al. 2011). However, CBT had a
beneficial effect on secondary outcomes. For example, a
more recent meta-analysis by Wykes et al. (2008) exam-
ined controlled trials of CBT for schizophrenia and con-
firmed findings from previous meta-analyses (e.g., Gould
et al. 2001; Rector and Beck 2001), suggesting that CBT
had a small to medium effect size as compared to control
conditions on both positive and negative symptoms. In
addition, this meta-analysis revealed medium effect sizes
for improvements in secondary outcomes that were not the
direct targets of treatment, including general functioning,
mood, and social anxiety.
Depression and Dysthymia
CBT for depression was more effective than control condi-
tions such as waiting list or no treatment, with a medium
effect size (van Straten et al. 2010; Beltman et al. 2010).
However, studies that compared CBT to other active treat-
ments, such as psychodynamic treatment, problem-solving
therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy, found mixed
results. Specifically, meta-analyses found CBT to be equally
effective in comparison to other psychological treatments
(e.g., Beltman et al. 2010; Cuijpers et al. 2010; Pfeiffer et al.
2011). Other studies, however, found favorable results for
CBT (e.g., Di Giulio 2010; Jorm et al. 2008; Tolin 2010). For
example, Jorm et al. (2008) found CBT to be superior to
relaxation techniques at post-treatment. Additionally, Tolin
(2010) showed CBT to be superior to psychodynamic ther-
apy at both post-treatment and at 6 months follow-up,
although this occurred when depression and anxiety symp-
toms were examined together.
Compared to pharmacological approaches, CBT and
medication treatments had similar effects on chronic
depressive symptoms, with effect sizes in the medium-large
range (Vos et al. 2004). Other studies indicated that phar-
macotherapy could be a useful addition to CBT; specifically,
combination therapy of CBT with pharmacotherapy was
more effective in comparison to CBT alone (Chan 2006).
Bipolar Disorder
Meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT for bipolar
disorder revealed small to medium overall effect sizes of
CBT at post-treatment, with effects typically diminishing
slightly at follow-up. These findings emerged from exam-
inations of both manic and depressive symptoms associated
with bipolar disorder (e.g., Gregory 2010a, b). There is
little evidence that CBT as a stand-alone treatment (rather
than as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy) is effective for the
treatment of bipolar disorder.
In addition to examining CBT for attenuating symptoms
of bipolar disorder, some meta-analyses focused on the
efficacy of CBT for preventing relapse in bipolar patients.
One study (Beynon et al. 2008) examined the efficacy of
CBT for preventing relapse and found it to be somewhat
effective when comparing CBT versus treatment as usual.
Overall, CBT for bipolar disorder was an effective method
of preventing or delaying relapses (e.g., Lam et al. 2009;
Cakir and Ozerdem 2010). Furthermore, the efficacy of
CBT at preventing relapse did not seem to be influenced by
the number of previous manic or depressive episodes.
Anxiety Disorders
In general, CBT is a reliable first-line approach for treat-
ment of this class of disorders (Hofmann and Smits 2008),
with support for significant positive effects of CBT on
secondary symptoms such as sleep dysfunction and anxiety
sensitivity (Ghahramanlou 2003). Further, internet-deliv-
ered or guided self-help CBT showed some promise in
immediate symptom relief as compared to no treatment,
but the long-term maintenance with this modality of CBT
remains unclear (O
¨
st 2008; Coull and Morris 2011).
CBT for social anxiety disorder evidenced a medium to
large effect size at immediate post-treatment as compared
to control or waitlist treatments, with significant mainte-
nance and even improvement of gains at follow-up (Gil
et al. 2001). Further, exposure, cognitive restructuring,
social skills training and both group/individual formats
were equally efficacious (Powers et al. 2008a), with
superior performance over psychopharmacology in the
long term (Fedoroff and Taylor 2001). Similarly, intero-
ceptive exposure for treatment of panic disorder was
moderately effective and superior to control/pill placebo
treatments and applied relaxation (Haby et al. 2006;
Furukawa et al. 2007). For panic disorder without agora-
phobia, combination treatment of CBT and applied relax-
ation was equal in efficacy to use of either therapy
approach alone, and use of either or both were superior to
use of medications (Mitte 2005).
Various CBT techniques for specific phobia (systematic
desensitization, exposure, cognitive therapy) were as effec-
tive as applied relaxation and applied tension, producing
effect sizes in the large range, with long-term maintenance of
gains (Ruhmland and Margraf 2001). For generalized anxi-
ety disorder, CBT was superior as compared to control or pill
430 Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440
123
placebo conditions, and equally efficacious as relaxation
therapy, supportive therapy, or psychopharmacology, but
less efficacious in comparison to attention placebos and in
those with more severe generalized anxiety disorder
symptoms.
CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder was equal in
efficacy to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
(Bisson et al. 2007), with both being superior to treatment
as usual, waitlist, or other treatments (such as supportive
counseling) for post-traumatic stress disorder (Bisson and
Andrew 2008). However, it is questionable whether the
eye-movement technique is an active treatment ingredient.
Clinical trials also revealed a large effect size for CBT
and/or exposure response prevention for obsessive com-
pulsive disorder, with evidence suggesting that a combi-
nation of in vivo and imaginal exposures outperformed the
use of only in vivo exposures (Ruhmland and Margraf
2001). Furthermore, CBT was found to be similarly effi-
cacious than clomipramine and selective reuptake inhibi-
tors (Eddy et al. 2004).
Somatoform Disorders
Within the somatoform disorders category of DSM-IV,
meta-analyses primarily examined the efficacy of psycho-
logical interventions for hypochondriasis and body dys-
morphic disorder. One meta-analysis found a large mean
effect size for CBT, which outperformed other psycho-
logical treatments (i.e., psychoeducation, explanatory
therapy, cognitive therapy, exposure and response pre-
vention, and behavioral stress management), with effect
sizes in the large range, as well as pharmacotherapy
treatments (paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and ne-
fazodone), which also evidenced large effect sizes (Taylor
et al. 2005). The mean effect size for control conditions
(e.g., wait-list control) was small. These results were par-
tially supported by other evidence, as a more recent meta-
analysis found superior outcomes of CBT for hypochon-
driasis compared to waiting list control, usual medical care
or placebo at 12-months follow-up (Thomson and Page
2007). However, this meta-analysis also found no differ-
ences between CBT and waiting list/placebo at post-
treatment.
