ArticleLiterature Review

Health effects of olive oil polyphenols: Recent advances and possibilities for the use of health claims

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  • Nutrition institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Abstract

The Mediterranean diet and consumption of olive oil have been connected in several studies with longevity and a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle, such as regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and the existing social cohesion in Southern European countries have been recognised as candidate protective factors that may explain the Mediterranean Paradox. Along with some other characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, the use of olive oil as the main source of fat is common in Southern European countries. The benefits of consuming olive oil have been known since antiquity and were traditionally attributed to its high content in oleic acid. However, it is now well established that these effects must also be attributed to the phenolic fraction of olive oil with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The mechanisms of these activities are varied and probably interconnected. For some activities of olive oil phenolic compounds, the evidence is already strong enough to enable the legal use of health claims on foods. This review discusses the health effects of olive oil phenols along with the possibilities of communicating these effects on food labels.

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... The amount of these substances is quite low, they are important for the quality and acceptance of edible oil, and they are directly altering the oxidation stability and functionality of edible oil. Polyphenols are also found in some EPOs which can play as an antioxidant in the food (Martín-Peláez et al. 2013). Phenolic compounds in edible oils show several health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-obesity, and antidiabetic properties. ...
... Understanding the composition of fatty acids can lead to progress of new food products. Medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C18) show antimicrobial activities (Martín-Peláez et al. 2013). The major fatty acids of EPOs are lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (18:1n-9), linoleic (C18:2n-6), and alpha-linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids, in which the most available FAs are palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids in EPOs. ...
... Even trans FA which is PUFAs can elevate the LDL and diminish HDL cholesterol (Islam et al. 2019). Consumption of omega-6 PUFAs has led to alleviating the production of inflammatory eicosanoids such as PGE2 and LTB4, while omega-3 FA such as EPA and DHA decline the tissue concentration of arachidonic acid and production of inflammatory factors (Martín-Peláez et al. 2013). Omega-3 PUFAs have also been shown to reduce the expression of genes for inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and have an antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic function. ...
Chapter
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Growing awareness about the role of diet and the quest for human wellness has fueled interest in “functional food,” and the functional attributes of many traditional foods are being reinvented. This chapter reviews the importance of plantbased essential fatty acids as well as their applications in animals and human and their therapeutic effects against different sorts of diseases. The fatty acids obtained from plant matrices have been acting as alternatives to the use of lipids of animal origin (e.g., fish oil), due to their limitation related to the increase in demand. The plant oils have been identified as rich sources of omega-3 (e.g., flaxseeds and hemp seeds) and omega-6 (e.g., sunflower and soybeans) fatty acids. Plant oils represent not only an economical alternative but also a beneficial source of human health as well as the animal’s performance. Plant oil supplements reduced the risk of serious diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, and other health-promoting properties in human trials. In animals, plant oil supplements improved performance and reduced methaneemissionindairycowswhichcouldbeapromisingapproachtoreducing the global warming impact. In conclusion, the use of plant oil, as well as bioengineered plants with more healthy essential fatty acids, can be the most promising approach to overcome the global deficits. On the other hand, more in vivo assays in animals and humans are needed to confirm the bioavailability of these essential fatty acids.
... Les polyphénols présentent des vertus nutritionnelles et cosmétiques grâce à leurs activités antioxydantes, anti-inflammatoires et antimicrobiennes (Martín-Peláez et al., 2013). Les composés phénoliques sont également connus pour leur efficacité à prévenir les modifications oxydatives des lipoprotéines de basse densité (Benkhalti et al., 2006) et du foie lipidique (Benkhalti et al., 2002). ...
... Indeed, unlike wine, virgin olive oil (VOO), the fresh product extracted by mechanical process from olive fruits, its quality does not improve with age and degrades over time by losing its nutritional and aromatic qualities. The VOO shelf life can vary between 6 months and 24 months (Aroca-Santos, Lastra-Mejías, Cancilla, & Torrecilla, 2018) according to the storage conditions, the variety of the olive trees, fatty acids, pigments and, especially, the initial composition on natural antioxidants that differentiate high from low quality VOO (Martín-Peláez et al., 2013). VOO is one of the richest edibles oils on polyphenols, tocopherols and β-carotene that represent the main natural antioxidants in liquid fats. ...
Thesis
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In the field of olive oil, quality and authenticity are among the criteria of consumer purchase. Indeed, consumers are increasingly looking for food products of good and healthy quality where origin must be certified. In this context, the purpose of the present thesis project was to develop new analytical and methodological approaches to determine the quality and authenticity of virgin olive oils (VOO). To better understand the concept of quality, theoretical work on the olive oil sector, the olive oil extraction process, biochemical and chemical reactions taking place during the olive oil extraction, storage, as well as the methods of analysis applied to determine the quality and authenticity of olive oil were performed. The 1st part of this thesis was devoted to study the potentiality of classical and spectral methods to authenticate 41 VOO samples collected during two crop seasons (2015/2016 and 2016/2017) according to their geographic origin (Beni-Mellal/Khenifra, Fès/Meknès, Marrakech/Safi, Northern and Eastern regions) and variety (Arbéquine, Arbozana, Moroccan Picholine, and Languedoc Picholine). The chemical analyses (free acidity, peroxide value, k232, k270, and the chlorophyll level) did not allow the authentication of VOO samples according to their geographic origins and varieties. The fluorescence and mid infrared (MIR) spectra acquired on the VOO samples allowed to discriminate VOO samples according to their geographic origins (96.72 and 91.87%, respectively) and varieties (95.12 and 91.87%, respectively). This trend was confirmed following the application of partial least square regression (PLSR) to the fluorescence spectra since an excellent prediction of free acidity (R2 = 0.98), and peroxide value (R2 = 0.96), and good prediction of k232 (R2 = 0.88), k270 (R2 = 0.88), and chlorophyll level (R2 = 0.89) were observed, suggesting that fluorescence and MIR spectra could be considered as a fingerprint of olive oil to evaluate their quality and authenticity. The 2nd part of the thesis aimed to determine the potentiality of front-face fluorescence (FFFS) and MIR spectroscopies to monitor the aging and to predict the chemical parameters of 14 VOO samples collected during 2015/2016 crop season. The results showed clear discrimination of VOO samples according to their storage time since 96.67% of correct classification was obtained for the 5 groups aged 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively from the fluorescence and infrared spectra. These results were confirmed by the excellent prediction of the storage time following the application of the PLSR, support vector machine regression (SVMR), principal components regression (PCR) and multiple linear regression (MLR), to the emission spectra acquired after excitation set at 430, 290 and 270 nm since R2 = 0.98, ratio of prediction deviation (RPD) = 7.9, and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 24 days was noted. Similar results were obtained concerning the prediction of chemical properties of VOO since the validation models allowed to obtain R² ranging between 0.98 and 0.99 for free acidity, peroxide value, k232, k270, and the chlorophyll level. Finally, in the 3rd part of this work, spectral methods demonstrated their ability to detect the adulteration of Moroccan extra VOO with other types of olive oils of low quality (VOO, ordinary VOO, lampante VOO, pomace, and refined olive oils) at different levels varying between 5 and 50%. Indeed, an excellent prediction of the adulteration level was obtained since R2 = 0.99 and RMSEP = 1.28% were obtained by applying PLSR and PCR on the fluorescence spectra. Similar results were obtained by using MIR spectroscopy. The results obtained from this thesis demonstrated the potential of spectral methods combined with chemometric tools to determine the quality and authenticity of VOO, which can build a solid basis for the development of rapid and effective methods.
... The Mediterranean diet's health benefits are now widely recognized in medicine as the "Mediterranean diet". [28][29][30] [31,32] ...
... Olive oil, the symbol of MD, is considered an important bioactive food with high nutritional value. [31] In the Mediterranean region, pasta, rice, vegetables, other vegetable foods, and other starchy foods that are at the heart of meals are cooked with olive oil, and their nutritional values are increased. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has been shown to have a protective role in the primary step of cardiovascular diseases and is effective in some cancers. ...
Article
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Cancer covers a significant proportion of deaths worldwide. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in cancer pathophysiology. It generally shows a heterogeneous distribution over the genders. Nutritional approaches attract attention in the treatment of cancer, one of our age's diseases. Current cancer statistics and the most common types of cancer have been specifically reviewed in the literature. Various studies in different neoplasias are needed in the future to clarify the relationship between the Mediterranean diet (MD), which has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This review explained the MD could provide preventive or protective effects against various neoplasms with bioactive compounds such as fiber, flavonoid, hydroxytyrosol, and antioxidants at different stages. The relationship between the MD, which is accepted as an ideal and healthy diet, and cancer were also discussed in the review.
... Growing scientific evidence suggests that healthy properties of VOO reside in their minority compounds such as polyphenols, triterpenes, tocopherols and lignans [6,7]. Among them, polyphenols were found to be related to the prevention of diabetes, neurological and cardiovascular diseases, and cancer [8]. ...
... VOO is the main source of fat consumed in this dietary pattern, and its regular intake reduces the incidence of some illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases and a wide variety of cancers [5]. The minor compounds present in VOO could have a key role in its healthy properties [4][5][6][7][8][9][31][32][33][34]. However, most of these studies are focused mainly on the health benefits of isolated compounds from VOO. ...
Article
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Several studies relate Mediterranean diet and virgin olive oil (VOO) intake with lower risk of several chronic diseases, including breast cancer. Many of them described antitumor properties of isolated minor compounds present in VOO, but beneficial properties of VOO arise from the effects of all its compounds acting together. The aim of the present study was to test the antitumor effects of two minor compounds from VOO (hydroxytyrosol (HT) and squalene (SQ)) on highly metastatic human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) when acting in combination. Both isolated compounds were previously analyzed without showing any antitumoral effect on highly invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, but the present results show that HT at 100 µM, combined with different concentrations of SQ, could exert antitumor effects. When they are combined, HT and SQ are able to inhibit cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis and DNA damage in metastatic breast cancer cells. Therefore, our results suggest that the health-promoting properties of VOO may be due, at least in part, to the combined action of these two minor compounds.
