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Introduction to Social Network Methods

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Abstract

introduction to social networks, interesting the centrality chapter.
... Agentes que entonces se ven persuadidos por una lógica proyectual, que implica compromisos y exigencias para la conexión y mantención de un entramado relacional. A partir de ello, las redes resultantes generan pequeños espacios de apreciación, al interior de los cuales se engendran y justifican órdenes, que en la práctica responden a un ejercicio en torno a "la noción de justicia y criterios normativos de decisión" (Boltanski y Chiapello, 2002, p.30 entre los que existen y se dan relaciones (Easley y Kleinberg, 2010;Hanneman, 2005;Kadushin, 2013). Este conjunto se expresa gráficamente a través de sociogramas 111 los cuales pueden ser analizados matemáticamente mediante la teoría de grafos 112 . ...
... Así cuando un nodo desea vincularse con otro, pero para ello debe utilizar a un tercero, el número de caminos mínimos utilizados, establece su cualidad de intermediación (Shimbel, 1953), pudiendo "potencialmente ejercer algún control sobre las interacciones, es decir, "ejercer roles de porteros (gatekeepers) de ciertos flujos de interacción" (Wasserman y Faust, 2013, p.212) Desde esta perspectiva, hay que tener conciencia de que la metodología proyectual latamente desarrollada en las asignaturas de taller, se estructura en la interacción y colaboración de diversos agentes, los cuales ejercen roles diferenciados en cuanto a la naturaleza y objetivos de sus vínculos. Haciendo posible, la idea de "punto de conexión o conmutación" (Kadushin, 2013, p.61 (Hanneman, 2005). En el contexto de tipologías de inserción laboral en los egresados estudiados, está medición permite conocer potencialmente aquellos agentes de mayor centralidad absoluta dentro de la red conformada por la comunidad académica y laboral. ...
... .2.4 Concepto de modularidad, la fortaleza de conexiones características por grupos de agentes Conocer cómo un agente está inmerso en una estructura de subgrupos en una red, constituye un aspecto crítico para comprender su conducta. Así, una de las mayores preocupaciones del Análisis de Redes Sociales apunta a identificar subgrupos cohesionados de actores, "caracterizados por presentar vínculos relativamente fuertes, directos, intensos, frecuentes o positivos entre sus miembros"(Wasserman y Faust, 2013, p.269).De este modo, algunos agentes consiguen actuar como puentes entre subgrupos, otros tener todas relaciones dentro de una única comunidad, algunos sabiendo ser parte de una elite cerrada y densamente conectada, mientras que otros pueden estar completamente aislados de dicho subgrupo(Hanneman, R., 2005). Así, se constituyen diadas y triadas las cuales consiguen, ser pensadas como estructuras más pequeñas de una red y las combinaciones de éstas como subgrupos, que conectados, constituyen finalmente una red.En esta condición, el concepto de subgrupo se formaliza por características de cohesión entre miembros de una red, basaándose en "propiedades específicas de los vínculos entre actores"(Wasserman y Faust, 2013, p.271). ...
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Noting the small number of works within the field of design that pay attention to the development of technology-based entrepreneurial processes and overcoming a reductionist view oriented towards economic positions, this work set out to develop a study whose descriptive and correlational scope would allow us to question the presence of entrepreneurial conditions in the trajectories of agents who, in their professional practice, seek to insert themselves stably in the Chilean labor market. Its purpose has been to develop an analysis of technology-based entrepreneurial training in Product Design Engineering (IDP) at the Federico Santa María Technical University, stressing the existing link between those particular structures of the nascent professional field that emerged in a society that embraced economic neoliberalism, with those micro-strategies transformed into professional paths by graduates in their eagerness to join the professional field. This makes evident the need to advance from the observation of macro structures that account for power games in the nascent professional field and the subsequent study of labor insertion trajectories that allow questioning the presence of capitals and greatness in graduates. To finally approach the particularity of project operations that, translated into technological products, are reflected as evidence of a relational act. Thus, the general hypothesis that sustains this research establishes that "the entrepreneurial and stable professional development of the graduates articulates the attitude of entrepreneurship as a relational process between actors, resources, social processes and conditions of possibility, technological and economic". It seeks to take charge of a systemic perspective around the technology-based entrepreneurial process, putting in tension aspects housed in historical and institutional conjunctures, which modeled training processes of which the 123 IDP graduates from 2006-2015 constitute their heirs and their trajectories. professionals, its measurable dimension.
