Vitamin D, Vitamin A, Maternal-Perinatal Considerations: Old Concepts, New Insights, New Questions

National Center for Child and Adolescent Health (CeNSIA), Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address: .
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 03/2013; 162(3 Suppl):S26-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.050
Source: PubMed


Vitamins A and D are essential nutrients that play important roles in growth and development. Preterm and low birth weight infants have low levels of these nutrients and are at risk for developing detrimental health consequences associated with vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies. Preliminary data suggest that vitamin A and D supplementation is needed to prevent deficiency. More work is needed to define optimal doses, timing, and modes of administration to ensure that an adequate supply of these vitamins is available to meet the critical needs during pregnancy and in high-risk neonates.

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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D and fluoride are two typical examples of dietary supplements given to infants, children and adolescents. They allow to prevent specific diseases as rickets and dental caries, respectively, but questions have been suggested about adequate dosages and risk of excess. Neonates, particularly preterm, are a special risk class because of possible nutritional deficiency during hospitalization and post-discharge.
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal hormonal imprinting is a physiological process that is needed for the completion of hormone receptor maturation. However, in this critical period of development the receptors are not able to discriminate the real target molecules from related ones, so hormone analogs, related hormones, drugs, and environmental contaminants, such as endocrine disruptors, provoke faulty imprinting with life-long biochemical and functional consequences. The epigenetic effects of hormonal imprinting are inherited from cell to cell and from organism to organism. As the imprinting is not age-dependent but depends on the developmental state, late imprinting (mainly in continuously differentiating cell lines) also occurs. The main source of late imprinting is the pollution of air, food, and water, alongside medicinal imprinting, all of which are transgenerationally transmitted. The present and future consequences are discussed.
    No preview · Article · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We investigated risk for comorbidities and preeclampsia at low vitamin D levels in ethnic minorities. Study design: Umbilical cord vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was determined in urban minorities: 80.9% African American and 17% Hispanic mothers-baby pairs. To identify the correlation between vitamin D levels and high-risk comorbidities which result in preeclampsia, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Result: Below the Institute of Medicine threshold of 25(OH)D for pregnant women (25 ng ml⁻¹), obesity (P=0.055) and pregestational diabetes (odds ratio (OR)=2.056) were observed. The study median was 16 ng ml⁻¹ (<25th percentile), at which gestational hypertension (P=0.042), chronic hypertension (OR=4.842) and pregestational diabetes (OR=3.45) became relevant. The risk for preeclampsia increased 12-fold with gestational hypertension (P=0.003) and 14-fold with combined chronic and gestational hypertension (P=0.001). Conclusion: Pregnant women of ethnic minority had lower median vitamin D levels which may contribute to a potential risk for preeclampsia.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of perinatology: official journal of the California Perinatal Association
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