... In this regard, olive leaf extract (OLE) has been studied by many researchers (18,19). The therapeutic potential of OLE is mainly associated with the olive phenolic compounds (such as oleuropein), which have powerful antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties (19)(20)(21). Moreover, the anti-apoptotic effects of OLE have been shown in several experimental studies (22)(23)(24). ...
... Prior research studies have addressed the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic roles of OLE in several neurodegenerative disorders (19)(20)(21)(22)(23). So, the current study was designed to assess the potential neuroprotective roles of OLE in a rat model of epilepsy. ...
Article
Background and purpose: Epilepsy is recognized as a chronic neurologic disease. Increasing evidence has addressed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles of olive leaf extract (OLE) in neurodegenerative diseases. So, the current study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective roles of OLE in epilepsy. Experimental approach: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups including a control group, sham group, kainic acid (KA) group, and KA + OLE group. KA (4 μg/rat) was injected intrahippocampal, and OLE (300 mg/kg) was orally administrated for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed, and their hippocampi were isolated. KA- induced seizure activity was recorded. Oxidative stress index was assessed by measuring its indicators including malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, nitrate, and glutathione (GSH) as well as the catalase (CAT) activity. The supernatant concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the apoptosis rate in neurons were measured. Findings/results: Treatment with OLE significantly reduced the seizure score. OLE decreased oxidative stress index by reducing the concentration of MDA, nitrite, and nitrate as well as increasing the level of GSH. OLE had a significant anti-apoptotic effect on neurons. However, CAT activity and the level of TNF-α were not affected. Conclusion and implications: Our findings indicated neuroprotective properties of OLE, which is mainly mediated by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects, therefore, could be considered as a valuable therapeutic supplement for epilepsy.
... Indeed, countless studies have proven that the bioactive micro-components of olive oil can be considered responsible for many benecial effects in the Mediterranean food model. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] It is worth noting that a few years ago the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recognized a direct relationship between certain olive oil phenols and the protection of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles from oxidative damage. According to the EFSA claim, "olive oil polyphenols contribute to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress", specifying that "the claim may be used only for olive oil containing at least 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. ...
... The key step for obtaining oleoside (10) is the complete hydrolysis of OLE (1). Following this step, the oleoside is rst acetylated (11) to protect the hydroxyl groups of the sugar moieties, and then undergoes esterication with the appropriate alcohol (12). The elimination of the sugar moieties due to the action of endogenous bG generates an intermediate that is susceptible to spontaneous decarboxylation, thus obtaining the desired product. ...
Article
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Covering: 2005 up to 2020 Olive bioactive secoiridoids are recognized as natural antioxidants with multiple beneficial effects on human health. Nevertheless, the study of their biological activity has also disclosed some critical aspects associated with their application. Firstly, only a few of them can be extracted in large amounts from their natural matrix, namely olive leaves, drupes, oil and olive mill wastewater. Secondly, their application as preventive agents and drugs is limited by their low membrane permeability. Thirdly, the study of their biological fate after administration is complicated by the absence of pure analytical standards. Accordingly, efficient synthetic methods to obtain natural and non-natural bioactive phenol derivatives have been developed. Among them, semi-synthetic protocols represent efficient and economical alternatives to total synthesis, combining efficient extraction protocols with efficient catalytic conversions to achieve reasonable amounts of active molecules. The aim of this review is to summarize the semi-synthetic protocols published in the last fifteen years, covering 2005 up to 2020, which can produce natural olive bioactive phenols scarcely available by extractive procedures, and new biophenol derivatives with enhanced biological activity. Moreover, the semi-synthetic protocols to produce olive bioactive phenol derivatives as analytical standards are also discussed. A critical analysis of the advantages offered by semi-synthesis compared to classical extraction methods or total synthesis protocols is also performed.
... In fact, there are indications that the administration of the empty systems causes a dosedependent induction of cell proliferation. This result is probably due to the use of olive oil in the oil phase [60,61] and the presence of chitosan. As has been reported before by Howling et al. [62], highly deacetylated chitosan, like the one used in our case, strongly stimulated fibroblast proliferation. ...
Article
Hypothesis: Lipophilic cannabidiol can be solubilized in oil-in water nanoemulsions, which can then be impregnated into chitosan hydrogels forming another colloidal system that will facilitate cannabidiol's release. The delivery from both systems was compared, alongside structural and biological studies, to clarify the effect of the two carriers' structure on the release and toxicity of the systems. Experiments: Oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NEs) and the respective nanoemulsion-filled chitosan hydrogels (NE/HGs) were formulated as carriers of cannabidiol (CBD). Size, polydispersity and stability of the NEs were evaluated and then membrane dynamics, shape and structure of both systems were investigated with EPR spin probing, SAXS and microscopy. Biocompatibility of the colloidal delivery systems was evaluated through cytotoxicity tests over normal human skin fibroblasts. An ex vivo permeation protocol using porcine ear skin was implemented to assess the release of CBD and its penetration through the skin. Findings: Incorporation of the NEs in chitosan hydrogels does not significantly affect their structural properties as evidenced through SAXS, EPR and confocal microscopy. These findings indicate the successful development of a novel nanocarrier that preserves the NE structure with the CBD remaining encapsulated in the oil core while providing new rheological properties advantageous over NEs. Moreover, NE/HGs proved to be more efficient as a carrier for the release of CBD. Cell viability assessment revealed high biocompatibility of the proposed colloids.
... The health-promoting effects are attributed to the consumption of olive oil, which is considered an important bioactive food due to its high nutritional quality [112]. There are a large number of reports that provide information on the tools underlying the prevention of cardiovascular disease by olive oil (Figure 6) [113,114]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Obesity, defined by excessive fat mass and its associated low-grade chronic inflammation, leads to insulin resistance, diabetes, and metabolic dysfunctions. The immunomodulatory properties of natural agents have gained much interest in recent decades. Some of the plant-derived agents are known to be immunomodulators that can affect both innate and adaptive immunity, e.g., thymoquinone, curcumin, punicalagin, resveratrol, quercetin, and genistein. Natural immunomodulators may contribute to the treatment of a number of inflammatory diseases, as they have significant efficacy and safety profiles. The immunomodulatory effects of traditional Greco–Arab and Islamic diets and medicinal plants are well acknowledged in abundant in vitro studies as well as in animal studies and clinical trials. This review highlights the role of Greco–Arab and Islamic diets and medicinal plants in the management of inflammation associated with obesity. Although previously published review articles address the effects of medicinal plants and phytochemicals on obesity-related inflammation, there is no systematic review that emphasizes clinical trials of the clinical significance of these plants and phytochemicals. Given this limitation, the objective of this comprehensive review is to critically evaluate the potential of the most used herbs in the management of obesity-related inflammation based on clinical trials.
... Phenolic components, which are thought to be largely responsible for the beneficial effects of VOOs on human health [59,60], are positively related to the extension of the shelf life of the oils and are also closely related to the organoleptic properties of VOOs [61,62]. They give VOOs their unique flavor in the form of bitterness and the chemical-esthetic sensitivities of pungency and astringency. ...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of different irrigation regimes on olive fruit morphological parameters and on the quantity and quality (marketable indices, phenolic content, fatty acid composition, and sensory profile) of virgin olive oil (VOO) obtained from the Croatian cultivar Oblica, grown on an extremely rocky and dry reclaimed karst soil, was studied over three years. Four treatments were applied: rain-fed and three treatments calculated as 50%, 75%, and 100% of the crop’s irrigation requirement (Irr). Principal component analysis separated growing seasons (GS) that differed in precipitation. In the 2016 season, which had a low number of fruits per kilogram and provided a higher amount of balanced VOO with medium to intense bitterness and pungency (rain-fed treatment), the oil yield increased by irrigation (Irr 75 and Irr 100) up to 18%, while unchanged phenolics, bitterness, and pungency were observed for the VOOs obtained. In the drier GS (2017), which under rain-fed conditions had high fruit per kg, smallest fruit sizes, and lowest oil yield, and in which the VOOs had high phenolic content and intense sensory taste attributes, fruit weight, fruit sizes, and oil yield increased by 35% in all irrigation treatments, while phenols, bitterness, and pungency decreased, balancing the sensory profile of the VOOs. The results obtained here led us to conclude that the irrigation of young olives resulted in a positive effect, with the indication that an abundant water supply is more effective in drought conditions.
... In contrast, high-plasma MDA concentration was observed in obese offspring (CAF) supplemented with olive oil at day 90. It has been demonstrated that the antioxidant properties of olive oil are mainly due to its high content of polyphenolic compounds [38], which are strong antioxidants and radical scavengers [39]. ...
... In fact, olive oil contains several functional constituents, vitamins A, E, and K, minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and potassium, plus amino acids (Carzedda et al., 2021). It is also rich in monounsaturated fat and polyphenols and has many antioxidant properties (Martín-Peláez et al., 2013;Serreli & Deiana, 2018). ...
Article
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Several studies have evaluated consumer interest in olive oil as a functional food due to its multiple health benefits, but to date, no author has assessed consumers’ additional premium price for a differentiated product enriched with its own polyphenols. This paper aims to investigate which predictors are related to health consciousness by assessing the willingness to pay an additional premium price for olive oil with functional properties. In addition, the study assesses how self-perceived nutritional knowledge affects price levels and interest in olive oil characteristics. The survey was carried out in Italy and the statistical analyses were conducted in two stages: the first adopted an econometric approach to evaluate which variables are related to the additional premium price for the product while in the second stage, inferential statistics were performed to obtain information on the role of self-perceived nutritional knowledge. Based on these outcomes, the prominent role of extrinsic characteristics, such as Geographical Indications (GIs), local attributes and health nutritional information emerged, reaffirming the strong link with the territory and health concerns of modern olive oil consumers. Finally, high self-perceived nutritional knowledge respondents were aware of the antioxidant properties of olive oil and registered the highest price thresholds.
... Their concentrations are usually low in fresh samples but increases with advanced storage time in a proportional manner due to the hydrolysis of secoiridoids (oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones) [24]. Whilst tyrosol, which has one single hydroxyl group substitution, has been related to a weak antioxidant ability, hydroxytyrosol displays a great radical-scavenging power leading to a better prevention from cardiovascular diseases and to plethora of health effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-age activities [25]. Thus, in view of the health-promoting effects of this compound and its derivatives, recently, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approved a health claim stating that the dietary intake of olive oil phenolic compounds could be able to prevent low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. ...
Chapter
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Virgin olive oil is a highly appreciated edible oil, considered as a relevant component of the Mediterranean diet. The spread of this foodstuff all over the world is making, to a certain extent, that new markets and consumers are getting used to this "Mediterranean's golden treasure". Currently, there is great momentum in research relating virgin olive oil intake to healthiness, which has been mainly associated with its phenolics content. Phenolics are considered health-promoting compounds due to their multifaceted biochemical actions that can potentially reduce the risk of various health problems. Yet, since the health-promoting effects of various phenolic compounds have been widely attributed to their metabolic products rather than the naturally occurring forms, the assessment of virgin olive oil phenolics bioavailability is still gaining immense attention and considered a great hot topic among researchers. In the first section of this contribution, the main groups of phenolic compounds identified in virgin olive oil are described, their qualitative and quantitative variability is discussed while analytical approaches applied for their determination are highlighted. The second section reports the beneficial health properties of virgin olive oil consumption related to its phenolics content paying special attention to their bioavailability.
... Virgin olive oil (VOO) contains a large amount of antioxidant compounds which relieve the oxidative stress caused by free radicals, thereby having negative health effects such as cancer, cell damage, atherosclerosis [1][2][3]. Most of these beneficial effects of VOO come from phenolic compounds [4][5][6]. The quality of the oils is closely related to the cultivar, the production region and the farming practices carried out during their production. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to analyse, using a time series analysis, the effect of water regime for two cultivars at three stages of ripeness, during three consecutive years. Fruit and oil yield; O2− production and NADH oxidation activities; polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) activities; total phenols, flavonoid and phenylpropanoid glycoside content; and total antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were determined. All these parameters were found to depend on variety, irrigation and year. The results showed that the fruit and oil yields were strongly dependent on both irrigation and variety. The DW/FW ratio was practically constant during ripening, with small variety-dependent changes due to irrigation. Total amino acid and protein contents increased with ripening, with a close dependence on variety but not on irrigation. The SOD and POX activities appeared closely related, and related to the NADH oxidation and the amount of O2−. The evolution of phenols and FRAP during ripening was complementary to that of NADH oxidation, O2− production as well as SOD and POX activities. The determining factors of the SOD, POX and PPO activities were the variety and the ripening; the determining factor of the yield, ROS production, total phenols and antioxidant capacity was the water regime. Inverse correlations were observed between maximum temperature and total phenols (−0.869), total flavonoids (−0.823), total PPGs (−0.801) and FRAP (−0.829); and between DW/FW and irrigation (−0.483). The remaining significant correlations were positive.
... It is well known that virgin olive oil is one of the main ingredients that give the Mediterranean diet its health benefits. The nutraceutical properties of virgin olive oil have been demonstrated in multiple studies [21][22][23][24][25]. Monounsaturated fatty acids and several phenolic compounds, such as oleocanthal, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are among the main bioactive compounds in virgin olive oil. ...
Article
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A survey was launched to understand the current problems and sensitivities of the olive oil market through a series of questions clustered around topics related to quality, traceability, regulation, standard methods and other issues. The questions were selected after a series of interviews with different actors to identify those aspects where some disagreement or different points of view may exist. These questions were grouped in topics such as geographical traceability, consumer perception and quality management. The survey was addressed to eight different olive oil actors independently: producers, retailers, importers, exporters, analysts, workers at regulatory bodies, and consumers. Approximately half of the respondents (67.0% for consumers and 56.0% for the rest of olive oil actors) claimed to understand the importance of the protected designation of origin. In fact, the traceability objectives that were selected as the most relevant were those related with geographical traceability (19.3%) followed by the detection of adulteration (15.6%). Most of the respondents (80%) would agree to share data for a common database; however, some concerns exist about the use of these data and the issue of paying to have access to this database. The respondents mostly expressed an affirmative answer concerning the efficiency of panel test (74%) and a negative answer (90%) concerning the proposal of removing from regulation, although 42% agree with their revision for improvement. The opinions on “best before” date and their relationship with quality and the willingness to apply non-targeted methods were also surveyed.
... The protective effects of HT and OE have been demonstrated through the assessment of various markers of LDL oxidation, including the thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), lipid peroxides, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) adducts [63,64]. On the other hand, VOO phenolics enhance the endogen antioxidant system, thereby improving the antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) [65]. According to the previous report by Chashmi et al. [66], these effects are mainly attributed to HT, which increases SOD and glutathione (GSH) activities. ...
Article
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The prevention of pathologies by diet management is an important public health challenge. The Mediterranean diet (Med diet) is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns. According to current scientific research, this dietary pattern is linked to a decreased prevalence and incidence of various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and age-related cognitive decline, as well as a lower overall mortality rate. In the Mediterranean diet, a high consumption of Virgin Olive Oil (VOO), fruit, nuts, vegetables, and grains is linked to a decreased incidence of many diseases and a longer life expectancy. According to numerous studies, VOO is the major food responsible for the health and nutritional benefits of the Mediterranean diet. VOO chemical compounds have been shown in vitro and in vivo investigations to have potentially favorable health benefits as a result of their biological activities. VOO composition has been linked to a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and antiviral characteristics. As a result, increasing attention is being paid to the composition of VOO and the identification of its biologically active components. Because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic properties, phytochemicals, particularly phenolic compounds, have health-promoting effects, especially on cardiovascular and metabolic illnesses. These characteristics are even more important in light of the COVID-19 severe illness's heightened inflammatory and pro-thrombotic consequences. This overview collects and discusses the scattered data available in the literature concerning VOO compounds of biological interest and highlights their possible mechanisms of action and effects on human health. In vitro studies and in vivo intervention trials were selected and included in the study after conducting literature searches through "PubMed" and "Web of Science." In the majority of investigations, the ability of VOO phytochemicals to prevent the oxidation process at both the initiation and promotion/progression phases of several pathologies has been verified. The health benefits discussed in this article support the prospective health benefits acquired from VOO as a possible candidate in developing pharmaceutical preparations and nutraceutical or functional foods for a variety of pathological disorders. This idea could pave the way for future in vivo research and, eventually, clinical trials. In addition, greater research into the mechanisms of action and efficacy is needed to clarify the real biological potential of VOO phytochemicals on humans by performing intervention studies on populations at high disorder risk.
... These compounds show potential benefits for cardiovascular and metabolic health, cancer prevention, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities [23]. Examples of phenolic compounds include oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, both strong antioxidants, that help protect nerve cells from neurotoxin-induced apoptosis [24] and can act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [17,25], respectively. Curcumin is a phenolic pigment that has been shown to possess neuroprotective properties, due to its potent antioxidant activity. ...
Article
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Food supply disruption and shortage verified during the current pandemic events are a scenario that many anticipate for the near future. The impact of climate changes on food production, the continuous decrease in arable land, and the exponential growth of the human population are important drivers for this problem. In this context, adding value to food waste is an obvious strategy to mitigate food shortages, but there is a long way to go in this field. Globally, it is estimated that one-third of all food produced is lost. This is certainly due to many different factors, but the lack of awareness of the consumer about the nutritional value of certain foods parts, namely peels and seeds, is certainly among them. In this review, we will unveil the nutritional and bioactive value of the waste discarded from the most important fresh fruit and vegetables consumed worldwide as a strategy to decrease food waste. This will span the characterization of the bioactive composition of selected waste from fruits and vegetables, particularly their seeds and peels, and their possible uses, whether in our diet or recycled to other ends.
... Virgin olive oils, obtained exclusively by mechanical means, are those that best preserve the phytochemical content of the olives, which could be lost in the refinement process [306]. Olive phenolics are powerful antioxidants and could partially account for the observed health benefits of the Mediterranean diet [305,307]. The antiangiogenic properties of some of the bioactive compounds present in olive oil have been reported, showing a valuable angiopreventive potential [305]. ...
Article
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The number of cancer cases worldwide keeps growing unstoppably, despite the undeniable advances achieved by basic research and clinical practice. Urologic tumors, including some as prevalent as prostate, bladder or kidney tumors, are no exceptions to this rule. Moreover, the fact that many of these tumors are detected in early stages lengthens the duration of their treatment, with a significant increase in health care costs. In this scenario, prevention offers the most cost-effective long-term strategy for the global control of these diseases. Although specialized diets are not the only way to decrease the chances to develop cancer, epidemiological evidence support the role of certain plant-derived foods in the prevention of urologic cancer. In many cases, these plants are rich in antiangiogenic phytochemicals, which could be responsible for their protective or angiopreventive properties. Angiogenesis inhibition may contribute to slow down the progression of the tumor at very different stages and, for this reason, angiopreventive strategies could be implemented at different levels of chemoprevention, depending on the targeted population. In this review, epidemiological evidence supporting the role of certain plant-derived foods in urologic cancer prevention are presented, with particular emphasis on their content in bioactive phytochemicals that could be used in the angioprevention of cancer.
... Epidemiological studies show that some of them have antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties (30,33) thus protecting the body against cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, type II diabetes, osteoporosis, pancreatitis, bronchopneumonia, and cancer (11,12,26,34). ...