... Moreover, the structural characteristics of a network explaining the information flow in the community based on previous studies are connectivity, activity, and power. Centrality in a network structure controls information flow in the network and increases access to important information and significantly affects the decision making of other members [21,22]. ...
... Conformity appeal attributes include cascades of shared information, which represent reputation and clustering related to the imitation of shared information in beauty-focused one-person media; utility value efficiency, which represents the significance of the utility value of beauty-focused one-person media in information access and decision making; reference group influence related to the opinions of reference groups on beauty-focused one-person media, such as utilitarian influence, value-expressive influence, and informational influence; and subnetwork structure, which represents activity, connectivity, and power related to information flow in the community. A total of 12 items were measured based on research by Barringer and Milkovich [20], Culotta [6], Hanneman and Riddle [21], Huang and Chen [19], Jun and Rhee [25], Lakhani et al. [8], Lee et al. [22], Pihlstrom and Brush [28], Goldenberg et al. [1], and Wellman and Frank [9]. Social conformity includes social imitation conformity, which is formed by informational influence in beauty-focused one-person media and represents the tendency to accept others' behaviors as information about objective reality; social connection conformity, which is formed by normative influence in beauty-focused one-person media and represents the tendency to meet the expectations of the majority for social approval; and social comparative conformity, which is formed by identification influence in beauty-focused one-person media and represents the tendency to form a positive self-concept by comparing with others. ...
... However, hypotheses H1-2-2 and H1-3-2 are not supported because accuracy and situational timeliness of information utilization are insufficiently utilized as a tool to actively respond to the needs of participants and express personal values. Moreover, research hypotheses H1-1-3, representing the significant relationship between reference group influence and social imitation conformity, and H1-3-3, representing the relationship between reference group influence and social comparative conformity, are promoted by studies showing that centrality in a network structure controls information flow in the network, improves access to important information, and significantly affects other members' decisions [21,22]. However, hypothesis H1-2-3 is not supported because the useful and informational influence of the reference group was insufficiently utilized as a tool to express individuality, values, and identity. ...
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In the beauty industry, the use of one-person media is making new, more active relationships that differ from those of past online services and information sharing. Therefore, in this study, we developed conformity appeal attributes in one-person media, identifying their effects on information diffusion behavior through social conformity and collaborative innovation networks, to investigate the social contagion effect of information in beauty-focused one-person media and develop a model by connecting them to the conformity threshold of individuals influenced by others. In this study, a total of 694 complete samples of experienced consumers in the beauty-focused one-person media category were selected, and research questions were verified through reliability and validity tests, path analysis, and measurement model analysis. The research results are as follows. First, conformity appeal attributes of beauty-focused one-person media in terms of information cascade, utility value efficiency, reference group influence, and subnetwork structure significantly affected social imitation conformity. However, only subnetwork structure significantly affected social connection conformity. Similarly, only reference group influence and subnetwork structure significantly affected social comparative conformity. Second, social imitation conformity, social connection conformity, and social comparative conformity in beauty-focused one-person media significantly affected cocreation. Third, cocreation in beauty-focused one-person media significantly affected information diffusion behavior. The detailed use of the conformity appeal attribute factors shown in the above results will be combined with functional changes for online and mobile services of beauty companies, and it will be a driving force to create new value for the network. Moreover, the results of this study not only enable social connection among members within the reference group of beauty-focused one-person media but are also applied as an effective phenomenon to explain the continuous maintenance, reinforcement, and expansion of these relationships, thereby enabling researchers to achieve theoretical expansion and evaluation of relevant variables.
