Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
The Journal of reproductive medicine (Impact Factor: 0.7). 11/2012; 58(1-2):25-33.
Source: PubMed


To examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy in Peruvian women.
This case-control study included 479 PTB cases and 480 term controls. In-person interviews were conducted to assess women's depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Compared with women reporting no or minimal depressive symptoms, the aOR (95% CI) for PTB associated with consecutive severity of depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 assessment method were as follows: mild, 2.22 (95% CI 1.64-3.00) and moderate-severe, 3.67 (95% CI 2.09-6.46). The corresponding aORs for normal, mild, and moderate-severe depressive symptoms based on the DASS-21 assessment were 1.00 (reference), 3.82 (95% CI 1.90-7.66), and 2.90 (95% CI 1.66-5.04), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of PTB with severity of anxiety (Ptrend < 0.001) and stress symptoms (Ptrend < 0.001).
The odds of PTB increased in pregnant Peruvian women with psychiatric symptoms. Efforts to screen and treat affected women may modify risks of PTB and possibly other associated disorders.

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    • "Psychiatric disorders during the prenatal and postpartum periods are of high clinical and public health significance because of their strong associations with adverse pregnancy, infant, and parenting outcomes. For instance, a mature and diverse literature has documented associations of maternal psychiatric symptoms and disorders with adverse outcomes including shortened gestational length or preterm delivery (Seng et al. 2011; Sanchez et al. 2013; Yonkers et al. 2014), placental abruption (de Paz et al. 2011), preeclampsia (Qiu et al. 2007; Kim et al. 2013), and maternal health risk behaviors such as suicidality (Farber et al. 1996), cigarette smoking (Lopez et al. 2011), and substance use (Massey et al. 2011). Furthermore, maternal postpartum depression has been linked to emotional and behavioral difficulties in offspring (Cicchetti et al. 1998; Verbeek et al. 2012; Walker et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Archives of Women s Mental Health
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThis study examined whether prenatal perceived stress levels during pregnancy were associated with preterm labor or preterm birth.Methods Perceived stress levels were measured at 16 weeks’ gestation or less and between 20 and 24 weeks’ gestation in a sample of 1069 low-income pregnant women attending Temple University prenatal care clinics. Scores were averaged to create a single measure of prenatal stress. Preterm birth was defined as the occurrence of a spontaneous birth prior to 37 weeks’ gestation. Preterm labor was defined as the occurrence of regular contractions between 20 and 37 weeks' gestation that were associated with changes in the cervix.ResultsIndependent of potential confounding factors, prenatal perceived stress was not associated with preterm labor (odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.78; P = .66); however, prenatal stress trended toward an association with preterm birth (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.00-2.23; P = .05). The strongest predictor of preterm labor was a history of preterm labor in a prior pregnancy. Women with a history of preterm labor were 2 times more likely to experience preterm labor in the current pregnancy than women who did not have a preterm labor history (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05-4.41; P = .04). Historical risk factors for preterm birth, such as African American race, a history of abortion, or a history of preterm birth, were not related to preterm labor. The strongest predictor of preterm birth was having a history of preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.54-4.24; P < .001).DiscussionPrenatal perceived stress levels may be a risk factor for preterm birth independent of preterm labor; however, prenatal stress was not associated with preterm labor. Risk factors for preterm labor may be different from those of preterm birth.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of midwifery & women's health
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy (PSP) is a risk factor of growing interest in the etiology of preterm birth (PTB). This literature review assesses the published evidence concerning the association between PSP and PTB, highlighting established and hypothesized physiological pathways mediating this association. Method: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the keywords "psychosocial stress", "pregnancy", "pregnancy stress", "preterm", "preterm birth", "gestational age", "anxiety", and "social support". After applying the exclusion criteria, the search produced 107 articles. Results: The association of PSP with PTB varied according to the dimensions and timing of PSP. Stronger associations were generally found in early pregnancy, and most studies demonstrating positive results found moderate effect sizes, with risk ratios between 1.2 and 2.1. Subjective perception of stress and pregnancy-related anxiety appeared to be the stress measures most closely associated with PTB. Potential physiological pathways identified included behavioral, infectious, neuroinflammatory, and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Conclusions: Future research should examine the biological pathways of these different psychosocial stress dimensions and at multiple time points across pregnancy. Culture-independent characterization of the vaginal microbiome and noninvasive monitoring of cholinergic activity represent two exciting frontiers in this research.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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