... Polyphenols may inhibit oxidation reactions of EVOO and indirectly play a significant role in preventing cancer, aging, and chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, and many others. [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is one of the main ingredients of the Mediterranean diet. It is claimed as a functional food for its unique content of health-promoting compounds. Tyrosol (Tyr), Hydroxytyrosol (Htyr), and their phenolic derivatives present in EVOO show beneficial properties, and their identification and quantification, both in their free form and after the hydrolysis of more complex precursors, are important to certify its quality. An alternative method for quantifying free and total Tyr and Htyr in EVOO is presented using an LC–MS interface based on electron ionization (EI), called liquid electron ionization (LEI). This method requires neither sample preparation nor chromatography; the sample is diluted and injected. The selectivity and sensitivity were assessed in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), obtaining confirmation and quantification in actual samples ranging from 5 to 11 mg/Kg for the free forms and from 32 to 80 mg/Kg for their total amount after hydrolysis. Two MS/MS transitions were acquired for both compounds using the Q/q ratios as confirmatory parameters. Standard addition calibration curves demonstrated optimal linearity and negligible matrix effects, allowing a correct quantification even without expensive and difficult to find labeled internal standards. After several weeks of operation, the system’s repeatability was excellent, with an intraday RSD (%) spanning from five to nine and an interday RSD (%) spanning from 9 to 11.
... The phenolic compounds of EVOO, also referred to as "biophenols", are responsible of many among the health-promoting effects attributed to EVOO, mainly related to their antioxidant and radical scavenger properties (Gorzynik-Debicka et al., 2018;Lockyer & Rowland, 2014;Martín-Peláez, Covas, Fitó, Kušar, & Pravst, 2013). Phenolic compounds, which vary within a considerably wide range of concentrations (50-1000 mg kg − 1 ) in EVOO depending on olive genotype, elaiotechnical practices, process of oil extraction and storage conditions (Jimenez-Lopez et al., 2020), contribute in a decisive way to the characteristic fruitiness, bitterness, pungency and astringency of EVOO, as well as to oil stability against oxidation (Pedan, Popp, Rohn, Nyfeler, & Bongartz, 2019). ...
Article
The phenolic compounds of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) are key contributors of nutritional and sensory quality as well as chemical stability. The reference method for their determination is the HPLC-UV, which is cost-/time-expensive. In this work, total phenolic compounds were evaluated in unfractionated EVOO adapting the Fast Blue BB (FBBB) assay, which involves the spectrophotometric (absorbance 420 nm) determination of azo derivatives resulting from the coupling of phenolic compounds with FBBB diazonium salt in alkali pH. When tested on 26 EVOO samples, the FBBB assay and HPLC-determinations were strikingly correlated (R² = 0.9653), differently from FBBB and Folin-Ciocalteu assays, which showed poor correlation. The assay is simple, repeatable, robust, rapid and cheap, and results might be evaluated on a printed colorimetric scale. This protocol of the FBBB assay could be routinely used to categorize EVOO according to the health claim allowed by EFSA concerning the content of phenolic compounds.
... The use of extra virgin olive oil in the Mediterranean Diet is associated with multiple positive outcomes on health, including immune and inflammatory responses [41]. The beneficial effect of extra virgin oil could be due to the presence of high bioactive compounds, including monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids [43], as well as vitamins A, E, and K [44]. ...
Article
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There are numerous dietary recommendations during pregnancy. However, there are limited recommendations during the lactation period, a nutritionally vulnerable period for women. The Mediterranean Diet and adherence to the Healthy Food Pyramid (HFP) is considered as the standard for healthy eating. In this study, we investigated the differences in adherence to the HFP in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating (NPNL) women concerning sociodemographic factors. A sociodemographic and nutritional and lifestyle questionnaire (AP-Q) were used to assess adherence to the HFP, including lifestyle. The AP-Q score ranges from 0 to 10 meaning the higher the score, the greater the adherence to the HFP. Lactating women had the lowest AP-Q score (6.13 [5.31; 6.82]) compared to the pregnant (6.39 [5.56; 7.05]) and NPNL women (6.27 [5.43; 6.88]), while pregnant women had the highest scores. Maternal age was positively correlated with AP-Q score in pregnant (rho = 0.22; p-Value < 0.001) and lactating women (rho = 0.18; p-Value < 0.001), but not in NPNL women. Educational level and monthly income had a positive influence on the degree of adherence to the HFP. In conclusion, breastfeeding mothers of young age and low socioeconomic and educational level would be the target population to carry out nutritional interventions that improve their adherence to the HFP. The knowledge gained from this study can help to design recommendation guidelines and nutritional educational interventions for a given population.
... Olive oils (for composition see Table 1) possess many health properties of higher nutritional quality, in particular the EVOO (Martín-Peláez et al., 2013). The majority of benefits are ascribed to minimal constituents in the unsaponifiable fraction, like phenolic compounds, phytosterols, tocopherols, and pigments (Mazzocchi et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Diet and inflammatory response are recognized as strictly related, and interest in exploring the potential of edible fats and oils for health and chronic diseases is emerging worldwide. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) present in fish oil (FO), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be partly converted into oxygenated bioactive lipids with anti-inflammatory and/or pro-resolving activities. Moreover, the co-presence of phenolic compounds and vitamins in edible oils may prevent the development of chronic diseases by their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Finally, a high content in mono-unsaturated fatty acids may improve the serum lipid profile and decrease the alterations caused by the oxidized low-density lipoproteins and free radicals. The present review aims to highlight the role of lipids and other bioactive compounds contained in edible oils on oxidative stress and inflammation, focusing on critical and controversial issues that recently emerged, and pointing to the opposing role often played by edible oils components and their oxidized metabolites.
... Derived from fruit of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), extra virgin olive oil has a high amount of antioxidants that ameliorate the oxidative stress produced by free radicals and, subsequently, cellular damage [1]. Most of the beneficial effects of virgin olive oil (VOO) and its constituents are mediated by its phenolic compounds and α-tocopherol antioxidant activity [2,3]. The process of food acceptance or rejection by consumers is of a multi-dimensional nature [4] and, surely, sensory quality should be considered as a key factor guided by the fact that consumers seek food with certain sensory characteristics [5]. ...
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The authenticity and typicity of monocultivar oils and knowledge of the changes that environmental olive growing conditions bring to naturally present antioxidants and sensory attributes of virgin olive oils (VOO) are important for quality and safety improvement. This study delivers a comprehensive evaluation of the factors affecting phenolics, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of cultivars Oblica and Leccino VOOs throughout ripening season at two distinct olive growing environments during three consecutive crop years, and ranks the importance of each factor. Specified parameters were significantly influenced by olive growing environmental conditions. At the colder location of higher altitude, both cultivars gained higher amount of stearic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids, as well as a higher proportion of phenolic compounds, but lower amounts of oleic fatty acid. At the warmer location of lower altitude, both cultivars had oils with lower level of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency. Analysis of the main components showed that VOOs were primarily differentiated by the cultivar, then main groups were divided with regard to the growing site, while harvest period affected the biosynthesis of natural VOOs antioxidants but had the least impact. These results reveal that the composition of fatty acids, phenolic content and sensory profile are predominantly characteristics of a cultivar.
... Phenolic compounds such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, flavonoids, especially flavones, and lignans are abundant in extravirgin olive oil [53]. The phenolic composition of olive oil ranges from 50 to 800 mg/L depending upon several factors including, among others, variety, cultivation techniques, degree of ripeness, and climate [54]. ...
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Type 2 diabetes is an increasing health concern worldwide. Both genetic and environmental risk factors as improper dietary habits or physical inactivity are known to be crucial in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols are a group of plant-derived compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that are associated with a low prevalence of metabolic conditions characterized by insulin resistance, including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Moreover, there is now full awareness that foods that are rich in phytochemicals and polyphenols could play an important role in preserving human cardiovascular health and substantial clinical evidence indicates that regular dietary consumption of such foods affects favorably carbohydrate metabolism. This review briefly summarizes the evidence relating dietary patterns rich in polyphenols with glucose metabolism and highlights the potential benefits of these compounds in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.
... In general, olive oil is characterized by high amounts of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and contains minor components with biological properties (e.g., phenolic compounds, pigments, squalene, sitosterols, and triterpenes) [1]. A specific composition of olive oil fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, has been proven to be protective against the development of cardiovascular diseases [2][3][4][5]. The content of these components depends on the cultivar, climate, harvesting time, and the manufacturing conditions [1,6]. ...
Article
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Olive oil is considered a valuable ingredient of human diet. It is a good source of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as other bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols. The composition of olive oil depends mainly on the variety of plant, cultivation practices, and manufacturing conditions. Traditional processing methods may ensure better quality and health benefits. Therefore, the aim of the study was the evaluation of antioxidant properties and fatty acid profile of Cretan extra virgin bioolive oils. These ones were compared with commercial Spanish, Italian, and Greek extra virgin olive oils. Obtained results showed that sample Cretan 1 had about 15% higher antioxidant capacity and about 60% higher total polyphenol content than commercial counterparts. This one had also a favorable profile of fatty acids, especially 20% more linoleic acid. We concluded that traditional production methods, using millstones, cold pressing, and without centrifugation and filtration ensure better olive oil quality and related health benefits.
... [40][41][42][55][56][57][58] Edible oils, namely olive oil and sunflower oil, are important sources of antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds, such as polyphenols, vitamin E and unsaturated fatty acids that underlie their beneficial effects. [59,60] Indeed, olive oil consumption has been shown to decrease the risk of stroke [61,62] and both oral and systemic administration of this oil have been reported to reduce cerebral ischemic damage in rodent models through neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. [63][64][65][66][67] Olive oil is characterized by a specific acidic profile [68][69][70] with a high percentage of oleic acid (on average between 60 and 80% of the total fatty acids), a monounsaturated fatty acid to which multiple health effects are attributed (including beneficial properties in human and experimental stroke, [71,72] and a significantly lower percentage of linoleic acid (on average 9-13%), a polyunsaturated fatty acid of the ω-6 series, also responsible for protective effects in stroke [17][18][19] and in other conditions. ...