Meta-analyses comparing the efficacy of CBT to control
treatments found that CBT was superior in significantly
reducing body dysmorphic disorder symptoms (Ipser et al.
2009). In comparing relative efficacy of CBT versus
pharmacotherapy, effect sizes were large on body dys-
morphic disorder severity measures for CBT, and ranged
from medium to large for pharmacotherapy (Williams et al.
2006). In addition, another meta-analysis found that CBT
for body image disturbances was effective, with effect sizes
ranging from medium to large (Jarry and Ip 2005).
Eating Disorders
For bulimia nervosa, meta-analyses compared the efficacy
of CBT to control treatments and found effect sizes in the
medium range (Thompson-Brenner 2003). However, the
effect of behavior therapy was greater than that of CBT,
with the average effect size for behavior therapy in the
large range (Thompson-Brenner 2003). Another meta-
analysis comparing CBT with control treatments found
remission response rates to be higher for CBT, with a
medium relative risk ratio (Hay et al. 2009). When com-
paring CBT to other psychotherapies, specifically, inter-
personal therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, hypno-
behavioral therapy, supportive psychotherapy, behavioral
weight loss treatment, and self-monitoring, CBT fared
significantly better in remission response rates for bulimia
nervosa, with a large relative risk ratio (Hay et al. 2009).
For binge eating disorder, a recent meta-analysis found
that psychotherapy and structured self-help yielded large
effect sizes, when compared to pharmacotherapy, which
yielded medium effect sizes (Vocks et al. 2010). Although
this study did not parse out the efficacy of CBT specifi-
cally, a majority of the included trials for psychotherapy
involved CBT (19 out of 23 trials). Furthermore, a review
and meta-analysis by Reas and Grilo (2008) suggested that
combination treatment of psychotherapy and medications
did not enhance binge-eating outcomes, but may have
enhanced weight loss outcomes.
Insomnia
CBT for insomnia (CBT-I) has long been shown to be more
efficacious than control treatments. A recent meta-analysis
examined its efficacy on both subjective and objective
sleep parameters in comparison to a control group for
individuals with primary insomnia (Okajima et al. 2011).
Effect sizes for the efficacy of CBT-I versus control at the
end of treatment on subjective sleep measures, which
included sleep onset latency, total sleep time, wake after
sleep onset, total wake time, time in bed, early morning
awakening, and sleep efficiency, ranged from minimal
(total sleep time) to large (early morning awakening;
Okajima et al.
2011). For objective measures using a pol-
ysomnogram or actigraphic evaluation, effect sizes ranged
from small (total sleep time) to large (total wake time;
Okajima et al. 2011). These findings were consistent with
results from another meta-analysis, which examined the
relative efficacy of behavioral interventions for insomnia
including CBT, relaxation, and only behavioral techniques
(Irwin et al. 2006). This study reported effect sizes ranging
from -.75 to 1.47 for CBT, -.60–.53 for relaxation tech-
niques, and -.82–.91 for only behavioral techniques on
subjective sleep outcomes.
Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440 431
123
Personality Disorders
There was one meta-analysis that examined the relative
efficacy of CBT versus psychodynamic therapy for the
treatment of personality disorders (Leichsenring and Lei-
bing 2003). The findings indicated a larger overall effect
size for psychodynamic therapy compared to CBT. This
was consistent with observer-rated measures, which
showed a similar pattern of effect sizes: stronger for psy-
chodynamic therapy than for CBT (although this effect size
was also large). Self-report measures, however, indicated
larger effect sizes for CBT than for psychodynamic
therapy.
Another meta-analysis compared the efficacy of eleven
different psychological therapies, including CBT, for
antisocial personality disorder (Gibbon et al. 2010). Results
suggested that compared to control treatment, CBT plus
standard maintenance was more efficacious in terms of
leaving the study early and cocaine use for outpatients with
antisocial personality disorder and comorbid cocaine
dependence. However, CBT plus treatment as usual was
not better than a control condition for these antisocial
personality disorder patients with regard to levels of recent
verbal or physical aggression. The relative efficacy of
psychological treatments for borderline personality disor-
der, in particular, was also examined, which yielded no
differences between dialectical behavioral therapy and
treatment as usual in individuals meeting criteria for bor-
derline personality disorder at 6 months, or in hospital
admissions in the previous 3 months (Binks et al. 2006).
Anger and Aggression
Two meta-analytic reviews focused on anger control
problems and aggression (Del Vecchio and O’Leary 2004;
Saini 2009). The findings from these meta-analyses sug-
gested that CBT is moderately effective at reducing anger
problems. Findings from these reviews also suggested that
CBT may be most effective for patients with issues
regarding anger expression.
CBT produced medium effect sizes as compared to other
psychosocial treatments and control conditions across the
two reviews that conducted quantitative analyses. A meta-
analysis on the effectiveness of anger treatments for spe-
cific anger problems (Del Vecchio and O’Leary 2004)
included only studies in which subjects met clinically
significant levels of anger on standardized anger mea-
surements prior to treatment. This meta-analysis examined
the effects of CBT, cognitive therapy, relaxation, and
‘other’ (e.g., social skills training, process group counsel-
ing) on various anger problems including driving anger,
anger suppression, and anger expression difficulties.
Criminal Behaviors
Four separate meta-analytic studies supported the efficacy
of CBT for criminal offenders (Illescas et al. 2001;Lo
¨
sel
and Schmucker 2005; Pearson et al. 2002; Wilson et al.