... In this network, each company is a node that is able to access the resources controlled by a partner. This multilateral network means that firms obtain resources access based on their position or structural dimension in the overall network, which signals centrality and the prominence of firms reflected in different measures of the structural characteristics of the network position, such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness, eigenvector, and Beta centrality (Everett and Borgatti 2005;Hanneman and Riddle 2005;Wasserman and Faust 1994). We calculated the network indicators using UCINET ® (Borgatti et al. 2002). ...
... We calculated the network indicators using UCINET ® (Borgatti et al. 2002). On the other hand, to build our 'network resources MOBILISATION variable', multiple indicators were calculated that account for the number of partners the company mobilises, and for the number of foreign operations achieved under a mobilisation strategy, which in Table 2 Variables and indicators UCINET ® is a software package for the analysis of social network data in which every bilateral relationship between firms is accounted for and processed in a matrix to produce the centrality indicators and the network structural properties (Borgatti et al. 2002;Hanneman and the case of the airline industry corresponds to the number of routes operated using third-party resources, such as planes and scheduled flights. Furthermore, four control variables were introduced. ...
... Riddle 2005;Wasserman and Faust 1994) Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are often under pressure to expand at the highest possible speed in international markets. They therefore embed themselves in networks of alliances where they can access resources in the form of relational assets, information, and learning to facilitate swifter internationalisation whilst circumventing the risks of time-compression diseconomies. Hence, drawing from the network theory of international business and the perspective of structural embeddedness of interorganisational relationships, this study aims to determine the relationship between access to and mobilisation of network resources in relation to the speed of international expansion among MNEs. For this purpose, we assembled a sample of 131 global-reach MNEs from the airline industry and observed their international expansion activities over a 5-year period. Partial-Least-Squares Structural-Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was applied to capture the multidimensionality of internationalisation speed, under the commitment-breadth-intensity framework, as well as the multidimensionality of both embeddedness and mobilisation; similarly, we employ Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) to identify the necessary antecedent variables in our research model. As a result, understanding was gained of the position of each firm within an international alliance network, in terms of how it creates value by obtaining access to resources for international expansion; furthermore, we learned that access is as necessary as mobilisation to increase internationalisation speed, and that, mobilisation is required to mediate the capture of network opportunities. Consequently, the study provided insights for managerial practice: MNEs should pursue centrality in their networks at the same time as planning their resources mobilisation strategies.
... Number of times a node occurs along the shortest path between all pairs of nodes in the network It is a node that can play the part of a liaison or broker or gatekeeper with potential for control over others Sources: Wasserman and Faust (1994); Scott and Carrington (2011); Hanneman and Riddle (2005) Steps in Social Network Analysis ...
... In situations when the collection of full network data is expensive or time-consuming, sampling of the tie may be considered a viable option. Snowballing, tracking down alters from an egocentric network, or selecting egos from an egocentric network have been proposed as alternative options for identifying nodes (Hanneman and Riddle, 2005). ...
... Like survey research, data can be collected at different "measurement levels" in SNA (Hanneman and Riddle, 2005). In Binary Affinity Measurement the researcher wants to check if there is a relationship between two people or organisations of interest. ...
... They are often the third parties and dealmakers in exchanges among others and are able to benefit from this brokerage. 12 Therefore, in a co-authorship network, the degree centrality of each author indicates the times he/ she has co-authored with those present in the network. As to closeness centrality, according to Hanneman and Riddle "closeness centrality approaches emphasize on the distance of an actor to all others in the network by focusing on the geodesic distance from each actor to all others". ...
... As to closeness centrality, according to Hanneman and Riddle "closeness centrality approaches emphasize on the distance of an actor to all others in the network by focusing on the geodesic distance from each actor to all others". 12 As to betweenness, according to Hanneman and Riddle "views an actor as being in a favored position to the extent that the actor falls on the geodesic paths between other pairs of actors in the network. That is, the more people depend on me to make connections with other people, the more power I have". ...