Article
Objectives Natural products are valuable sources of nutraceuticals for the prevention or treatment of ischemic stroke, a major cause of death and severe disability worldwide. Among the mechanisms implicated in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion damage, oxidative stress exerts a pivotal role in disease progression. Given the high antioxidant potential of most components of sunflower oil, we have explored its effects on ischemic brain injury produced in the mouse by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo). Key findings Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of sunflower oil at doses of 3 ml/kg (48 h, 24 h and 1 h before MCAo) significantly reduced brain infarct volume and oedema assessed 24 h after the insult. This neuroprotective treatment schedule also prevented the elevation of brain lipid peroxidation produced by MCAo-reperfusion injury. By contrast, doses of 0.03 ml/kg of sunflower oil resulted ineffective on both cerebral damage and lipid peroxidation. Although sunflower oil did not affect serum levels of Diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), both 0.03 and 3 ml/kg dosing regimens resulted in the preservation of serum biological antioxidant potential (BAP) that was otherwise dramatically reduced 24 h after MCAo. Conclusions Sunflower oil represents a promising source of neuroprotective extracts/compounds that can be exploited for the prevention and/or treatment of cerebral ischemia.
... Most of the health benefits of EVOO have to be ascribed to phenolic compounds (PCs), also referred to as "biophenols", which exhibit powerful antioxidant and radical scavenger properties, protecting against oxidation-and free radicals-induced cell damages, as well as against inflammation (Gorzynik-Debicka et al., 2018;Martín-Peláez, Covas, Fitó, Kušar, & Pravst, 2013). Moreover, biophenols are key determinants of peculiar organoleptic properties of EVOO, since they confer the typical bitterness, pungency and astringency. ...
Article
Antioxidant capacity of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is associated with the overall content of health-promoting compounds, including biophenols. In this work, antioxidant capacity of polar extracts from 42 EVOO and 3 edible seed oil samples was evaluated by constant-current coulometry, using Br2 electrogenerated at a Pt anode as the titrant and bioamperometric detection of the end-point through Br2 excess. The Coulometrically Determined Antioxidant Capacity (CDAC) of EVOO extracts covered the 8-25 mmol electrons (e-) kg-1 range, while it was lower for seeds oils (≤ 5 mmol e- kg-1). Average CDAC of EVOO with biophenols ≥ 250 mg kg-1 (15 ± 4 mmol e- kg-1) was significantly higher than EVOO with biophenols < 250 mg kg-1 (10 ± 2 mmol e- kg-1). CDAC is a robust, cheap, and rapid test that could be exploited to classify EVOO relying on antioxidant capacity rather than on HPLC-determined content of biophenols.
... The schematic display of diseases affected positively by olive oil consumption is summarized in Fig. 26.7. [123][124][125][126][127][128] The most investigated topic in this scheme is CVD. 2,5,7,129 The defensive activity of olive oil against CVDs is mainly caused by the high ratio of MUFA/PUFA in addition to the presence of bioactive compounds. ...
Chapter
Olive oils can serve as an excellent source of valuable bioactive compounds. The current chapter presents a brief overview of the antioxidant properties present in a wide range of olive oils, including the role of bioactive compounds. There is an increasing demand for the consumption of olive oil in the world due to its health benefits and impacts on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, most types of cancer, inflammation, and metabolic diseases. The antioxidant properties are mainly correlated to the health-promoting components of olive oil such as phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalenes, pigments, and sterols. These components make olive oil one of the most important, healthy edible oils worldwide. Therefore the consumption of olive oil, especially the virgin form, can be recommended not only because of its antioxidative character but also due to other important positive effects from its bioactive compounds on human health.
... During maturation of the fruit and leaves, it is broken down to hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid. Many studies have shown its antioxidant capacity, acting against lipid membrane oxidation and other mechanisms, that protects against cardiac and inflammatory diseases, cancer, viruses, etc. (Jemai et al., 2009;Martín-Peláez et al., 2013). ...
Chapter
The chapter presents the state-of-the-art on the utilization of phenolic compounds derived from olive mill waste as ingredients in food products. A general introduction regarding the olive oil production chain is presented, focusing on the three main waste streams (olive leaves, olive mill wastewater, and olive pomace), which are well detailed from the chemical composition, bioactive profile, and recovery methods point of view. Encapsulation strategies are discussed in order to provide innovative knowledge regarding the stabilization of polyphenols extract recovered by olive wastes. The latest results of the studies regarding the exploitability of valuable compounds recovered from by-products are deeply discussed, and consumer acceptance of olive oil by-products used as a food ingredient is presented.
... Çalışmamız kapsamında uygulanan (doku ve vasküler sistem için olası olan) konsantrasyonların koruyucu bir etki göstermek için düşük olabileceği ve DNA'yı koruyabilecek konsantrasyonların ancak zeytinyağı tüketimi sonrası bağırsaklarda bulunabilecek daha yüksek konsantrasyonlar olabileceği düşünülmektedir (Rubió vd., 2012). Akdeniz diyeti ve zeytinyağının insan sağlığı üzerindeki faydalarını oksidatif stresi azaltmak yanında; oksidatif stres ve kronik dejeneratif hastalıklarla ilişkili genlerin ekspresyonu üzerinde etki göstererek de sağlayabileceğini ortaya koyan kanıtlar mevcuttur (Konstantinidou vd., 2013;Martín-Peláez, Covas, Fitó, Kušar, ve Pravst, 2013). Bu bakımdan zeytinyağının etkilerinin moleküler mekanizmasının anlaşılabilmesi için; farklı hücre türlerinde fenolik bileşiklerin gen ekspresyonu ve düzenlemesi üzerindeki etkileri araştırılmalıdır. ...
... In the last few years, olive oil by-products such as leaves, pomace, olive mill wastewaters or stones have attracted increasing attention as an alternative source of olive phenolic compounds, which have an already recognized potential health value [4]. A motivation for the valorization of these waste products is to promote and implement the circular economy principle in the industry and move towards a sustainable agriculture. ...
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The market of olive-based dietary supplements (OBDS) is composed of a broad range of natural extracts claiming different health effects and often sold without a clear statement on their chemical composition. The aim of this survey was to characterize the chemical profiles of 14 commercially available OBDS. As many as 378 compounds were tentatively annotated in the analyzed samples. Although for most of metabolites the annotation at level I was prevented due to the lack of the analytical standard, the spectra obtained from high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) measurements were very informative, allowing annotation of dozens of metabolites at level II or III. A targeted method allowed the quantification of 26 selected compounds. A large qualitative and quantitative variability was observed. The products obtained from buds by glyceric maceration were those with the lowest concentrations of all the quantified elements. The dose of 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol, corresponding to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) health claim, was only reached by four products, all of them originating from the olive fruit or the leaves. If we also take into consideration oleuropein, two additional products provide this daily amount. This work demonstrates the high complexity and diversity in the composition of OBDS.
... For example, tyrosols have been associated with beneficial effects on learning and memory [ 41]. These compounds are present in foods of the Mediterranean diet, and this partially explains the neuroprotective effects of this dietary pattern [42]. In our study, a direct association was found between these compounds and the primacy effect, as women who reported higher intakes could efficiently recall the initial words of the RAVLT lists. ...
Article
Due to their polyphenolic content, vegetable foods have neuroprotective effects which provide health benefits for specific human groups. Thus, they may be a useful dietary component for women who experience mnesic variations during postpartum, and here we examined the hypothesis that polyphenols can differentially enhance memory functioning. In particular, we aimed to associate the dietary intake of polyphenols with different memory systems in Argentinian postpartum women. The daily intakes of polyphenol groups were calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the Phenol-Explorer database. Short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), learning (L), lexical-semantic memory (LSM), and working memory (WM) were assessed. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were used to analyze the dietary polyphenols (predictors) and memory domains (responses), taking into account demographic, obstetric, and psychological factors. The sample included 71 women, with an average age of 29.59 years (SE = 0.73). Most of these women lived in a couple (91%), were unemployed (63%), and had ≥ 12 years of formal education (72%). STM, LTM, L and LSM correlated with lignans and anthocyanins, with LTM also being correlated with flavanones, flavonols, and tyrosols, and L and LSM also being associated with flavonols. A significant correlation was also found between WM and lignans. In conclusion, a cognitive improvement was demonstrated, mainly associated with the intake of lignans and anthocyanins, in the STM, LTM, WM, L, and LSM systems of postpartum women. This is the first study to our knowledge suggesting a role of polyphenolic effects on memory functioning during postpartum.
Chapter
Edible oils are essential energy providers in human diets. However, these oils are also a natural source of bioactive compounds and phytonutrients. This chapter will provide an overview of the bioactive lipids from olive, palm, and fish oils. The nutritional and health benefits of these oils are well documented and frequently associated with their minor lipids, which exhibit significant positive effects on human health. Each oil displays a unique set of lipid families, called lipidome, with bioactive lipids belonging to different classes and with diverse structures and functions. Bioactive lipids, such as polar lipids, prenol lipids, or polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported to have health benefits and to prevent the onset of several disorders. The knowledge of the bioactive compounds present in these edible oils is used to develop novel biotechnological applications that incorporate these lipids into functional foods, cosmetic or pharmaceutical innovations to improve human health and well-being.
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Accumulating evidence indicates that regular consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), the main source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, is associated with beneficial health effects and a reduced risk of developing chronic degenerative disorders. The beneficial effects of EVOO can be attributed to its unique composition in monounsaturated fats and phenolic compounds that provide important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulating activities. On the other hand, it is well known that the gut microbiota has several important roles in normal human physiology, and its composition can be influenced by a multitude of environmental and lifestyle factors, among which dietary components play a relevant role. In the last few years, the two-way interaction between polyphenols, including those in EVOO, and the gut microbiota, i.e., the modulation of the microbiota by polyphenols and that of polyphenol metabolism and bioavailability by the microbiota, has attracted growing attention, being potentially relevant to explain the final effects of polyphenols, as well as of the microbiota profile. Furthermore, sex and gender can affect dietary habits, polyphenol intake, and nutrient metabolism. Lastly, it has been recently suggested that differences in gut microbiota composition could be involved in the unequal incidence of metabolic diseases observed between women and men, due to sex-dependent effects on shaping gut microbiota profiles according to diet. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the relationship between EVOO polyphenols and the gut microbiota, taking into account possible influences of sex and gender in modulating such an interaction.
