Effects of the Fataki Campaign: Addressing Cross-Generational Sex in Tanzania by Mobilizing Communities to Intervene
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins University, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, MD, 21202, USA, . AIDS and Behavior
(Impact Factor: 3.49).
02/2013; 17(6). DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0428-x
The national multimedia "Fataki" campaign aired in Tanzania from 2008 to 2011 with the goal of addressing cross-generational sex (CGS) by mobilizing communities to intervene in CGS relationships. A cross-sectional household survey was used to evaluate the campaign. Logistic regression analysis found a dose-response relationship between campaign exposure and interpersonal communication about CGS, intervening in CGS relationships, and lower CGS engagement among women. No association was found between campaign exposure and current CGS involvement among men, though longer-term data collection may be needed to assess changes in relationship patterns. Findings indicated that engaging in interpersonal communication about CGS was associated with a higher likelihood of actually intervening. Strategies to generate further discussion surrounding CGS and increase impact, such as through community-based components to supplement campaigns, are discussed.
Available from: Michelle R Kaufman
- "A better understanding of the views of CGS and the successes in and persisting challenges to confronting CGS will provide insight into where further interventions may target efforts. Results of the Fataki campaign evaluation are reported elsewhere (Kaufman et al., 2013). "
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ABSTRACT: HIV prevalence among young Tanzanian women is twice that of men, and risk doubles if a partner is ten or more years older. Cross-generational sex (CGS) is typified by transactions, economic asymmetries, power differentials, and inconsistent condom use. By investigating perceptions of CGS in families, schools, and communities, this study explored the role each plays in addressing or condoning CGS and where interventions are needed. Qualitative data were collected in Tanzania's Iringa and Pwani regions after a campaign to reduce CGS. Community leaders suggested key informants and provided household lists used to randomly select participants. Individual interviews were conducted with 20 women (M age = 20.7, SD = 3.1, range = 15 to 26) and 20 men (M age = 37.1, SD = 7.3, range = 30 to 56), focus groups with 15 women (M age = 20.4, SD = 2.9, range = 17 to 25) and 26 men (M age = 39.2, SD = 7.9, range = 30 to 55), and key informant focus groups with 10 women (M age = 47.6, SD = 10, range = 37 to 70) and 16 men (M age = 55.5, SD = 9.5, range = 37 to 67). CGS was viewed as detrimental to girls' education and a financial loss to parents, but barriers, including reluctance to approach parents and older men, prevented community action. Interventions may involve community leaders transcending restrictions on confronting older men and promoting communication between teachers, communities, parents, and young women regarding CGS.
Available from: Annegreet G Wubs
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ABSTRACT: Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized mediational effect of communication on sexual debut was not confirmed. Promoting intergenerational communication on sexuality issues is associated with several positive outcomes and therefore important. Future research should search for mediating factors influencing behavior beyond those examined in the present study.
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ABSTRACT: Research suggests that the much higher HIV prevalence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa than among males of their age cohort is linked to the high prevalence of age-disparate sexual partnerships, and that incorrect beliefs about the relationship between age and HIV-risk are partly responsible. We report the results of an experiment that tests whether a simple, computer-based “HIV risk game” leads to better understanding of the relationship between HIV-risk and age among low-income South African adolescents than a version of the traditional “brochure approach” to dispensing information does. Our results are striking. The randomly-assigned treatment group, which receives repeated doses of information about the link between age and HIV-risk as feedback to their own responses to simple questions about relative HIV-risk, is significantly more likely to correctly identify which of a pair of hypothetical men or women of different ages is more likely to have HIV than the control group. Subjects in the treatment group answer, on average, 1.65 times as many questions about HIV risk and age correctly as those in the control group. We also find that subjects’ (particularly female subjects’) beliefs about HIV risk among women are less accurate than their beliefs about HIV risk among men. Finally, a follow-up survey with no significant difference in attrition rates between those in the treatment and control groups, shows substantially higher information retention among treatment subjects than among control subjects.
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