2005). Out of several theoretical orientations and types of
psychological interventions for criminal activity, behavior
therapy and CBT appeared to be the superior interventions
in reducing recidivism rates, both with medium mean
effect sizes (Illescas et al. 2001). Effect sizes for other
interventions ranged from small to medium (Illescas et al.
2001). Another study demonstrated consistent findings with
a small weighted mean effect size of behavior therapy or
CBT for reducing recidivism (Pearson et al. 2002). Simi-
larly, Wilson et al. (2005) found an overall small-to-med-
ium mean effect size for CBT programs for convicted
offenders.
For sexual offenders in particular, physical treatments,
such as surgical castration and hormonal treatment, were
demonstrated to have greater efficacy in reducing sexual
recidivism in comparison to CBT, with large significant
odds ratios for both of these alternative interventions
(Lo
¨
sel and Schmucker 2005). Of the various psychological
interventions for sexual offenders, however, classical
behavioral and CBT approaches indicated the strongest
efficacy, with odds ratios in the medium to large range
(Lo
¨
sel and Schmucker 2005) as compared to insight-ori-
ented and therapeutic community interventions.
A study of CBT for domestic violence indicated no
differences between CBT and the Duluth model (which
is based on a feminist psycho-educational approach) for
treating domestically violent males (Babcock et al.
2004). The aggregated data from experimental and quasi-
experimental studies showed that CBT had an overall
small effect size, and the Duluth model had an overall
slightly larger, but still small effect size (Babcock et al.
2004).
General Stress
Four meta-analyses examined occupational stress and the
majority of their results were quite similar: CBT interven-
tions were more effective in comparison to other intervention
types such as organization focused therapies, especially
when CBT focused on psycho-social outcomes in employees
(Kim 2007; Richardson and Rothstein 2008; van der Klink
et al. 2001). For example, Richardson and Rothstein (2008)
found CBT alone to be more effective in comparison to CBT
combined with additional psychological components. These
studies found a large effect size for overall CBT interven-
tions, large effect size for single-mode CBT interventions,
and small effect size for CBT interventions with four or more
components. In contrast, Marine et al. (2006) chose not to
432 Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440
123
compare CBT with other interventions, such as relaxation
techniques for psychological stress, because most interven-
tions comprised both elements and could not be evaluated
separately. With respect to stress in parents of children with
developmental disabilities, positive effects were found for
CBT, but the effect size was relatively small (Singer et al.
2007). In contrast to the results of Richardson and Rothstein
(2008), this meta-analysis found multiple component inter-
ventions which combined CBT, behavioral parent training
and in some cases other forms of support services, to have a
higher and large effect size in comparison to CBT alone
(Singer et al. 2007).
Distress due to General Medical Conditions
Limited well-controlled studies existed in the study of
non-ulcer dyspepsia, multiple sclerosis, physical disability
following traumatic injury, non-epileptic seizures, post-
concussion syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, hypertension, Type II diabetes, and burning
mouth syndrome (e.g., Soo et al. 2004; Thomas et al.
2006; Baker et al. 2007; Ismail et al. 2004). However,
cancer was studied more rigorously and with more robust
methodological attention, indicating small to medium
effect sizes of individual CBT as compared to patient
education only in gynecological and head/neck cancers
(Zimmermann and Heinrichs 2006; Luckett et al. 2011),
on secondary outcomes such as quality of life, psycho-
logical distress (i.e., depression and anxiety), and pain.
Further, CBT was shown to be equally effective as
exercise interventions in treating cancer-related fatigue
(Kangas et al. 2008).
Small to medium effect sizes were observed in treatment
of secondary symptoms (anxiety and stress) experienced by
individuals who were HIV positive, with particular efficacy
(particularly for stress management) in reducing anger
symptoms as compared to supportive therapy (Crepaz et al.
2008), but not for outcomes such as low cell count, med-
ication adherence, or when used with marginalized popu-
lations such as ethnic minorities and women (Crepaz et al.
2008; Rueda et al. 2006).
CBT was shown to be superior in the treatment of sec-
ondary symptoms of spinal cord injury as compared to
controls in assertiveness skills, coping, depression and
quality of life (Dorstyn et al. 2011), better than placebo or
diet/exercise alone (Shaw et al. 2005), but equal to yoga/
education in depressive symptoms (Martinez-Devesa et al.
2010). CBT was only slightly more effective than usual
care or waitlist condition in the treatment of irritable bowel
syndrome, with peppermint oil having greater efficacy in
providing relief in this particular disorder (Enck et al.
2010).
Chronic Pain and Fatigue
Meta-analyses examining the efficacy of psychosocial
treatments for chronic pain have investigated chronic low
back pain, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic
fatigue syndrome, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and non-
specific chest pain. These reviews have examined the effect
of a range on treatments on chronic pain, including relax-
ation techniques, mindfulness-based techniques, accep-
tance-based techniques, biofeedback, psycho-education,
and behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatments.
Results of these meta-analyses revealed varying effect
sizes for these treatments depending on the type of chronic
pain targeted; however, CBT treatments for chronic pain
were consistently in the small to medium effect size range.
Similar results were found in a meta-analysis examining
psychological treatments for fibromyalgia (Glombiewski
et al. 2010). This meta-analysis revealed that CBT was
superior to other psychological treatments for decreasing
pain intensity. Pre-post analyses revealed a medium effect
size for CBT as compared to a small effect size for all other
psychological treatments combined (excluding CBT). CBT
treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome were moderately
effective (e.g., Malouff et al. 2008; Price et al. 2008).
Malouff et al. (2008) conducted a meta-analysis revealing a
medium effect size in post-treatment fatigue for partici-
pants receiving CBT versus those in control conditions.