Article
Advances in olive oil research have blossomed in recent years, and articles on olive oil have been widely recorded. However, a comprehensive and systematic bibliometric analysis of olive oil research has not been completed. Through a systematic literature search, we consolidated 7003 papers from the Web of Science Core Collection database. This bibliometric analysis was carried out to examine the article growth, geographical distribution, and analysis of journals/research areas/authors/keywords. The results revealed the following: (1) Exponential growth was shown in the annual number of publications (R2 = 0.9791). The geographical distribution is biased to a few countries, especially Spain, Italy, and Greece in the Mediterranean region, placing a larger focus on olive oil research. (2) Quality analysis‐related research acted as a link between keyword groups, the disease prevention and treatment‐related research of olive oil received decreasing interest, while authentication and quality analysis‐related research of olive oil showed the opposite trend, by‐products‐related research of olive oil got waving interests over the whole period. (3) Improvement is needed in the degree of olive oil with international collaboration. This is the first time that hotspots and trends in olive oil research have been shown. Research on olive oil.
Chapter
Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) affect over 2 billion worldwide. Preschool children and pregnant women in developing countries are most affected. Biofortification using conventional and transgenic approaches is a sustainable means to reduce MND. Evaluation of lentil genetic resources has revealed significant variation for micronutrients in both cultivated and wild species. Few biofortified varieties of lentil have been released for cultivation in different countries. The present work comprehensively reviews the efforts being made for lentil biofortification using conventional approaches and molecular tools in which future thrust areas have also been highlighted.Keywords Lens culinaris MicronutrientsBiofortificationMicronutrient deficiency
Chapter
Living cells are actively engaged in conducting various processes, sustaining the survival of cells, depending on highly orchestrated biochemical reactions. The body of any living being is a beautifully sophisticated factory. However, any alteration in normal cell physiology leads to various cellular, biochemical, metabolic, histological, and molecular alterations. Metabolic disorder includes a group of threatening reasons that significantly increases the prevalence of various diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia (increased triglyceride levels, LDL, and VLDL but decreased HDL), increased blood pressure and irregular glucose metabolism, etc. Lifestyle changes, especially eating behaviors and physical activity, are predicted by two independent risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome, more than genetic factors (only 10%) for the occurrence of metabolic disorder. These metabolic alterations often lead to organ damage, such as hepatic injury, renal damage, neurodegeneration, and reproductive abnormalities. Various drugs are available for the treatment of these metabolic disorders, but in one way or another, they have several other side defects, such as liver failure, kidney damage, neuronal injury, and several others. Phytopolyphenols such as phenols, alkaloids, flavonols, flavonoids, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, etc. have therapeutic effectiveness in the treatment of many diseases. These phytochemicals are versatile and have a great deal of interest from the scientific community due to their numerous biological activities, bioavailability, and bio-accessibility, and these polyphenols are used to prevent various chronic diseases. In addition, polyphenol-rich diets serve as a buffer against various forms of oxidative stress, cancer, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, lung diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The use of medicinal herbs can also be an alternative/adjuvant treatment for both metabolic and chronic diseases.KeywordsPhytopolyphenolsTherapeuticsBiological activitiesBioavailabilityBio-accessibilityPolyphenol-rich dietMedicinal herbsMetabolic and chronic diseases
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Meme kanseri, dünya çapında en yaygın ve ölümcül karsinomlardan biridir ve kadın sağlığı için ciddi bir tehdit oluşturmaktadır. Kötü beslenme, obezite, fiziksel aktivite eksikliği gibi yaşam tarzı faktörlerinin daha yüksek meme kanseri riski ile ilişkili olduğu bilinmektedir. Akdeniz diyeti, temel olarak antioksidanlar ve antiinflamatuvar besinler açısından zengin içeriğe sahip olması nedeniyle dünya çapında en sağlıklı beslenme modellerinden biri olarak kabul edilmektedir. Diyet bileşenlerinin kombinasyonunun; inflamasyonu ve oksidatif stresi azaltmada ortak bir rol oynadığı, dolayısıyla kardiyovasküler hastalıklar ve kanser dahil olmak üzere çeşitli malignitelerin ilerlemesine engel olduğu öne sürülmüştür. Hücrelerin oksidatif ve inflamatuvar süreçlerini azaltmada ve deoksiribo nükleik asit hasarlarını, hücre proliferasyonunu ve hayatta kalmalarını, anjiyogenezleri, inflamasyonu ve metastazları önlemedeki koruyucu etkileri göz önüne alındığında, Akdeniz diyetinin meme kanserinden korunmada ve meme kanseri tedavisinde etkili bir yöntem olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Bu derleme, Akdeniz diyetinin meme kanserinden korunmadaki ve meme kanseri tedavisindeki potansiyel etkilerinin incelenmesi amacıyla yazılmıştır
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The agricultural sector is facing a decrease in water supply and water quality at a global level and this is a problem that strictly affects all the Mediterranean olive growing areas. The aim of this work was to evaluate, for the first time, by NMR Spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis the metabolic profiling of the oils produced under different irrigation schemes. Arbosana olive oils were obtained from the use of saline reclaimed water (RW) and treated municipal wastewater (DW), combined with: full irrigation (FI) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI). The results show a higher relative content of saturated fatty acids in EVOOs obtained from RDI strategy, regardless of the water source. Moreover, an increase in unsaturated fatty acids, a ω6/ω3 ratio content was observed in EVOOs obtained from RW when compared with DW water. Furthermore, the RW–RDI showed an increase in secoiridoid derivatives and hydroperoxides with respect to DW–RDI. A sustainable irrigation management, by combining a deficit irrigation strategy and saline reclaimed water source, could be crucial in order to overcome the problem of water scarcity and to guarantee the olive oil nutraceutical properties. The 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach proved a powerful and versatile tool for this specific investigation.
Article
Rice Bran Oil (RBO) is an abundant food source in Indonesia. RBO contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and rich in antioxidants. However, clinical trials on this material are still very limited. This research aims to assess the differences of effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and olive oil (OO) on lipid profile alteration of hypercholesterolemia junior high school teachers. This study used a quasi-experimental method with a non-randomized pre-test and post-test design. A total of 28 junior high school teachers in the Tamalanrea District of Makassar City who experienced hypercholesterolemia were recruited in this study and were divided into 2 groups. The two groups were at different research locations and received different interventions. The intervention group was given rice bran oil (30 ml/day) while the control group was given olive oil (30 ml/day) for 30 days. The pair t test was used to determine the difference in lipid profile before and after giving RBO and OO. The analysis was continued by comparing the results in the two groups using the independent t test. The level of confidence was set at 95% with a significance value less than 0.05 (p <0.05). After giving RBO for 30 days, the results were a decrease in total cholesterol by 4.59%, triglycerides by 15.8%, LDL by 4.87%, but HDL levels also decreased, although in insignificant amounts (3.41%). Meanwhile, giving OO as a control reduced total cholesterol by 5.04% and triglycerides by 28.2%. In addition, there was also a slight increase in HDL levels by 0.45%, in contrast to LDL levels which did not show any difference at all. At the end of the study of the four lipid profile parameters observed, significant improvements were observed in the reduction of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels significantly after administration of RBO and OO (p <0.05). The results also showed that there was no significant difference between RBO and OO on changes in lipid profile (p> 0.05). From this study, we can conclude that rice bran oil and olive oil have the same effect in improving lipid profiles by significantly lowering total cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Chapter
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites and are generally involved in defense against ultraviolet radiation, oxidative stress, or aggression by pathogens in the plant. However, there is now much interest in dietary plant polyphenols’ potential human health benefits as an antioxidant. Epidemiological studies indicate that long-term consumption of dietary polyphenols confers protection against the development of cancers, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. The chapter describes the role of plant polyphenols as antioxidant and antioxidant in relevance to human health.
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Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been associated with improved health and longevity. This association is due to the reductions in chronic diseases and their risk factors. A significant contributor to this reduction is extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). EVOO contains monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as minor constituents, including phenolic compounds. This composition gives EVOO its antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties that can protect the body against diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. Due to the major role that EVOO plays in the MedDiet, the definition of the MedDiet greatly relies on EVOO. This review explores the current evidence on the role that EVOO and its bioactive compounds play in the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The composition of EVOO, the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds, and its potential function regarding various chronic diseases will be described in detail.
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BACKGROUND Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been shown to have a substantial effect on plasma lipoprotein levels. We investigated whether torcetrapib, a potent CETP inhibitor, might reduce major cardiovascular events. The trial was terminated prematurely because of an increased risk of death and cardiac events in patients receiving torcetrapib. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind study involving 15,067 patients at high cardiovascular risk. The patients received either torcetrapib plus atorvastatin or atorvastatin alone. The primary outcome was the time to the first major cardiovascular event, which was defined as death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS At 12 months in patients who received torcetrapib, there was an increase of 72.1% in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease of 24.9% in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared with baseline (P<0.001 for both comparisons), in addition to an increase of 5.4 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, a decrease in serum potassium, and increases in serum sodium, bicarbonate, and aldosterone (P<0.001 for all comparisons). There was also an increased risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.44; P=0.001) and death from any cause (hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.19; P=0.006). Post hoc analyses showed an increased risk of death in patients treated with torcetrapib whose reduction in potassium or increase in bicarbonate was greater than the median change. CONCLUSIONS Torcetrapib therapy resulted in an increased risk of mortality and morbidity of unknown mechanism. Although there was evidence of an off-target effect of torcetrapib, we cannot rule out adverse effects related to CETP inhibition. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00134264. opens in new tab.)
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In the last issue we discussed the implementation of health claims legislation in the European Union (1) and focused on techniques for boosting the chances of success with health claims applications. In relation to this, it is very important to learn from the EFSA's existing opinions to avoid problems which have already surfaced. In the first part, the impact of health claim wording was examined with some examples, while the sufficient characterisation of foods or food constituents, specific conditions of use and the target population, the relevance of the claimed effect on human health and the overall quality of human studies for a successful scientific substantiation of the claimed effect is presented below.
