Abstract Purpose. To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design. A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting. A low-income, urban, African-American neighborhood. Subjects. One hundred sixty-nine adults. Measures. Self-reported physical activity stages of change-precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured body mass index and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results. Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, p < .05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR = 1.68, p < .01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g., from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each one-unit increase in financial risk tolerance or one-unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusion. Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples.
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"We conducted a qualitative study, well-suited for assessing perceptions and behaviors of participants in their natural environment (15,16), to examine factors affecting physical activity and perceptions of sedentary behavior among adult participants in the Fair Park Study. This study, described in detail elsewhere (17,18), aimed to assess the effect of public investment on socioeconomic and health factors of residents in a low-income community in South Dallas, Texas. Before study initiation, ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review boards of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insufficient physical activity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases and for premature death. Accumulating evidence reveals that prolonged sedentary time is detrimental, independent of the protective effects of physical activity. Although studies have explored correlates of physical activity among ethnic minority populations, few have examined factors related to sedentary behavior. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary investigation into urban adults' perceptions of sedentary behavior alongside perceived barriers and enablers to physical activity.
In-depth semi-structured interviews were used to evaluate perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior in a sample of low-income, ethnic minority adults. The framework approach guided researchers in analyzing the qualitative data.
Participants were well aware of the positive health benefits of physical activity. However, most admitted not regularly engaging in physical activity and cited numerous barriers to activity, such as lack of time, insufficient finances, and neighborhood crime. Enablers included weight loss, the presence of social support, and the availability of safe parks conducive to exercise. In comparison, participants were primarily unfamiliar with the term "sedentary behavior" and did not perceive a relationship between sedentary behavior and health outcomes.
Our findings illustrate the need to increase the awareness of negative health implications of prolonged sedentary time while continuing to address the multiple impediments to physical activity as a way to combat chronic disease.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Preventing chronic disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National guidelines on the effective management of pediatric asthma have been promoted for over 20 years, yet asthma-related morbidity among low-income children remains disproportionately high. To date, household and clinical interventions designed to remediate these differences have been informed largely by a health behavior framework. However, these programs have not resulted in consistent sustained improvements in targeted populations. The continued funding and implementation of programs based on the health behavior framework leads us to question if traditional behavioral models are sufficient to understand and promote adaptation of positive health management behaviors. We introduce the application of the microeconomic framework to investigate potential mechanisms that can lead to positive management behaviors to improve asthma-related morbidity. We provide examples from the literature on health production, preferences, trade-offs and time horizons to illustrate how economic constructs can potentially add to understanding of disease management. The economic framework, which can be empirically observed, tested, and quantified, can explicate the engagement in household-level activities that would affect health and well-being. The inclusion of a microeconomic perspective in intervention research may lead to identification of mechanisms that lead to household decisions with regard to asthma management strategies and behavior. The inclusion of the microeconomic framework to understand the production of health may provide a novel theoretical framework to investigate the underlying causal behavioral mechanisms related to asthma management and control. Adaptation of an economic perspective may provide new insight into the design and implementation of interventions to improve asthma-related morbidity in susceptible populations.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Health Education & Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US, with a significantly higher fraction of African Americans who are obese than whites. Yet there is little understanding of why some individuals become obese while others do not. We conduct a lab-in-field experiment in a low-income African American community to investigate whether risk and time preferences play a role in the tendency to become obese. We examine the relationship between incentivized measures of risk and time preferences and weight status (BMI), and find that individuals who are more tolerant of risk are more likely to have a higher BMI. This result is driven by the most risk tolerant individuals. Patience is not independently statistically related to BMI in this sample, but those who are more risk averse and patient are less likely to be obese.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization