Additive preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in the elderly Results of a large cohort study
Elderly people are at increased risk of influenza and pneumococcal diseases. Influenza increases clinical pneumococcal disease incidence. Pneumococcal vaccination could therefore be a supplement to influenza vaccination. This study evaluated all-cause mortality and antibiotic consumption according to elderly people's influenza and pneumococcal vaccination status. Its goal was to demonstrate that vaccination with both Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines decrease all-cause mortality and antibiotic consumption. From 2004-10-01 to 2004-12-31 (3 mo), elderly people (≥ 65 y) who lived in the Gard department (South of France) were offered both vaccinations. Among the 68,897 subjects followed-up one year after this vaccination campaign, 21,303 (30.9%) were vaccinated with both vaccines, 18,651 (27.1%) with influenza vaccine alone, 3,769 (5.5%) with pneumococcal vaccine alone; 25,174 (36.5%) subjects were unvaccinated. Mortality rate (per 1,000 inhabitants-year) adjusted on gender, age and prior underlying chronic disease was 17.9 (95% CI: 16.3-19.6), 20.8 (19.0-22.8), 22.5 (19.0-26.6) and 24.7 (22.7-26.8), respectively. It was 42.1 (38.8-45.8) in elderly people with underlying chronic disease who received both vaccines vs. 58.1 (53.7-62.9) in unvaccinated elderly people. The decrease in mortality rate was 27.0% (20.0-34.0) in subjects who received both vaccines and 16.0% (6.0-24.0) in those who received influenza vaccine. No significant reduction in mortality rate was seen with the pneumococcal vaccine alone. Influenza and/or pneumococcal vaccinations did not decrease antibiotic consumption that drastically increases during the winter period. An additive effect was observed in the prevention of all-cause mortality with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines given together in elderly people, including in those with underlying chronic disease.
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