... That is, the more people depend on me to make connections with other people, the more power I have". 12 According to Abbasi et al, the nodes with high betweenness centrality are highly contributive in the network connection. They have a core position in the network and can promote information flow in the network. ...
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Background: Detecting the main actors and important topics of Iranian cancer research is essential for Iranian policymakers, clinicians, and researchers. This study was conducted to demonstrate the trends and tops in Iranian cancer research from 1960 to 2018. Methods: A total of 22,370 Iranian cancer articles in Web of Science (WoS), PubMed, and Scopus, from 1960 through 2018, were extracted and preprocessed based on data mining techniques and analyzed using the collaboration network analysis, keywords analysis, and bibliometrics methods. Results: The results reveal that, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (11.46%) among organizations, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention (5%) among journals, Malekzadeh R (1.09%) among authors, and Breast cancer (10.37%) among topics ranked the first. The trend of Iranian cancer research represents three periods: 1) germinating period, from 1970 to 2000, 2) developing period, from 2002 to 2014, and 3) flourishing period, from 2014 to 2018. It is expected that this trend will continue. The results indicate an average 12.8% increase in the logarithm of the count of articles published by Iranian cancer researchers each year. The findings are contextualized with Price's publications trends principal for determining global and Iranian cancer research publication trends. Conclusion: The number of research papers published by Iranian researchers on cancer is increasing. In order to maintain the publication growth in this field, greater participation by other Iranian institutions is suggested. Although the quantity and quality of papers are increasing in some topics, certain topics and types of cancers should be still further studied and the Iranian policymakers should be encouraged to invest more in these topics.
... Obviously, closeness centrality is an indicator of integration or isolation of network members (Müller-Prothmann, 2007). Thus, a strong closeness centrality indicates a greater autonomy of the individual (Hanneman and Riddle, 2005;Das et al., 2018;Lemieux and Ouimet, 2004). This autonomy could also reflect the behaviour and choices made by the rice producers and parboilers. ...
... Degenne (2013) had shown that the actor who enjoys a betweenness position, in communication networks where access to information is restricted, can benefit greatly from it. Also, this stakeholder can easily control the information flows in the network (Hanneman and Riddle, 2005;Das et al., 2018;Müller-Prothmann, 2007) and thus has a higher innovation capacity (Hoppe and Reinelt, 2010). ...
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Innovation platforms (IPs) bring agricultural value chain stakeholders together to successfully overcome constraints in agricultural systems. In Bénin, they are introduced to foster collaboration, partnership, and mutual focus to generate innovation on the commodity such as the local rice production and processing systems. Based on Social Networks Analysis, this research examines this IPs in influencing the innovative capacity of local rice value chain stakeholders in the Glazoué Rice Hub. The findings show a network with low density which hinders the dissemination of information on rice innovations in the IPs. Further, the innovation capacity of rice stakeholders is not necessarily associated with their central position either by degree, closeness or betweenness centrality. Ultimately, the rice stakeholder knowledge and resources determine his innovative capacity.
... The snowball is an alternative method for tracking a small group of people mixed with a large number of others (Hanneman, 2000). Snowball sampling proved to be the recruitment method of choice when Allan and Larsen (2003) faced the difficulty of reaching enough participants through their study gatekeeper (RCN) database. ...
... Firstly, individuals who are not connected (i.e. "isolates") are not located by this method (Hanneman, 2000;Shelton and Rianon, 2004;Dicicco-Bloom, 2004). The presence and numbers of isolates can be a very important feature of populations with regard to some analytic purposes. ...
... In order to carry out this study, we use social network analysis (Borgatti et al., 2013;Hanneman & Riddle 2005) to document the development of relationships among administrators in three districts in the 2010-2011, 2011-12, and 2012-13 school years. This study was part of a larger study of how administrators' engagement in instructional rounds-a coordinated approach to classroom observations-might contribute to the development of social networks focused on instruction. ...