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Background Olive oil polyphenols have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits. This study aims to examine the influence of a polyphenol-rich olive oil on blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function in 24 young women with high-normal BP or stage 1 essential hypertension.Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized, crossover dietary-intervention study. After a run-in period of 4 months (baseline values), two diets were used, one with polyphenol-rich olive oil (∼30 mg/day), the other with polyphenol-free olive oil. Each dietary period lasted 2 months with a 4-week washout between diets. Systolic and diastolic BP, serum or plasma biomarkers of endothelial function, oxidative stress, and inflammation, and ischemia-induced hyperemia in the forearm were measured.ResultsWhen compared to baseline values, only the polyphenol-rich olive oil diet led to a significant (P < 0.01) decrease of 7.91 mm Hg in systolic and 6.65 mm Hg of diastolic BP. A similar finding was found for serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) (-0.09 ± 0.01 µmol/l, P < 0.01), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) (-28.2 ± 28.5 µg/l, P < 0.01), and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) (-1.9 ± 1.3 mg/l, P < 0.001). The polyphenol-rich olive oil diet also elicited an increase in plasma nitrites/nitrates (+4.7 ± 6.6 µmol/l, P < 0.001) and hyperemic area after ischemia (+345 ± 386 perfusion units (PU)/sec, P < 0.001).Conclusions We concluded that the consumption of a diet containing polyphenol-rich olive oil can decrease BP and improve endothelial function in young women with high-normal BP or stage 1 essential hypertension.American Journal of Hypertension 2012; doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.128American Journal of Hypertension (2012); doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.128.
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Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction, which has triggered the hypothesis that HDL, in contrast to low-density lipoprotein (LDL), acts as an anti-atherogenic lipoprotein. Moreover, experimental studies have identified potential anti-atherogenic properties of HDL, including promotion of macrophage cholesterol efflux and direct endothelial-protective effects of HDL, such as stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production and repair, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties. Studies in gene-targeted mice, however, have also indicated that increasing HDL-cholesterol plasma levels can either limit (e.g. apolipoprotein A-I) or accelerate (e.g. Scavenger receptor class B type I) atherosclerosis. Moreover, vascular effects of HDL have been observed to be heterogenous and are altered in patients with CAD or diabetes, a condition that has been termed 'HDL dysfunction'. These alterations in biological functions of HDL may need to be taken into account for HDL-targeted therapies and considering raising of HDL-cholesterol levels alone is likely not sufficient in this respect. It will therefore be important to further determine, which biological functions of HDL are critical for its anti-atherosclerotic properties, as well as how these can be measured and targeted.
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Polyphenols are potent antioxidants found in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO); antioxidants have been shown to reverse age- and disease-related learning and memory deficits. We examined the effects of EVOO on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice, an age-related learning/memory impairment model associated with increased amyloid-β protein and brain oxidative damage. We administered EVOO, coconut oil, or butter to 11 month old SAMP8 mice for 6 weeks. Mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance and one-trial novel object recognition with a 24 h delay. Mice which received EVOO had improved acquisition in the T-maze and spent more time with the novel object in one-trial novel object recognition versus mice which received coconut oil or butter. Mice that received EVOO had improve T-maze retention compared to the mice that received butter. EVOO increased brain glutathione levels suggesting reduced oxidative stress as a possible mechanism. These effects plus increased glutathione reductase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased tissue levels of 4-hydroxynoneal and 3-nitrotyrosine were enhanced with enriched EVOO (3 × and 5 × polyphenols concentration). Our findings suggest that EVOO has beneficial effects on learning and memory deficits found in aging and diseases, such as those related to the overproduction of amyloid-β protein, by reversing oxidative damage in the brain, effects that are augmented with increasing concentrations of polyphenols in EVOO.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, on the modulation of the inflammatory response in mice subjected to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in mice by an intradermal injection of 100 μl of an emulsion containing 100 μg of bovine type II collagen (CII) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at the base of the tail. On day 21, a second injection of CII in CFA was administered. Mice developed erosive hind paw arthritis when immunized with CII in CFA. Macroscopic clinical evidence of CIA first appeared as periarticular erythema and edema in the hind paws. The incidence of CIA was 100% by day 28 in the CII-challenged mice and the severity of CIA progressed over a 35-day period with resorption of bone. The histopathology of CIA included erosion of the cartilage at the joint. Treatment with oleuropein aglycone starting at the onset of arthritis (day 25) ameliorated the clinical signs at days 26 to 35 and improved histological status in the joint and paw. The degree of oxidative and nitrosative damage was also significantly reduced in oleuropein aglycone-treated mice. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines were also significantly reduced by oleuropein aglycone. In addition, we have confirmed the beneficial effects of oleuropein aglycone on an experimental model of CIA in a therapeutic regimen of post-treatment, with treatment started at day 28, demonstrating that oleuropein aglycone exerts an anti-inflammatory effect during chronic inflammation and ameliorates the tissue damage associated with CIA.
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Dietary fat, both in terms of quantity and quality, has been implicated to cancer development, either positively or negatively. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether olive oil or monounsaturated fat intake was associated with the development of cancer. A systematic search of relevant studies, published in English, between 1990 and March 1, 2011, was performed through a computer-assisted literature tool (i.e., Pubmed). In total 38 studies were initially allocated; of them 19 case-control studies were finally studied (13800 cancer patients and 23340 controls were included). Random effects meta-analysis was applied in order to evaluate the research hypothesis. It was found that compared with the lowest, the highest category of olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of having any type of cancer (log odds ratio = -0.41, 95%CI -0.53, -0.29, Cohran's Q = 47.52, p = 0.0002, I-sq = 62%); the latter was irrespective of the country of origin (Mediterranean or non-Mediterranean). Moreover, olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of developing breast cancer (logOR = -0,45 95%CI -0.78 to -0.12), and a cancer of the digestive system (logOR = -0,36 95%CI -0.50 to -0.21), compared with the lowest intake. The strength and consistency of the findings states a hypothesis about the protective role of olive oil intake on cancer risk. However, it is still unclear whether olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid content or its antioxidant components are responsible for its beneficial effects.
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Background Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has been shown to have a substantial effect on plasma lipoprotein levels. We investigated whether torcetrapib, a potent CETP inhibitor, might reduce major cardiovascular events. The trial was terminated prematurely because of an increased risk of death and cardiac events in patients receiving torcetrapib. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind study involving 15,067 patients at high cardiovascular risk. The patients received either torcetrapib plus atorvastatin or atorvastatin alone. The primary outcome was the time to the first major cardiovascular event, which was defined as death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Results At 12 months in patients who received torcetrapib, there was an increase of 72.1% in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease of 24.9% in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as compared with baseline (P<0.001 for both compari...
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Population studies have shown that plasma HDL levels correlate inversely with cardiovascular disease risk. In recent years there has been intense interest in developing strategies for exploiting these cardioprotective properties by increasing HDL levels. While this approach has considerable merit, it is important to recognize that HDL are structurally and functionally diverse and consist of numerous, highly dynamic subpopulations of particles that do not all inhibit atherosclerosis to the same extent. For this reason it is essential to assess HDL subpopulation distribution and functionality when considering therapeutic interventions that raise HDL levels. This review documents what is known about the relationship between the metabolism and function of HDL subpopulations and how this affects their cardioprotective properties.
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p>Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, which is eligible for further assessment, is a beneficial physiological effect. The proposed target population is the general population. No evidence from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, in addition to the Panel’s earlier opinion, was provided. The Panel considers that no data were submitted which would require a reconsideration of the conclusions expressed in its previous opinion, in which it concluded that the evidence provided was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.</p
Chapter
In the Mediterranean basin, the “Mediterranean diet�? has been widely considered to be responsible for a healthy and relatively disease-free population. Epidemiological data show that this diet and way of life have signicant protective effects against different types of chronic diseases, including cancer and coronary heart disease. To a certain degree, these effects can be attributed to olive oil consumption, one of the major constituents of the Mediterranean diet. The benecial role of olive oil is mainly due to a combination of its high oleic acid content (peroxidation-resistant lipid) and its minor components like polar phenolic compounds. More than 40 phenols have been identied in olive oil and a large number have been isolated and used in in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in order to investigate their actions. The major polar phenolic compounds identied and quantied in olive oil, as already mentioned in previous chapters of the book, belong to four different classes: simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol); secoiridoids (oleuropein, the aglycon of ligstroside, and their respective decarboxylated dialdehyde derivatives); flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin); and lignans [(+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol]. A limited number of studies deal with cellular or molecular actions of olive oil lignans. However, it is known that pinoresinol can be converted to mammalian lignans, called enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) (Heinonen et al., 2001), formed by the intestinal microflora after the consumption of plant lignans (Milder et al., 2005).
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Background: Virgin olive oils are richer in phenolic content than refined olive oil. Small, randomized, crossover, controlled trials on the antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds from real-life daily doses of olive oil in humans have yielded conflicting results. Little information is available on the effect of the phenolic compounds of olive oil on plasma lipid levels. No international study with a large sample size has been done. Objective: To evaluate whether the phenolic content of olive oil further benefits plasma lipid levels and lipid oxidative damage compared with monounsaturated acid content. Design: Randomized, crossover, controlled trial. Setting: 6 research centers from 5 European countries. Participants: 200 healthy male volunteers. Measurements: Glucose levels, plasma lipid levels, oxidative damage to lipid levels, and endogenous and exogenous antioxidants at baseline and before and after each intervention. Intervention: In a crossover study, participants were randomly assigned to 3 sequences of daily administration of 25 mL of 3 olive oils. Olive oils had low (2.7 mg/kg of olive oil), medium (164 mg/kg), or high (366 mg/kg) phenolic content but were otherwise similar. Intervention periods were 3 weeks preceded by 2-week washout periods. Results: A linear increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was observed for low-, medium-, and high-polyphenol olive oil: mean change, 0.025 mmol/L (95% Cl, 0.003 to 0.05 mmol/L), 0.032 mmol/L (Cl, 0.005 to 0.05 mmol/L), and 0.045 mmol/L (Cl, 0.02 to 0.06 mmol/L), respectively. Total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio decreased linearly with the phenolic content of the olive oil. Triglyceride levels decreased by an average of 0.05 mmol/L for all olive oils. Oxidative stress markers decreased linearly with increasing phenolic content. Mean changes for oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels were 1.21 U/L (Cl, -0.8 to 3.6 U/L), -1.48 U/L (-3.6 to 0.6 U/L), and -3.21 U/L (-5.1 to -0.8 U/L) for the low-, medium-, and high-polyphenol olive oil, respectively. Limitations: The olive oil may have interacted with other dietary components, participants' dietary intake was self-reported, and the intervention periods were short. Conclusions: Olive oil is more than a monounsaturated fat. Its phenolic content can also provide benefits for plasma lipid levels and oxidative damage.
