Chapter

E-Government

Authors:
  • DB Bahn, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Chapter
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Die Digitalisierung der öffentlichen Leistungserbringung für die Bürger bildet gegenwärtig einen Schwerpunkt der Modernisierungsaktivitäten in Staat und Verwaltung. Hinsichtlich der digitalen Informationsbereitstellung hat es zwar deutliche Fortschritte gegeben, insgesamt zeigt sich jedoch eine allenfalls moderate „E-Government-Performanz“ bei der digitalen Kommunikation zwischen Verwaltung und Bürgern sowie bei Transaktionen, d. h. der medienbruchfreien Abschließbarkeit von Verwaltungsvorgängen. Als wesentliche Gründe für die ernüchternde Bilanz der lokalen Verwaltungsdigitalisierung sind neben technischen, rechtlichen, finanziellen und personellen Barrieren insbesondere politische und institutionelle Hürden zu nennen. Viele Probleme sind zudem auch bei E-Government-Funktionen (z. B. der Online-Formulare oder elektronischen Bezahlmöglichkeiten) zu verzeichnen. Positiv schneidet dagegen die elektronische Terminvergabe ab, die in den Bürgerämtern zu wesentlichen Prozess- und Serviceverbesserungen geführt hat. Allerdings sind neben positiven Effekten, wie beispielsweise schnelleren Bearbeitungszeiten und kürzeren Wartezeiten, auch dysfunktionale Digitalisierungseffekte zu verzeichnen, wie erhöhter Arbeitsstress aufgrund eines gestiegenen Kommunikationsaufkommens (v. a. durch Email) und der damit einhergehenden Verlagerung des Arbeitsaufkommens vom Frontoffice ins Backoffice.
Chapter
E-government promises to mark a new era of greater convenience in citizen access to governmental forms, data, and information. Its advocates promise that not only will e-government bring the convenience of online transactions, but it will also reverse citizens’ disaffection from government, create dramatic savings, and reinforce rather than erode traditional American freedoms and liberties. E-government, however, is better thought of not as a revolution, but as an attempt to bring the e-business model into the public sector. A component-by-component examination of the e-business model shows that it is fraught with problems, challenges, and limitations as well as opportunities. The promise of digital government will be fulfilled only by a new generation of public managers who are generalists, not technocrats, capable of integrating the disparate fields of consideration, which are necessary aspects of the vision of e-government as a whole. Purchase this chapter to continue reading all 14 pages >
Article
Die Anforderungen an eine moderne Verwaltung steigen in dem Maße, in dem für den Bürger die Nutzung des Internet selbstverständlich wird. Electronic Government bedeutet einen schrittweisen Umbau der bisherigen "Offline-Verwaltung" mit dem Ziel einer durchweg online zugänglichen Verwaltung. Dies bedeutet eine weitreichende und langwierige Reorganisation interner und externer Strukturen und Prozesse. Harald Mehlich vermittelt einen umfassenden Überblick über das interdisziplinäre Themengebiet Electronic Government. Er zeigt anschaulich fachliche Schwerpunkte einzelner Vorhaben auf, identifiziert Umsetzungshemmnisse und analysiert Strategien zu deren Überwindung. Darüber hinaus werden Zukunftsperspektiven für fortgeschrittene Ansätze des Electronic Government entwickelt.
Article
The United States election of 2004 reinforces a vital lesson: truly safe and accurate voting machines do not exist, says computer security expert Bruce Schneier. In the aftermath of the American presidential election on 2 November 2004, electronic voting machines are again in the news. Computerised machines lost votes, subtracted votes, and doubled some votes too. And because many of these machines have no paper audit trails, a large number of votes will never be counted. While it is unlikely that deliberate voting-machine fraud changed the result of this presidential election, the internet is buzzing with rumours and allegations in a number of different jurisdictions and races. It is still too early to tell if any of these problems affected any individual state's election, but the next few weeks will reveal whether any of the information crystallises into something significant. The US has been here before. After the 2000 election, voting-machine problems made international headlines. The government appropriated money to fix the problems nationwide. Unfortunately, electronic voting machines – although presented as the solution – have largely made the problem worse. This doesn't mean that these machines should be abandoned, but they need to be designed to increase both their accuracy, and peoples' trust in their accuracy. This is difficult, but not impossible.