... We also used UCINET to conduct a series of quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) correlations to determine the extent to which the two networks focused on state instructional initiatives-the Common Core and teacher evaluation networks-are correlated to each other and the teaching and learning in the various years. QAP correlations capture the extent to which those who are likely to interact in one network are also likely to interact in the other (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005) and can be seen as an indicator of how similar different networks are to one another. ...
... Hence, one measure can present a different social structure than another and different measures provide different perspectives on who are the most active [25]. In smaller and simpler network structures such measures may co-vary, while in larger and more complex networks, they may characterize actors very differently [45]. ...
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For a firm in an open source software (OSS) ecosystem, the requirements engineering (RE) process is rather multifaceted. Apart from its typical RE process, there is a competing process, external to the firm and inherent to the firm's ecosystem. When trying to impose an agenda in competition with other firms, and aiming to align internal product planning with the ecosystem's RE process, firms need to consider who and how influential the other stakeholders are, and what their agendas are. The aim of the presented research is to help firms identify and analyze stakeholders in OSS ecosystems, in terms of their influence and interactions, to create awareness of their agendas, their collaborators, and how they invest their resources. To arrive at a solution artifact, we applied a design science research approach where we base artifact design on the literature and earlier work. A stakeholder influence analysis (SIA) method is proposed and demonstrated in terms of applicability and utility through a case study on the Apache Hadoop OSS ecosystem. SIA uses social network constructs to measure the stakeholders' influence and interactions and considers the special characteristics of OSS RE to help firms structure their stakeholder analysis processes in relation to an OSS ecosystem. SIA adds a strategic aspect to the stakeholder analysis process by addressing the concepts of influence and interactions, which are important to consider while acting in collaborative and meritocratic RE cultures of OSS ecosystems.
... Social Network Analysis -SNA refers "[...] to a structural approach that is based on the study of the interaction among social actors" (FREEMAN, 2004, p. 2). Hanneman and Riddle (2005) and Tomael and Marteleto (2013) emphasize that the relationships among agents is the basis of this approach, formed by connections and ties, where individual agents are not the focus of analysis in these relationships. SNA consists in applying formal methods of analysis to social relationships, through the use of diagrammed dots and lines, in order to examine, precisely, the attributes and properties of the interrelationships of network actors (CROSSLEY; PRELL; SCOTT, 2009;WANG et al., 2009). ...
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This research analyzed actors’ interactions in the Northeast Biotechnology Network (in Portuguese, RENORBIO), based on the study of their profile of scientific and technological production. RENORBIO is a pioneer in the Northeast region, since the creation of the Graduate Program in Biotechnology. Data collection consisted in searching information on bibliographic production (articles, books, and reports), technical production (patents), and spin-off records from research carried out in the 13 focal points. These represent the coordinations located in the main education and research institutions accredited in the Network, which comprise around 30 other institutions associated to RENORBIO, to identify the interactions between the network’s agents. To analyze the results, we processed data by using the UCINET software. The software was essential for studying the interactions among network agents, assisting to characterize technical and academic interactions within RENORBIO, based on the analysis of its actions of Technology Transfer; this allowed profiling this network in the light of the Theory of Social Networks. We identified that the Network has a ‘satellite’ topology, where a central network attracts and influences the research relationships between the actors of the other networks, which gravitate around it, creating a force of institutional attraction between them. It is a heterogeneous network, characterized by low density and wide flow of diverse interactions of its actors. In addition, it shows a strong representation of the innovations produced in the Northeast region, capable to affect directly or indirectly the socioeconomic condition of this region, and bring solutions for national problems in the area of biotechnology. KEYWORDS: Technology transfer; Cooperation networks; Biotechnology
... From 1 to n-1 ** While the mathematical meaning of the metrics remains unchanged, the final interpretation depends, to a large extent, on the type of network that is being constructed (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). ...
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The benefits of using complex network analysis (CNA) to study complex systems, such as an economy, have become increasingly evident in recent years. However, the lack of a single comparative index that encompasses the overall wellness of a structure can hinder the simultaneous analysis of multiple ecosystems. A formula to evaluate the structure of an economic ecosystem is proposed here, implementing a mathematical approach based on CNA metrics to construct a comparative measure that reflects the collaboration dynamics and its resultant structure. This measure provides the relevant actors with an enhanced sense of the social dynamics of an economic ecosystem, whether related to business, innovation, or entrepreneurship. Available graph metrics were analysed, and 14 different formulas were developed. The efficiency of these formulas was evaluated on real networks from 11 different innovation-driven entrepreneurial economic ecosystems in six countries from Latin America and Europe and on 800 random graphs simulating similarly constructed networks.
... Sosyal ağ düzeneğine ilişkin olarak gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarda veri analizinin yapılabilmesinin temel koşulu, ağ düzeneği içerisinde yer alan aktörler arası ilişki durumunun saptanması olup, mülakat, anket ya de ikincil veri kaynakları ile bahse konu durum saptanabilmektedir. Ağ düzeneğine ilişkin olarak gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarda toplanan verilerin analizinde en uygun yöntemin matris yöntemi olduğu aktarılmaktadır (Hanneman ve Riddle, 2005). ...
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Many behaviors of human being, who is a social being, in the organization are affected by the social network connections. The aim of this study is to reveal whether the social network connections of the actor in the organization have an effect on individual performance, which can be considered as the antecedent of many behavioral variables in the management and organization research literature. The absence of a holistic study in the literature that deals with positive and negative social network connections together constitutes the originality of the study, and it is considered that both the methodology and the theoretical infrastructure of the study will contribute to the literature. The social network of the study consists of 37 academicians working in a faculty affiliated to the university operating in Ankara Province. Within the scope of the study, first the network mechanism of the actors was revealed with the UCINET program, then the individual performance scores of the actors, which were measured regularly within the framework of the criteria determined by the university, and the network analysis obtained. Correlation and regression analyzes were performed to reveal the relationship between the findings through the SPSS program. As a result of the analyzes, quite remarkable results were obtained. Accordingly, it was determined that the performance scores of the central actor with positive social network connections, in other words, the most liked actor in the network, were low; it was determined that the actor with the most negative social network connections was the actor with the highest individual performance score.
... To do so, we ran an additional set of bivariate models regressing negotiation performance on these four measures, and tested whether these measures statistically mediated the relationship between gender and negotiation performance using nonparametric bootstrap mediation analyses with 10,000 draws. 5 Because individual-level network observations are non-independent, we used nonparametric permutation tests to assess statistical significance in regression models containing network centrality measures as either the predictor or dependent variable (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005;Farine, 2017). In these models, we calculated the likelihood of the observed effects occurring by chance (reported p perm -values) by comparing the focal regression coefficient from the linear model fitted to the observed data to the coefficients from models fitted to 20,000 permutations of the network (see Supplementary material for details). ...
Article
Gender disparities in negotiation outcomes contribute to inequality in the workplace and beyond. Explanations of gender gaps in negotiation often focus on internal barriers women face as a consequence of contending with stigma in the workplace and other historically male‐dominated environments, such as stereotype threat and apprehension about negotiating. However, stigma is also associated with relational consequences that may influence success in negotiations. This research compared internal and relational mechanisms for gender disparities in negotiation performance. Seventy‐seven MBA executives reported their apprehension about negotiating, stereotype threat in negotiations, mindset about negotiation‐related stress, and class social networks. Participants were then randomly paired to complete a series of one‐on‐one negotiations based on real‐world scenarios. Overall, men outperformed women in negotiations. Significant gender differences emerged in stereotype threat, stress mindset, and social network centrality. However, only network centrality—specifically number and strength of ties—significantly mediated the relationship between gender and negotiation performance. Position in informal social networks may play an important role in negotiation outcomes, particularly in a shared social environment like the workplace. Although efforts to explain the gender gap in negotiation performance often center internal psychological mechanisms, this research suggests that relational explanations, such as disparities in social networks, merit further attention. Limitations and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.