Pregnancy Complications and Female Hormonal
Conditions
One meta-analysis found CBT to be more effective in com-
parison to control conditions for perinatal depression (Sockol
et al. 2011),and another meta-analysis found beneficial effects
of CBT for postnatal depression, but these results need to be
interpreted with caution because it is difficult to causally link
depression with pregnancy and hormonal changes in these
studies (Dennis and Hodnett 2007). Further, Bledsoe and
Grote (2006) found greater decreases in depression for women
experiencing non-psychotic major depression in pregnancy
and postnatal periods treated with combination treatment in
comparison to antidepressant medication alone, which was
itself more effective in comparison to CBT alone. The effect
size for postnatal treatments was large in comparison to the
small to medium effects of prenatal treatments, but when
pharmacological treatments were excluded, the effect size for
postnatal treatments decreased to the medium range.
For the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, Busse et al.
(2009) found that CBT significantly reduced depressive
and anxiety symptoms associated with this syndrome, as
indicated by a medium effect size. Once again, these results
need to be interpreted carefully due to the small number of
well-controlled studies on which these reviews were based.
Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440 433
123
CBT for Special Populations
Children
Within internalizing symptoms, there was support for the
preferential use of CBT approaches in treatment of anxiety
disorders in children and adolescents, with effect sizes in the
large range (Santacruz et al. 2002; James et al. 2005). Further,
CBT treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder as com-
pared to alternative approaches (no treatment, other psycho-
social treatments and medications such as clomipramine and
fluvoxamine) resulted in significantly better outcomes (Phil-
lips 2003; Guggisberg 2005). The data supporting CBT for
depression was less strong, but still in the medium effect size
range across meta-analyses, with maintenance in 6-months
follow-up periods (Santacruz et al. 2002). In addition, CBT
seemed to work equally well as other psychotherapies (i.e.,
interpersonal therapy and family systems therapy), but was
regarded as superior to selective reuptake inhibitors due to
reduced chance of side effects and greater cost effectiveness
(Haby et al. 2004). The studies on efficacy of CBT for
addressing suicidal behaviors were scarce (Robinson et al.
2011), and warrant further investigation.
The picture was more mixed for other disorders, with
CBT showing equal efficacy in reducing disruptive class-
room behaviors and aggressive/antisocial behaviors, as
other psychosocial treatments, better efficacy as compared
to no treatment or treatment as usual, and less efficacy than
pharmacological approaches (Lo
¨
sel and Beelmann 2003;
O
¨
zabaci 2011). Similarly, CBT for attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder showed some efficacy, but was not
superior to medications (Van der Oord et al. 2008). The
efficacy of behavioral techniques (e.g., motivational
enhancement and behavioral contingencies) was small to
medium for the treatment of adolescent smoking and sub-
stance use as compared to no treatment, but not more so
than other psychotherapies. In addition, there was a med-
ium to large effect size of CBT over waitlist across meta-
analyses examining chronic headache pain. Finally, the
data on efficacy for CBT in juvenile sex offenders, child-
hood sexual abuse survivors, childhood obesity, fecal
incontinence, and juvenile diabetes was limited, showing
preliminary support for CBT as compared to no treatment,
but equal efficacy to other psychosocial approaches
(Walker et al. 2005; Macdonald et al. 2006).
Elderly Adults
With respect to mood disorders, with depression as the
most commonly examined disorder, nearly all meta-anal-
yses showed that CBT was more effective than waiting list
control conditions, but equally effective in comparison to
other active treatment methods, such as reminiscence, (an
intervention that uses recall of past events, feelings and
thoughts to facilitate pleasure, quality of life or adaptation
to the present; Peng et al. 2009), psychodynamic therapy,
and interpersonal therapy (Krishna et al. 2011; Wilson
et al. 2008). Pinquart et al. (2007), however, found a large
effect size for CBT, whereas the effect sizes for the other
active treatment conditions were in the medium-large
range. When long-term outcomes were examined, results
of one meta-analysis indicated that treatment gains of CBT
for depression were maintained at 11-months follow-up
(Krishna et al. 2011), but long-term follow-up data
remained scarce in the other meta-analyses. In a meta-
analysis assessing the additive effects of CBT and phar-
macological approaches, Peng et al. (2009) found that CBT
was more effective in comparison to placebo, but CBT as
an adjunct to antidepressant medication did not increase the
effectiveness of antidepressants in this population.
For anxiety disorders in the elderly, CBT (alone or
augmented with relaxation training) did not enhance out-
comes beyond relaxation training alone (Thorp et al. 2009),
although many of these studies were uncontrolled. In
contrast to the findings by Thorp et al. (2009), Hendriks
et al. (2008
) found that anxiety symptoms were signifi-
cantly decreased following CBT than after either a waiting-
list control condition or other treatment methods. Addi-
tionally, CBT significantly alleviated accompanying
symptoms of worry and depression when compared to
waiting-list control or an active control condition.
Response Rates of Randomized Controlled Studies
The meta-analytic studies that provided response rates are
listed in Table 1. The response rates of CBT varied
between 38 % for treating obsessive compulsive disorder
(Eddy et al. 2004) and 82 % for treating body dysmorphic
disorder (Ipser et al. 2009). In contrast, the response rates
of the waitlist groups ranged from 2 % for the treatment of
bulimia nervosa (Thompson-Brenner 2003) to 14 % for
generalized anxiety disorder (Hunot et al. 2007). CBT also
demonstrated higher response rates in comparison to
treatment as usual in treatment of generalized anxiety
disorder and chronic fatigue (Price et al. 2008), and higher
or equal response rates as compared to other therapies or
psychopharmacological interventions in most studies. CBT
only produced a lower response rate than psychodynamic
therapy for the personality disorders (47 vs. 59 %; Leich-
senring and Leibing 2003).
Discussion
CBT is arguably the most widely studied form of psy-
chotherapy. We identified 269 meta-analytic reviews that
434 Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440
123
examined CBT for a variety of problems, including sub-
stance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic
disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder,
anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders,
insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression,
criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general
medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress
related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal
conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the
efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and
elderly adults. The vast majority of studies (84 %) was
published after 2004, which was the last year of coverage
of the review by Butler et al. (2006), making the present
study the most comprehensive and contemporary review of
meta-analytic studies of CBT to date.