Conference Paper
This chapter examines three issues emerging in the fields of e-government service delivery and e-commerce -- the need for and a potential structure for performance measures, the heightened need for security awareness around e-government and e-commerce, and the need for e-government web design centered around usability. Beginning these discussions are some basic definitions, a review of the current literature on e-government and a discussion of the stages of e-government development. The chapter concludes with a discussion of a future research agenda in e-service delivery and e-commerce.Electronic government, or e-government, can be defined as the "use of technology, particularly web-based Internet applications, to enhance the access to and delivery of government information and service to citizens, business partners, employees, other agencies, and government entities" (McClure, 2000). As will be discussed later, e-commerce applications are a subset of e-government applications, and can be easily defined as "Business transactions conducted by electronic means other than conventional telephone service, e.g., facsimile or electronic mail (e-mail)" (National Telecommunications and Information Administration, 2002).
Article
Zusammenfassung Ab 2006 erhalten alle Krankenversicherten in Deutschland eine elektronische Gesundheitskarte. Sie löst die bisherige Krankenversichertenkarte ab und wird geeignet sein, neben deren administrativen Funktionen auf freiwilliger Basis auch Gesundheitsdaten verfügbar zu machen. Detaillierte Regelungen zu den Zugriffsrechten und vom Gesetzgeber vorgegebene technische Sicherheitsanforderungen sollen eine weitgehende Patientenautonomie sowie eine größtmögliche Sicherheit der Daten gewährleisten.
Article
The author argues that contemporary digital information communication technologies (ICTs) facilitate new forms of e-government-enabled public sector policy making that enshrine some of the important norms and practices of e-democracy. The potential for linking e-democracy in civil society with e-government at the level of the local and national state is far from straightforward but nevertheless achievable. Following a consideration of the democratization effects of e-democracy and e-government, the author outlines how their norms and practices are converging in four principal areas: online consultations integrating civil societal groups with bureaucracies and legislatures, the internal democratization of the public sector itself, the involvement of users in the design and delivery of public services, and the diffusion of open-source collaboration in public organizations. These now feature as some of the core areas for research in this field and our broader understanding of how ICTs are reshaping governance, the state, and democracy.
EGOV 2007 was the sixth edition of this highly successful series of annual int- national conferences dedicated to electronic government research and practice. Like all its predecessors, EGOV 2007 achieved a remarkable number of paper submissions. Moreover, the quality of this year’s submissions again superseded previous years’ submissions. For the third year in a row, the conference was anteceded by a doctoral colloquium, with approximately 20 PhD projects d- cussed. The conference also provided a forum for academic work in progress, for practitioner reports, and for workshops on specialty topics. Along with the International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o)intheUSA andthe e-GovernmentTrackatthe HawaiiInternationalC- ference on System Sciences (HICSS), the EGOV series of conferences has est- lished itself as the leading annual conference on e-Government, e-Participation and e-Governance in Europe, with a global reach. Last year, the ?rst two professional societies were formed in North America 1 and Europe, the Digital Government Society of North America (DGSNA) and 2 the European EGOV Society (EGOV-S) . Both sister societies work closely - gether.Itisnoteworthythatbothsocietieshaveadoptedalmostidenticalmission statements. They both de?ne themselves as multi-disciplinary organizations “of scholars and practitioners engaged in and committed to democratic digital g- ernment. Digital (or electronic) government fosters the use of information and technology to support and improve public policies and government operations, engage citizens, and provide comprehensive and timely government services”.
Chapter
Die Idee der elektronisch unterstützten Regierungsarbeit, kurz E-Government, wird seit etwa 15 Jahren weltweit durch fortschrittliche Regierungen untersucht. Auch in Deutschland existieren seit geraumer Zeit diese, durch den Erfolg des E-Business begründeten Bestrebungen. Dabei gewinnen insbesondere E-Government-Dienstleistungen bzw. E-Bürgerservices zunehmend an Bedeutung.
Article
The purpose of this study is to explore the emerging applications of E-Government, both in the United States and in the International Community. Information technology allows governments to service citizens in a more timely, effective, and cost-efficient method. E-Government implementation may meet initial citizen resistance, require cultural sensitivity, and change the way citizens and governments relate to each other. There is a focus on the domestic and international state of E-Government and the importance of citizen acceptance of E-Government.
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