... Network data are inherently non-parametric and violate the assumptions of independent observations and random sampling from the population (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). Subjecting network data to classical inferential tests is likely to inflate Type I errors. ...
Article
Team identification and collective efficacy are important determinants of team functioning. A team’s collective efficacy is borne from its shared social identity and improved through iterative, interpersonal exchanges between teammates during training sessions and matches. Our study employed social network analyses to examine the impact of intra-team relationships on team identification and collective efficacy. We adopted a cross-sectional design including four elite teams (N = 67, 79% female) and collected athletes’ data on which teammates they communicated with during matches (match communication relationships) and which teammates they sought informational support from during training sessions (informational support relationships). Regression analyses were conducted to explore the impact of these relationships on team identification and collective efficacy. Communication ties positively predicted team identification, while incoming (i.e., receiving nominations for support from teammates) and outgoing support ties (i.e., perceiving teammates as available for support) were unrelated. In addition, outgoing support ties predicted collective efficacy, while incoming support ties and communication ties were unrelated. Findings are discussed through a social identity lens, with suggestions to curate the training environment with activities that increase the reciprocity of communication relations between certain pairs of teammates to strengthen identification as well as increase the quantity and distribution of outgoing, support-seeking relations to enhance collective efficacy. Network maps of the teams sampled are used to exemplify these suggestions. Future research using social network analyses to track changes in networks over time is encouraged to understand the role of intra-team relationships in team functioning. Keywords: social network analysis, teamwork, social identity, communication, informational support
... Other considered problems also have numerous applications. In short, clique counting is used in social network analysis (cf. the established textbooks [89,Chapter 11] and [90,Chapter 2]) to find large and dense network regions [91]- [95] or in topological approaches to network analysis [96]. Link prediction and vertex similarity are used throughout the whole graph data mining in many parts of network science and others, as illustrated in numerous surveys and textbooks [4], [11], [12], [75], [97]- [99]. ...
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Important graph mining problems such as Clustering are computationally demanding. To significantly accelerate these problems, we propose ProbGraph: a graph representation that enables simple and fast approximate parallel graph mining with strong theoretical guarantees on work, depth, and result accuracy. The key idea is to represent sets of vertices using probabilistic set representations such as Bloom filters. These representations are much faster to process than the original vertex sets thanks to vectorizability and small size. We use these representations as building blocks in important parallel graph mining algorithms such as Clique Counting or Clustering. When enhanced with ProbGraph, these algorithms significantly outperform tuned parallel exact baselines (up to nearly 50x on 32 cores) while ensuring accuracy of more than 90% for many input graph datasets. Our novel bounds and algorithms based on probabilistic set representations with desirable statistical properties are of separate interest for the data analytics community.
... Частен случай на мрежата е т. нар. социална мрежа, в която възлите могат да бъдат хора, групи, организации или цели общества (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). Връзките между тях представляват специфични видове взаимозависимост, като приятелство, родство, общ интерес, финансов обмен, неприязън, сексуални отношения, споделени вярвания, знание престиж и др. ...
... El ARS es una herramienta que en los últimos años ha cobrado gran importancia, ya que tiene la característica de ser adaptable para explicar fenómenos sociales y estructurales en diversos campos de estudio (Franco-Bermúdez & Ruiz-Castañeda, 2019;Freeman, 2004;Hanneman & Riddle, 2005;Wasserman & Faust, 1994). En el sector agrícola ha sido utilizada para analizar procesos de difusión de innova- Desde el punto de vista comercial, las redes de comercio internacional son manifestaciones de una combinación compleja de diversos factores subyacentes, tanto naturales como sociales (Shutters & Muneepeerakul, 2012). ...