For the treatment of addiction and substance use dis-
order, the effect sizes of CBT ranged from small to med-
ium, depending on the type of the substance of abuse. CBT
was highly effective for treating cannabis and nicotine
dependence, but less effective for treating opioid and
alcohol dependence. For treating schizophrenia and other
psychotic disorders, the empirical literature suggested
appreciable efficacy of CBT particularly for positive
symptoms and secondary outcomes in the psychotic dis-
orders, but lesser efficacy than other treatments (e.g.,
family intervention or psychopharmacology) for chronic
symptoms or relapse prevention.
The meta-analytic literature on the efficacy of CBT for
depression and dysthymia was mixed with some studies
suggesting strong evidence and others reporting weak
support. Some authors have suggested that the strong
effects in some studies may be an overestimation due to a
publication bias (Cuijpers et al. 2010). Similarly, the effi-
cacy of CBT for bipolar disorder was small to medium in
the short-term in comparison to treatment as usual. How-
ever, there was limited evidence for the superiority of CBT
alone over pharmacological approaches; for the treatment
of depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder, the use of CBT
was well supported. However, the long-term superiority
compared to other treatments is still uncertain.
The efficacy of CBT for anxiety disorders was consis-
tently strong, despite some notable heterogeneity in the
specific anxiety pathology, comparison conditions, follow-
up data, and severity level. Large effect sizes were reported
for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder, and at
least medium effect sizes for social anxiety disorder, panic
disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Medium to
large CBT treatment effects were reported for somatoform
disorders, such as hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic
disorder. However, more studies using larger trials and
Table 1 Pooled meta-analytic response rates for CBT versus other conditions across disorders
Disorder Author (year) Number of
studies
CBT
(%)
MED OT
(%)
PBO
(%)
TAU
(%)
WL
(%)
Comparison
Boderline personality
disorder
Ipser et al. (2009)2 82
a
56 %
a
18
a
CBT, MED [ PBO
Panic disorder Siev and Chambless
(2008)
5 77 50 CBT [ OT
Anger/aggression Del Vecchio and
O’Leary (2004)
23 66–69 65–70 CBT = OT
Depression Leichsenring (2001) 6 51–87 45–70 CBT [ OT
Childhood anxiety James et al. (2005)13 56––28
b
CBT [ PBO
Chronic fatigue Malouff et al. (2008)5 50–––
Personality disorders Leichsenring and
Leibing (2003)
25 47
c
–59
d
CBT \ OT
Generalized anxiety
disorder
Hunot et al. (2007)8 46
e
14 14 CBT = OT;
CBT [ TAU,WL
Chronic fatigue Price et al. (2008) 6 40 26 CBT [ TAU
Bulimia nervosa Thompson-Brenner
(2003)
26 40–44 27 2 CBT [ PBO, WL
Obsessive compulsive
disorder
Eddy et al. (2004) 3 38–50
The table shows response rate percentages for CBT (from highest to lowest) compared to each comparison condition for every meta-analaytic
study reporting such data across disorder groups; –: no data reported;[: higher efficacy; \: lower efficacy; =: equal efficacy. MED medication/
pharmacological approaches, OT other therapies (consisting of relaxation therapy, supportive therapy, or psychodynamic therapy), PBO placebo/
control treatments, TAU treatment as usual, WL waitlist treatment, BDD body dysmorphic disorder, PD panic disorder without agoraphobia, GAD
generalized anxiety disorder, OCD obsessive–compulsive disorder.
a
One study;
b
Heterogeneous response rate pooling placebo/control, waitlist,
and supportive treatment conditions;
c
11 studies;
d
14 studies;
e
Response rate of OT not reported in paper; stated as being equal to CBT
(as indicated in comparison column)
Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440 435
123
greater sample sizes are needed to draw more conclusive
findings with regard to CBT’s relative efficacy in com-
parison to other active treatments.
For the treatment of bulimia, CBT was considerably
more effective than other forms of psychotherapies, but
less is known for other eating disorders. Similarly, CBT
demonstrated superior efficacy as compared to other
interventions for treating insomnia when examining sleep
quality, total sleep time, waking time, and sleep efficiency
outcomes. However, although there were small effects of
CBT for sleep problems among older adults (aged 60?),
these effects may not be long lasting (Montgomery and
Dennis 2009).
For personality disorders, there was some evidence for
superior efficacy of CBT as compared to other psychoso-
cial treatments for the personality disorders. However, the
studies showed considerable variation in measurement
methods, comorbid disorders, and demographic variables.
CBT also produced medium to large effect sizes for
treating anger and aggression (e.g., Saini 2009), although a
greater number of well-controlled studies are needed to
more adequately parse out the specific efficacy of CBT
compared to the psychosocial treatments for anger on the
whole. Similarly, more studies are needed before any firm
conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of this treat-
ment for criminal behaviors.
As a stress management intervention, CBT was more
effective that other treatments, such as organization-
focused therapies. However, more research on the long-
term effects of CBT for occupational stress is needed.
Furthermore, there are open questions about the relative
efficacy of CBT versus pharmacological approaches to
stress management. Similarly, several common concerns
recurred across meta-analytic examinations of CBT for
chronic medical conditions, chronic fatigue and chronic
pain, namely: (1) a scarcity of studies and small sample
sizes; (2) poor methodological design of studies that are
included in meta-analyses; and (3) grouping of CBT with a
host of other psychotherapies (such as psychodynamic
therapy, hypnotherapy, mindfulness, relaxation, and sup-
portive counseling), which made it difficult to parse out
whether there are any superior effects of CBT in the
majority of medical conditions examined.
There was preliminary evidence for CBT for treating
distress related to pregnancy complications and female
hormonal conditions. However, more research is needed
due to a scarcity of follow-up data and low quality studies.
