Article

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder and the Brain

American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 03/2013; 170(3):248-52. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12121555
Source: PubMed

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Available from: psychiatryonline.org
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    • "Recently, PMDD has been reclassified in DSM-V and listed as a depressive disorder (Zachar & Kendler, 2014; Association, 2013). Our study focused on PMS because the prevalence of PMS is more common than PMDD (Wichianpitaya & Taneepanichskul, 2013; Epperson, 2013; Angst et al., 2001; Takeda et al., 2015; Association, 2013; Khayat et al., 2014b). Prevalence of PMS and PMDD reported in Iran varies among studies, about 40–70% of menstruating women have PMS symptoms and it is Neuropeptides xxx (2015) xxx–xxx ⁎ Corresponding author at: Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. "
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    ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a variety of physical, mental, and behavioral symptoms that start during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and the symptoms disappear after the onset of menses. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels during luteal phase in women associated with PMS have more alterations than women not suffering from PMS. In this regard, altered luteal BDNF levels in women with PMS might play a role in a set of psychological and somatic symptoms of the PMS. Studies of last decade revealed neuroprotective effects of curcumin and its ability to increase BDNF levels. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of curcumin on serum BDNF level and PMS symptoms severity in women with PMS. Present study is a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Curcumin treatment was given for three successive menstrual cycles and each cycle ran 10 days. After having identified persons with PMS, participants were randomly allocated into placebo (n=35) and curcumin (n=35) groups. Each sample in placebo and curcumin groups received two capsules daily for seven days before menstruation and for three days after menstruation for three successive menstrual cycles. Participants noted the severity of the symptoms mentioned in the daily record questionnaire. Self-report was used to determine menstrual cycle phase of participants. At the fourth day of each menstrual cycle venous blood samples were collected for BDNF measurement by ELISA method. Before intervention, BDNF levels and mean scores of PMS symptoms (mood, behavioral and physical symptoms) between two groups showed no significant differences. But in curcumin group first, second and third cycles after interventions BDNF levels were significantly higher and mean scores of PMS symptoms were significantly less than placebo group. Based on our results part of these beneficial effects of curcumin may be mediated through enhancing serum BDNF levels in women with PMS.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Neuropeptides
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    • "Ovarian hormones have profound organizational effects during brain development, and important and diverse activational effects in adulthood [Cahill, 2006; Gillies and McArthur, 2010; Savic, 2010]. Neuroimaging findings in PMDD suggest menstrual cycle phase-by-diagnosis interaction effects, indeed highlighting the relevance of hormone fluctuations in this disorder [Epperson, 2013]. Moreover, a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) study implicated a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interaction with ovarian hormones and neurosteroids in the pathophysiology of PMDD [Epperson et al., 2002], and a PET study suggested a role for serotonin in PMDD [Jovanovic et al., 2006]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the prototypical sex-specific disorder in which symptom onset and offset require a particular hormonal milieu and for which there is moderate heritability. The present study investigated brain emotion processing in PMDD and healthy controls, as well as functional polymorphisms in two candidate genes for PMDD, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were genotyped in 31 patients with PMDD and 31 healthy controls. A subset of 16 patients and 15 controls participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging-sessions performing an emotion processing task; once in the mid-follicular, and once in the late luteal phase which corresponds with maximum severity of mood symptoms. Genotypes were not directly associated with PMDD. A main effect of group was found in the whole brain analysis, with patients having lower activation of the pre-genual anterior cingulate and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, independent of menstrual cycle phase. Post-hoc functional ROI analyses in the fronto-cingulate cluster showed no effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype but a genotype-by-group-by-phase interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met. Women with PMDD who were carriers of the Met-allele had lower fronto-cingulate cortex activation in the luteal phase compared to Met-allele carrying controls. The results provide suggestive evidence of impaired emotion-induced fronto-cingulate cortex activation in PMDD patients. Although limited by a small sample, the potential influence of BDNF Val66Met in PMDD is in line with preclinical findings. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Human Brain Mapping
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