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Background The WHO MONICA (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) Project monitored, from the early 1980s, trend over 10 years in coronary heart disease (CHD) across 37 populations in 21 countries. We aimed to validate trends in mortality, partitioning responsibility between changing coronary-event rates and changing survival. Methods Registers identified non-fatal definite myocardial infarction and definite, possible, or unclassifiable coronary deaths in men and women aged 35-64 years, followed up for 28 days in or out of hospital. We calculated rates from population denominators to estimate trends in age-standardised rates and case fatality (percentage of 28-day fatalities=[100-survival percentage]). Findings During 371 population-years, 166 000 events were registered. Official CHD mortality rates, based on death certification, fell (annual changes: men -4.0% [range -10.8 to 3.2]; women -4.0% [-12.7 to 3.0]). By MONICA criteria, CHD mortality rates were higher, but felt less (-2.7% [-8.0 to 4.2] and -2.1% [-8.5 to 4.1]). Changes in non-fatal rates were smaller (-2.1%, [-6.9 to 2.8] and -0.8% [-9.8 to 6.8]). MONICA coronary-event rates (fatal and non-fatal combined) fell more (-2.1% [-6.5 to 2.8] and -1.4% [-6.7 to 2.8]) than case fatality (-0.6% [-4.2 to 3.1] and -0.8% [-4.8 to 2.9]). Contribution to changing CHD mortality varied, but in populations in which mortality decreased, coronary-event rates contributed two thirds and case fatality one third. Interpretation Over the decade studied, the 37 populations in the WHO MONICA Project showed substantial contributions from changes in survival, but the major determinant of decline in CHD mortality is whatever drives changing coronary-event rates.
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Saponins are natural detergents (surfactants) found in a variety of plants. The two major commercial sources of saponins are desert plants: Yucca schidigera from Mexico and Quillaja saponaria from Chile. Yucca saponins have a steroid nucleus, whereas Quillaja saponins are triterpenoid in structure. Saponins contain a lipophylic nucleus (steroid or triterpenoid) and one or more water-soluble carbohydrate side chains. Thus, the surfactant activity is a result of both fat-soluble and water-soluble moie- ties in the same molecule. There are several current and potential applications of yucca and Quillaja products in animal nutrition. Yucca extract is used as a feed additive to reduce ammonia and fecal odors in animal excreta. Saponins, by virtue of their surfac- tant properties, have antiprotozoal activity. Saponins have membranolytic properties; they complex with cholesterol in protozoal cell membranes, causing cell lysis. They have antibacterial activity and modify ruminal fermentation by suppressing ruminal protozoa and selectively inhibiting some bacteria. Ruminal ammonia concentrations are reduced. Yucca extract is used for pre- vention and treatment of arthritis in horses, although convincing evidence of its efficacy has not been reported. Saponins influ- ence absorption of lipids, through formation of micelles with bile salts and cholesterol in the intestine. Quillaja saponins are used as adjuvants in veterinary vaccines. They are effective in both injected and orally administered vaccines, through saponin effects on cell membranes. There is evidence that oral administration of saponins may stimulate the immune system and increase resis- tance to a disease challenge. Yucca extract has been shown to reduce neonatal pig mortality when fed to sows in late pregnancy. Thus, dietary saponin sources have several beneficial properties in animal production.
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Growth and bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity of the isogenic Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (LP80) strains were studied in vitro. In pure culture experiments viability and growth performance of the BSH- LP80 strain was negatively affected by the presence of conjugated bile salts. The LP80 wild type (WT) and BSH overproducing LP80 (pCBH1) strains did not show a die-off upon supplementation of bile salts. The latter strains hydrolysed glyco-conjugated deoxycholate (GDCA) more readily than tauro-conjugated deoxycholate (TDCA), indicating substrate specificity of the enzyme. BSH activities towards TDCA of LP80 WT and LP80 (pCBH1) stationary phase cells were 017 and 1.02 μmol/mg CDW.h respectively; activities towards GDCA of the respective strains were 3.52 and 54.80 μmol/mg CDW.h respectively. The study of BSH activity as a function of growth revealed a marked difference in behaviour between LP80 WT and LP80 (pCBH1) with LP80 WT hydrolysing GDCA when reaching the exponential phase, whereas LP80 (pCBH1) immediately started to hydrolyse GDCA. TDCA hydrolysis increased after GDCA hydrolysis was completed. BSH activity of LP80 (pCBH1) in a mixed microbial association, resembling that of the small intestine, was comparable to that determined under pure culture conditions, indicating that BSH activity will probably not be influenced by the presence of the normal intestinal microbiota. Based on the BSH activity of LP80 (pCBHl) and on physiological data on the bile salt-cholesterol metabolism interrelationship, it was calculated that a daily intake of a realistic amount of highly BSH active Lactobacillus cells, e.g. in the form of yoghurt, might lead to a significant reduction of cholesterol. Hence, this in vitro study indicates that altering BSH activity can be a valid (micro) biological alternative treatment for patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia.
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Purpose: Diets rich in plant-derived polyphenols such as olive oil (OO) and/or catechins such as epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) have been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially by improving endothelial function, an important surrogate for atherosclerosis. The possible augmentation of endothelial function with the combined efforts of OO and EGCG is intriguing, yet unknown. Methods: Eighty-two patients with early atherosclerosis (presence of endothelial dysfunction) were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized trial with 52 completing the study. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of a daily intake of 30 ml simple OO, with 30 ml of EGCG-supplemented OO, on endothelial function as well as on inflammation and oxidative stress after a period of 4 months. Endothelial function was assessed noninvasively via peripheral arterial tonometry (Endo-PAT®). Results: After 4 months, when OO and EGCG-supplemented OO groups were combined, OO significantly improved endothelial function (RHI, 1.59 ± 0.25-1.75 ± 0.45; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in results between the two olive oil groups. Interestingly, with OO supplementation there was a significant reduction in inflammatory parameters: sICAM (196 to 183 ng/mL, p = < 0.001); white blood cells (WBCs) (6.0 × 10⁹/L-5.8 × 10⁹/L, p < 0.05); monocytes (0.48 × 10⁹/L to 0.44 × 10⁹/L, p = 0.05); lymphocytes (1.85 × 10⁹/L to 1.6 × 10⁹/L, p = 0.01); and platelets (242-229 × 10⁹/L, p = 0.047). Conclusions: Improvement in endothelial dysfunction in patients with early atherosclerosis in association with significant reduction in leukocytes may suggest an important role of early cellular inflammatory mediators on endothelial function. The current study supports one potential mechanism for the role of olive oil, independent of EGCG, modestly supplemented to a healthy cardiovascular diet.
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This paper presents a systematic literature review of studies investigating the extent and the ways in which health claims influence consumers. It focuses on published international research on health claims from US, Australia, Canada, Brazil and European countries. Research papers (n=42) that were identified were coded in terms of sample type, research objectives/questions, research design and methodological details, as well as results and implications for future research. Results provide a systematic overview of the context in which health claims have been examined in the past and present a synthesis of findings in six thematic categories, namely knowledge/awareness of dietary issues, effects of health claims on purchase decisions, effects of health claims on perception/attitudes/beliefs, sources of information and trust, framing of health claims and disease-risk reduction and health-enhancing claims as well as consumer purchase decision.
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in regulating normal cellular processes, but deregulated ROS contribute to the development of various human diseases including cancers. Autophagy is one of the first lines of defense against oxidative stress damage. The autophagy pathway can be induced and upregulated in response to intracellular ROS or extracellular oxidative stress. This leads to selective lysosomal self-digestion of intracellular components to maintain cellular homeostasis. Hence, autophagy is the survival pathway, conferring stress adaptation and promoting viability under oxidative stress. However, increasing evidence has demonstrated that autophagy can also lead to cell death under oxidative stress conditions. In addition, altered autophagic signaling pathways that lead to decreased autophagy are frequently found in many human cancers. This review discusses the advances in understanding of the mechanisms of ROS-induced autophagy and how this process relates to tumorigenesis and cancer therapy.
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Changes in the physico-chemical parameters of extra virgin olive oils after heating for 142h at 100°C with an air flow 10L/h were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on the two predominant olive cultivars in Slovenian Istra - cv. Istrska belica and cv. Leccino. The data obtained showed that oils from Istrska belica were more stable than those from Leccino. Peroxide values and spectrophotometric data showed higher amounts of oxidation products in oils from Leccino than in those from Istrska belica. After thermal treatment fatty acid composition was changed more in Leccino oils; particularly the amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids dropped significantly, while α-tocopherol was completely depleted in all samples. The content of total biophenols decreased from 598mg/kg to 241mg/kg in Istrska belica oils and from 391mg/kg to 176mg/kg in Leccino oils. HPLC data showed that transformation of secoiridoid biophenols to the simple biophenols, tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol took place. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Atherosclerosis is classed as a disease of aging, such that increasing age is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is also associated with premature biological aging, as atherosclerotic plaques show evidence of cellular senescence characterized by reduced cell proliferation, irreversible growth arrest and apoptosis, elevated DNA damage, epigenetic modifications, and telomere shortening and dysfunction. Not only is cellular senescence associated with atherosclerosis, there is growing evidence that cellular senescence promotes atherosclerosis. This review examines the pathology of normal vascular aging, the evidence for cellular senescence in atherosclerosis, the mechanisms underlying cellular senescence including reactive oxygen species, replication exhaustion and DNA damage, the functional consequences of vascular cell senescence, and the possibility that preventing accelerated cellular senescence is a therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.