... Social network analysis allows for the examination of the interactions between actors in a holistic and dynamic way, which has proved crucial to understanding the structural capacity for collective action (Hanneman and Riddle, 2005). First, the criteria for including actors in either research network were defined. ...
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Efforts to reduce the gap between the research evidence base and humanitarian responses have focused on producing quality evidence and ensuring its use for decision‐making. Yet how evidence translates to field‐level implementation is not well understood in humanitarian contexts. This study analysed how recommendations produced through academic research partnerships were implemented by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Lebanon and Myanmar. Based on implementation theory, the methodology included social network analysis to represent collective dynamics; document reviews to assess implementation; qualitative interviews to understand why actors engaged; and a critical appraisal of these combined results. The application of implementation theory provided information on ‘anticipation of constraints’ (access to information, staff turnover, context specificity and the need to engage a cohesive group). Future research efforts should explicitly focus on identifying and tackling implementation barriers such as power imbalances and ethical dilemmas related to service delivery by humanitarian actors.
... While network structure could be measured using multiple approaches, we chose transitivity to be our measurement given the following considerations. First, social network researchers have suggested that the transitivity level perfectly matches with the conceptualization of network brokerage and closure (Burt, 2005;Hanneman and Riddle, 2011). Furthermore, recent research has adopted this approach to studying women's health (Walter et al., 2019), indicating the applicability of this measure in health-related research. ...
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The scarcity of tampons in China has attracted scholarly attention. Extending the theory of planned behavior with social network structure, this cross-sectional online survey ( N = 763) found that exposure to tampon-related information on social media was positively related to Chinese women’s tampon use intentions. This association was mediated through attitudes, descriptive norms, and self-efficacy toward using tampons. Furthermore, the effects of social media exposure differed among people with different network structures. Our findings shed light on the promotion of nonconventional feminine hygiene products, which, in turn, may enhance Chinese women’s well-being and gender equity across the globe.
... Network density ranges from 0 to 1, referring to how intertwined the words are in a semantic network and the complexity of discussion around a particular issue. Mathematically speaking, network density equals the proportion of existing edges in all possible edges in an undirected network (35). Degree centrality represents the number of links one word has. ...
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Background Organ donation has been claimed as a prosocial behavior to prolong the recipient's life and deliver great love. However, the supply-demand ratio of organs in China is highly unbalanced. Being entangled with multiple factors derived from individual and supra-individual levels, organ donation in China is important but sensitive. Previous scholars usually depended on obtrusive approaches to explore the facilitators and hindrances of organ donation, which is hard to discover genuine perceptions toward organ donation. Besides, relatively limited scholarly attention has been paid to what hampers organ donation in China.Objective We intended to excavate the diversified social representations and perceived barriers to organ donation in China over the past decade.Method Two kinds of text analysis methods—semantic network analysis and conventional content analysis, were applied to 120,172 posts from ordinary users on the Sina Weibo platform to address the research questions.ResultsRegarding social representations, the “hope, understanding, and acceptance” of organ donation was the most pronounced one (34% of the whole semantic network), followed by “family story” (26%), “the procedure of organ donation in NGOs” (15%), “the practical value of organ donation” (14%), and “organ donation in the medical context” (11%). Regarding perceived barriers, a four-layer framework was constructed, including (1) the individual level, mainly about the fear of death and postmortem autopsy; (2) the familial level, which refers to the opposition from family members; (3) the societal level, which alludes to distrust toward medical institutions and the general society; (4) the cultural level, which covers religious-cultural concerns about fatalism.Conclusion In concordance with prior works on social representations regarding organ donation, the current study also uncovered the coexistence of antithetical representations about organ donation—the longing for survival and the fear of death. This representation pair serves as the foundation of Chinese people's ambivalence. Besides, family-related narratives were dispersed over various representations, demonstrating the critical position of family support in organ donation. Moreover, the four-layer framework concerning donation barriers affords a reference for future empirical studies. The practical implications of this work are further discussed.
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Chapter
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Chapter
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