This appeared to be a highly promising area for CBT given
that the alternative—pharmacological treatments—can be
associated with serious risks of adverse effects for pregnant
women and breastfeeding mothers.
In our review of meta-analyses, CBT tailored to children
showed robust support for treating internalizing disorders,
with benefits outweighing pharmacological approaches in
mood and anxiety symptoms. The evidence was more
mixed for externalizing disorders, chronic pain, or prob-
lems following abuse. Moreover, there remains a need for a
greater number of high-quality trials in demographically
diverse samples. Similarly, CBT was moderately effica-
cious for the treatment of emotional symptoms in the
elderly, but no conclusions about long-term outcomes of
CBT or combination therapies consisting of CBT, and
medication could be made.
Finally, our review identified 11 studies that compared
response rates between CBT and other treatments or con-
trol conditions. In seven of these reviews, CBT showed
higher response rates than the comparison conditions, and
in only one review (Leichsenring and Leibing 2003), which
was conducted by authors with a psychodynamic orienta-
tion, reported that CBT had lower response rates than
comparison treatments.
In sum, our review of meta-analytic studies examining
the efficacy of CBT demonstrated that this treatment has
been used for a wide range of psychological problems. In
general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong, and
especially for treating anxiety disorders. However, despite
the enormous literature base, there is still a clear need for
high-quality studies examining the efficacy of CBT. Fur-
thermore, the efficacy of CBT is questionable for some
problems, which suggests that further improvements in
CBT strategies are still needed. In addition, many of the
meta-analytic studies included studies with small sample
sizes or inadequate control groups. Moreover, except for
children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies
of CBT have been reported on particular subgroups, such
as ethnic minorities and low income samples.
Despite these weaknesses in some areas, it is clear that
the evidence-base of CBT is enormous. Given the high
cost-effectiveness of the intervention, it is surprising that
many countries, including many developed nations, have
not yet adopted CBT as the first-line intervention for
mental disorders. A notable exception is the Improving
Access to Psychological Therapies initiative by the
National Health Commissioning in the United Kingdom
(Rachman and Wilson 2008). We believe that it is time that
others follow suit.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the
following research assistants who provided crucial and much-appre-
ciated assistance with background literature reviews, initial identifi-
cation of articles, and obtained articles for use by the authors: Dan
Brager, Rachel Kaufmann, Rebecca Grossman, and Brian Hall. This
study was partially supported by NIMH grants MH-078308 and
MH-081116 awarded to Dr. Hofmann and MH-73937.
Conflict of interest Dr. Hofmann is a paid consultant of Merck
Pharmaceutical (Schering-Plough) for work unrelated to this
study.
436 Cogn Ther Res (2012) 36:427–440
123
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... The stages of CBT in mental disorders [33] usually include the following: ...
... However, working with a skilled expert minimizes any risks. The coping skills you learn can help you manage and overcome negative emotions and fears [33]. ...
... Studies show that anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, respond to cognitivebehavioral therapy, but Wells, as the main creator of metacognitive therapies, believes that anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, respond only to a certain extent to cognitive-behavioral therapy. What is emphasized in metacognitive therapy are factors that control thinking and change the state of mind, not challenges with thoughts and cognitive errors or long-term and repeated exposure to beliefs about trauma or physical symptoms [33]. ...
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Panic disorder is one of the most debilitating mental disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to apply treatments for this problem to eliminate the disability of patients. Both psychotherapy and medication have been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of panic attacks and panic disorder. In this chapter, we first mentioned cognitive-behavioral therapy as the cornerstone of psychotherapy for panic disorder and then, medication as one of the most common treatments for this disorder. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been found by numerous studies to be the most important psychotherapy for panic attacks and panic disorder. Medication is another effective treatment because some medications can be very helpful in managing the symptoms of a panic attack as well as anxiety and depression. Finally, emotion regulation therapies for the treatment of panic disorder will be introduced and explained for the first time.
... Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for many mental health disorders and evidence suggests that it is effective whether treatment is delivered by experienced therapists or trainee therapists under supervision (Forand et al., 2011;Hofmann et al., 2012). Supervision can be defined as 'the formal provision by senior/qualified health practitioners of an intensive relationship-based education and training that is case-focused, and which supports, directs that reflects Milne and Reiser's CBS tandem model. ...
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Clinical supervision is the main method by which mental health professionals acquire the competence to deliver safe and effective therapy. The cognitive behavioural supervision (CBS) approach to supervision parallels CBT in structure and form, which may facilitate learning. Although supervision is integral to trainee development, little is known about what CBS interventions trainees consider helpful. Using a qualitative content analysis methodology, we aimed to identify the specific CBS interventions that trainees find most helpful. Eight trainees completing a CBT rotation in an out-patient hospital setting received weekly individual supervision by staff psychiatrists and psychologists. Following each supervision meeting, trainees completed open-ended responses describing what they found most and least helpful. Responses from 127 meetings were coded using a CBS framework. Overall, trainees found many aspects of supervision helpful. The interventions most frequently noted as valuable were teaching, planning, formulating, training/experimenting, and evaluation of their work. When trainees mentioned unhelpful events, insufficient collaboration and a desire for more or less supervision structure were most frequently noted. These results suggest that the perceived helpfulness of supervision may be tied to the use of CBS interventions that provide trainees with concrete skills that facilitate learning. Further suggestions and implications for supervisors are discussed. Key learning aims (1) To identify the aspects of cognitive behavioural supervision that trainees perceive as most and least helpful for their learning. (2) To integrate trainees’ perspectives with the existing research on supervision satisfaction. (3) To consider limitations, challenges and future directions of cognitive behavioural supervision research.
... Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) shows good results in the treatment of anxiety and depression [9]. However, research indicates that CBT on its own does not reduce work absence, and suggests that there need to be treatments which specifically address work and aid return to work (RTW) [10]. ...
