Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Have Distinct Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein Changes: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study
Context:Cardiovascular risk is increased in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG); however, those with IGT appear to be at greater risk. Lipoprotein abnormalities occur also in the prediabetic state.Objective:The authors examined lipoprotein composition in IGT and IFG.Design and Setting:Cross-sectional analysis of a large epidemiological study was done.Participants:The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study had a total of 1107 participants.Main measures:Lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were measured by conventional methods and lipoprotein composition by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results:Compared with normal glucose tolerance, apolipoprotein B (105.2 vs 99.8 mg/dL, P < .05) was high in isolated IFG, triglyceride (1.48 vs 1.16 mmol/L, P < .001) was high in isolated IGT, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was low in combined IFG/IGT (1.12 vs 1.26 mmol/L, P < .001). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed additional changes: increased total low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (1190 vs 1096 nmol/L, P < .01) in isolated IFG; increased large very-low-density lipoprotein (3.61 vs 2.47 nmol/L, P < .01) and small LDL subclass particles (665 vs 541 nmol/L, P < .05) and decreased large LDL subclass particles (447 vs 513 nmol/L, P < .01) in isolated IGT; and decreased large high-density lipoprotein subclass particles in combined IFG/IGT (4.24 vs 5.39 μmol/L, P < .001).Conclusions:Isolated IFG is characterized by increased apolipoprotein B and total LDL particles, whereas isolated IGT is associated with increased triglycerides, large very-low-density lipoprotein subclass particles, and structural remodeling of LDL particles. These results may help to explain differences in cardiovascular disease risk in the prediabetic state.
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