A rare primary tumor of the thyroid gland: Report a new case of leiomyosarcoma and literature review

Diagnostic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 02/2013; 8(1):36. DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-8-36
Source: PubMed


Primary leiomyosarcomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. we report a case of a 72 year-old women with a painful growing mass of the left neck with skin fistula. The patient underwent a lobectomy. The tumor histology showed spindle-shaped cells arranged in interlacing fascicles that expressed desmine and Hcaldesmone, but were negative for cytokeratins and thyroglobulin. Total body CT scan didnt show any other tumor. The patient died two months after surgery. Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma may be mistaken for other tumors, such as anaplastic or medullary carcinomas. Therefore, the diagnosis is difficult and requires numerous clinical, radiological, and pathological investigations.

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    • "Pathological examination may be ineffective in distinguishing primary from metastatic TL and clinical examination and instrumental diagnostic work-up are required. Soft tissues, gastrointestinal tract and particularly pelvic organs represent the most common sites of origin (3). Cytological evaluation reveals spindle cells, which may also be present in other more common primary tumors of the thyroid gland, such as medullary or anaplastic thyroid cancer (4). "
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    ABSTRACT: Primary smooth muscle tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare neoplasms. Due to their rarity, clinical case studies concerning management are lacking. According to a literature review, only 19 cases of primary thyroid leiomyosarcomas (TLs) have been reported. In the majority of patients, the prognosis is poor since adjuvant radiochemotherapy is ineffective on local recurrence and on longterm survival. In this study, we report the case of a 77yearold male affected by a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior neck, associated with bilateral lung metastases, and increasing dysphagia and dyspnea during the previous 6 months. A Tir4 neoplasm fine needle cytological diagnosis of the right thyroid lobe was reached and the patient underwent total thyroidectomy (TT). Definitive histological examination identified a TL. The patient succumbed 40 days later due to respiratory distress. A literature review was performed and TL differential diagnoses, management, including alternative treatment strategies, and adjuvant therapy were analyzed. TL is an aggressive rare mesenchymal malignant tumor. Although an improved multimodal approach is often necessary, TT and neck dissection represent the treatment of choice and are often the only possible therapy. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy appears to be ineffective and a high mortality rate is observed. TL remains a fatal tumor, and innovative and more effective therapeutic strategies to improve management and outcomes are required.
    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2013
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    • "Differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions should also comprise other uncommon primary thyroid tumors. Leiomyosarcomas of the thyroid account for 6% of the all head and neck tumors, with 18 cases described so far in the world literature [29]. Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid is also an extremely rare entity, observed in less than 1% of all thyroid malignancies [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphomas account for less than 5% of thyroid malignant lesions. Vast majority of them are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), while Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of HL, at baseline manifesting as a thyroid lesion. First patient, 29-year-old pregnant female, initially suspected for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, was eventually diagnosed with mixed cellularity type of thyroid HL. Second patient, 22-year-old woman with suspicion of advanced thyroid cancer, was in the end diagnosed with an extra-lymphatic classical HL of the thyroid. In both cases, despite repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytological examination gave inconclusive or misleading results. On histopathological examination, thyroid tumor cells were positive for CD15 and CD30 antigen, which is typical for Reed-Sternberg cells. In the report authors also discuss difficulties in management as well as potential importance of novel methods such as FISH, PCR and other molecular techniques in diagnostics of thyroid lymphomas. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. To date, 20 cases have been reported in English in the literature. The tumors usually present in elderly patients with female predilection and are associated with poor clinical outcome. Herein, we report an additional case of primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma in a 64-year-old woman. She underwent total thyroidectomy and later was discovered to have multiple lung and liver metastases. The patient died 3 months after surgery. The major differential diagnoses including undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma of the thyroid, spindle cell variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma, spindle cell tumor with thymus-like differentiation, uncommon primary tumor of the thyroid and metastatic tumors with predominant spindle cells are discussed.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Endocrine Pathology
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