... Efficacy of CBT for presentations seen in community and out-patient settings is unequivocal (Fordham et al., 2021;Hofmann et al., 2012), therefore it is plausible, particularly in light of current findings, to suggest that CBT and other psychological interventions in the ED could prove beneficial and cost-effective. Initiating psychological interventions while in the ED may provide opportunity to overcome post-discharge disengagement, reduce attendances, improve outcomes and offer economic cost benefits (Dr Foster, 2018;Holdsworth et al., 2014); however, we must test this further, and do so robustly. ...
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... Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) shows good results in the treatment of anxiety and depression [9]. However, research indicates that CBT on its own does not reduce work absence, and suggests that there need to be treatments which specifically address work and aid return to work (RTW) [10]. ...
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Addiction to psychostimulants significantly affects public health. Standard medical therapy is often not curative. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment that has attracted much attention for addiction treatment in recent years. The present review aimed to systematically identify the positive and adverse effects of DBS in human and animal models to evaluate the feasibility of DBS as a treatment for psychostimulant abuse. The current study also examined the possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of DBS. In February 2022, a comprehensive search of four databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus, was carried out to identify all reports that DBS was a treatment for psychostimulant addiction. The selected studies were extracted, summarized, and evaluated using the appropriate methodological quality assessment tools. The results indicated that DBS could reduce relapse and the desire for the drug in human and animal subjects without any severe side effects. The underlying mechanisms of DBS are complex and likely vary from region to region in terms of stimulation parameters and patterns. DBS seems a promising therapeutic option. However, clinical experiences are currently limited to several uncontrolled case reports. Further studies with controlled, double-blind designs are needed. In addition, more research on animals and humans is required to investigate the precise role of DBS and its mechanisms to achieve optimal stimulation parameters and develop new, less invasive methods.
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Background Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep duration is a critical determinant of physical and mental health. Half of the individuals with chronic insomnia report less than optimal sleep duration. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective treatment for reducing sleep difficulties in individuals with chronic insomnia. However, its effectiveness for increasing sleep duration is less well-established and a synthesis of these findings is lacking. Purpose To provide a synthesis of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of CBT-I on subjective and objective total sleep time (TST). Methods A systematic search was performed on articles published from 2004 to 05/30/2021. A total of 43 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Publication biases were examined. Meta-regressions were conducted to examine if any sample or treatment characteristics moderated the effect sizes across trials. Results We found a small average effect of CBT-I on diary-assessed TST at post-treatment, equivalent to an approximately 30-min increase. Age significantly moderated the effects of CBT-I on diary-measured and polysomnography-measured TST; older ages were associated with smaller effect sizes. Contrarily, a negative, medium effect size was found for actigraphy-assessed TST, equivalent to an approximately 30-min decrease. Publication biases were found for diary data at follow-up assessments suggesting that positive findings were favored. Conclusions CBT-I resulted in improvements in TST measured by sleep diaries and polysomnography (in adults). These improvements were not corroborated by actigraphy findings. Theoretical and clinical implications were discussed.
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Most learners live in a test-conscious, test-giving culture and their lives are in part determined by their test performance. It is anticipated that test anxiety is a universal problem for many students who are troubled by stress associated with taking tests that they experience substantial decrements in performance in evaluative situations. This study investigated the gender difference in test anxiety among Psychology students at the University of Cape Coast. Using a descriptive survey design and a proportionate simple random sampling technique, 157 students were sampled for the study. A questionnaire was administered to the participants. The data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and the students' independent samples t-test. The result revealed no significant gender difference in the levels of test anxiety as well as how they cope with test anxiety. Testing schedules and inadequate preparation by students were identified as the two leading causes of test anxiety. It was recommended to the management of the university to ensure compliance with the implementation of the structured testing schedule by lecturers and the counseling center should engage in an intermittent educational program of their services to make students more aware and patronize their services when they become test anxious.
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This research aimed to describe the influence of project-based learning (PjBL) on the cognitive abilities of students. The research method used an experimental design. The samples were classified into two studies and collected in a non-randomized manner. The subjects were the students of the first semester in FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya who was programming Indonesian course. The research data was collected by using tests to test cognitive abilities or learning outcomes. The data was then analyzed descriptively, especially against the mean and its standard deviation. Before the statistical test, a check was carried out on the normality and uniformity of the data. The next step is the analysis of MANOVA. Based on the results of the discussion, it can be concluded that the value of F calculating cognitive ability was 21,836 with a significance level of 0.000. There was a significant influence of the project-based learning model on cognitive abilities between the experimental group and the control group. Therefore, Ho was rejected because there was an influence on students’ cognitive abilities or learning outcomes. Thus, the hypothesis of this research was proven. The results showed that there was an influence of project-based learning models on cognitive abilities, in this case student learning outcomes
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This review summarizes the current meta-analysis literature on treatment outcomes of CBT for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature resulted in a total of 16 methodologically rigorous meta-analyses. Our review focuses on effect sizes that contrast outcomes for CBT with outcomes for various control groups for each disorder, which provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as quantified by meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were found for CBT for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders. Effect sizes for CBT of marital distress, anger, childhood somatic disorders, and chronic pain were in the moderate range. CBT was somewhat superior to antidepressants in the treatment of adult depression. CBT was equally effective as behavior therapy in the treatment of adult depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Large uncontrolled effect sizes were found for bulimia nervosa and schizophrenia. The 16 meta-analyses we reviewed support the efficacy of CBT for many disorders. While limitations of the meta-analytic approach need to be considered in interpreting the results of this review, our findings are consistent with other review methodologies that also provide support for the efficacy CBT.
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The results of a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of the treatment for generalized anxiety, separation anxiety and school phobia/refusal in children and adolescents are presented. Ten scientific reports appeared between 1980 and 2002, which fulfilled the selection criteria, were identified leading to 25 independent studies. Seven hundred and forty three children and adolescents, between the ages of 5 and 17 years, with a mean age of 11 and a gender proportion of 3 girls to 2 boys, took part. The 10-week treatment reached an overall medium-high effectiveness in the pos-test (d+ = 0.78) and a high effectiveness in an average ten-month follow-up (d+ = 1.06). With the exception of one study, the cognitive-behavioral therapy was applied, either on its own or together with family intervention or imipramine, and proved to be highly effective (d+ = 0.87). The components of the program proved to be highly effective, especially contingency management (d+ = 1.53), relaxation (d+ = 1.29), exposure (d+ = 1.27), and self-instruction (d+ = 1.07). The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
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This meta-analysis multiple well-controlled studies were combined to help clarify the overall impact of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder. A comprehensive literature search produced 32 randomized controlled trials (N = 1,479) that were included in the final analyses. There was a clear overall advantage of treatment compared to waitlist (d = 0.86), psychological placebo (d = 0.34), and pill-placebo (d = 0.36) conditions at posttreatment on the primary, domain specific outcome measures. The average treated participant scored better thin 80% of the waitlist and 66% of the placebo participants. Treatment also faired better than control conditions across secondary, outcomes including cognitive measures (d = 0.55), behavioral measures (d = 0.62), and general subjective distress measures (d = 0.47). Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up (d = 0.76). Combined exposure and cognitive therapy (vs. control: d = 0.61.) was not significantly different from exposure (vs. control: d = 0.89; p = 0.33) or cognitive treatments (vs. control: d = 0.80; p = 0.70). Likewise, group treatments (vs. control: d = 0.68) were not significantly different from individual treatments (vs. control: d = 0.69; p = 0.62). Effect sizes were not associated, with treatment dose (p = 0.91), sample size (p = 0.53), or publication year (p = 0.77). The results add confidence to previous meta-analytic findings Supporting the use of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder with no significant differences in treatment type or format.
Thesis
Prior meta-analyses of the clinical trials of treatments for Bulimia Nervosa have concluded that short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for all patients. This dissertation first presents a multidimensional meta-analysis of the same clinical trial data previously analyzed, using additional variables bearing on generalizability and outcome. The data suggest that short-term treatments do result in substantial improvement: However, almost forty percent of the patients who applied for treatment were excluded from the clinical trials; over half of the patients who entered treatment did not recover; and the average patient who completed treatment showed high symptom levels at the post-treatment timepoint. The selection procedure for inclusion in these studies raises questions about representativeness and generalizability of these clinical samples, while the outcome results raise questions about the efficacy of short-term CBT as tested in clinical trials. To assess treatment techniques and outcomes in a less selected sample, this dissertation next presents original data from a naturalistic study of treatment of patients with bulimic symptoms in the community. The clinician-report data suggest that treatments in the community (unconstrained by the limitations of clinical trials) are of much longer duration than the treatments provided in the manuals for clinical trials, and address a much more varied population. Comorbid axis I and axis II diagnoses were extremely common in the naturalistic sample, and it appeared that at least forty percent of the patients with bulimic symptoms treated in the community would have been excluded from clinical trials under four common exclusion criteria. The data suggested that there were three subtypes of bulimia represented in the sample: a High Functioning/Perfectionistic subtype; a Dysregulated/Undercontrolled subtype; and a Constricted/Overcontrolled subtype. These subtypes showed different patterns of comorbidity and different treatment outcomes. The Dysregulated patients had the most comorbidity, the longest treatments, and the least successful outcomes. In addition, the therapists reported using different therapeutic techniques with the different subgroups: both self-declared CBT and Psychodynamic therapists used more Psychodynamic interventions with the Dysregulated patients. Both CBT and Psychodynamic approaches appeared to have specific effects on treatment outcome: the use of CBT was correlated with shorter overall therapies and shorter times to improvement in eating symptoms, while the use of Psychodynamic psychotherapy was correlated with more overall improvement (particularly among the Constricted and Dysregulated subgroups). The two studies taken together imply that previous claims on behalf of short-term CBT as the treatment of choice are in need of clarification.
Article
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the effectiveness of medication, psychotherapy or a combination of both treatment modalities in combating body dysmorphic disorder, relative to placebo or alternative psychotherapeutic or pharmacotherapeutic comparison groups.
Article
Background: Studies have also shown that NUD patients have higher scores of anxiety, depression, neurotism, chronic tension, hostility, hypochondriasis, and tendency to be more pessimistic when compared with the community controls. However, the role of psychological interventions in NUD remains uncertain. Objectives: This review aims to determine the effectiveness of psychological interventions including psychotherapy, psychodrama, cognitive behavioral therapy, relaxation therapy and hypnosis in the improvement of either individual or global dyspepsia symptom scores and quality of life scores patients with NUD. Search strategy: Trials were located through electronic searches of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycLIT, using very broad subject headings and text words. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also searched and experts in the field were contacted. Selection criteria: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised studies assessing the effectiveness of psychological interventions (including psychotherapy, psychodrama, cognitive behavioural therapy, relaxation therapy and hypnosis) for non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) were identified. Data collection and analysis: Data collected included individual, global dyspepsia symptom scores and quality of life (QoL) scores. Main results: We identified only four trials, each using different psychological interventions and three presenting results in a manner, that did not allow synthesis of the data to form a meta-analysis. All trials suggest that psychological interventions benefit dyspepsia symptoms and this effect persists for one year. However, all trials use statistical techniques that adjusted for baseline differences between groups. This should not be necessary for a randomised trial that is adequately powered suggesting that the sample size of these papers was too small. Unadjusted data was not statistically significant. The other problem of psychological intervention include low recruitment and high drop out rate which has been shown to be greater in patients receiving group therapy. Reviewer's conclusions: There is currently insufficient evidence from this review to confirm the efficacy of psychological intervention in NUD. There is also no evidence on the combined effects of pharmacological and psychological therapy. Nevertheless, if there are any benefits of psychological therapies, they are likely to persist long-term and NUD is a chronic relapsing and remitting disorder. Psychological therapies may therefore be offered to patients with severe symptoms that have not responded to pharmacological therapies.