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Introduction to Social Network Methods

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Abstract

introduction to social networks, interesting the centrality chapter.
... Subsequently, to compare the overall network structures, we conducted the same analyses of density and degree centralization focusing on only the organizations that are members of the networks in both years (respectively 119, 65 and 71 organizations in Network I, II and III). We used this selection, as statistical tests to compare network structures and over time requires networks with the same actors [57]. To examine whether the connectedness of the material and knowledge-based information exchange structures per network significantly differ from each other and whether the connectedness of the structures significantly changed over time, we used Compare Density Procedure in Ucinet. ...
... Finally, to examine the internal network dynamicsi.e., whether the relations between the individual organizations in 2019 were the same as those in 2018 -we used the QAP (quadratic assignment procedure) correlation procedure of Ucinet. QAP identifies the extent of the association in situations where there really is not any systematic connection between the two networks [57]. It compares the observed matching rate of the same type of relationship across two data collection periods (having the same nodes), to the average of a large number of trials in which the actors in the network are randomly matched [25]. ...
... As the relations are binary, we used the Jaccard Coefficient. Scores range between 0 and 1, with 0 indicating no overlap and 1 complete overlap between the networks [57]. ...
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Background As needs of families with social and behavioral health problems often exceed the expertise and possibilities of a single professional, service or organization, cross-service collaboration is indispensable to adequately meeting those needs. Despite the progressive focus on organizing integrated care, service fragmentation and service duplication remain persistent problems in child welfare and healthcare service delivery systems. A crucial factor to overcome these problems is information exchange between organizations. This study explores and compares the development over time of structures of information exchange in networks, concerning both material and knowledge-based information. Methods A comparative case study and social network analysis of three inter-organizational networks of child welfare and healthcare services in different-sized municipalities in the Netherlands. The research population consisted of organizations from various sectors participating in the networks. Data were collected at two moments in time with a mixed method: semi-structured interviews with network managers and an online questionnaire for all network members. Density and degree centralization were used to examine the information exchange structures. Ucinet was used to analyze the data, with use of the statistical tests: Compare Density Procedure and Quadratic Assignment Procedure. Results This study shows that different structures of information exchange can be distinguished, concerning both material and knowledge-based information. The overall connectedness of the studied structures of the networks are quite similar, but the way in which the involvement is structured turns out to be different between the networks. Over time, the overall connectedness of those structures appears to be stable, but the internal dynamics reveals a major change in relationships between organizations in the networks. Conclusions Our study yields empirical evidence for the existence of and the differences between structures and dynamics of both material and knowledge-based information exchange relationships. With a loss of more than a half of the relations in a year, the relationships between the organizations in the network are not very stable over time. The contrast between major internal dynamics and the stable overall connectedness is an important point of concern for network managers and public officials, since this impermanence of relations means that long-term integrated care cannot be guaranteed.
... In this network, each company is a node that is able to access the resources controlled by a partner. This multilateral network means that firms obtain resources access based on their position or structural dimension in the overall network, which signals centrality and the prominence of firms reflected in different measures of the structural characteristics of the network position, such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness, eigenvector, and Beta centrality (Everett and Borgatti 2005;Hanneman and Riddle 2005;Wasserman and Faust 1994). We calculated the network indicators using UCINET ® (Borgatti et al. 2002). ...
... We calculated the network indicators using UCINET ® (Borgatti et al. 2002). On the other hand, to build our 'network resources MOBILISATION variable', multiple indicators were calculated that account for the number of partners the company mobilises, and for the number of foreign operations achieved under a mobilisation strategy, which in Table 2 Variables and indicators UCINET ® is a software package for the analysis of social network data in which every bilateral relationship between firms is accounted for and processed in a matrix to produce the centrality indicators and the network structural properties (Borgatti et al. 2002;Hanneman and the case of the airline industry corresponds to the number of routes operated using third-party resources, such as planes and scheduled flights. Furthermore, four control variables were introduced. ...
... Riddle 2005;Wasserman and Faust 1994) Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) are often under pressure to expand at the highest possible speed in international markets. They therefore embed themselves in networks of alliances where they can access resources in the form of relational assets, information, and learning to facilitate swifter internationalisation whilst circumventing the risks of time-compression diseconomies. Hence, drawing from the network theory of international business and the perspective of structural embeddedness of interorganisational relationships, this study aims to determine the relationship between access to and mobilisation of network resources in relation to the speed of international expansion among MNEs. For this purpose, we assembled a sample of 131 global-reach MNEs from the airline industry and observed their international expansion activities over a 5-year period. Partial-Least-Squares Structural-Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was applied to capture the multidimensionality of internationalisation speed, under the commitment-breadth-intensity framework, as well as the multidimensionality of both embeddedness and mobilisation; similarly, we employ Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) to identify the necessary antecedent variables in our research model. As a result, understanding was gained of the position of each firm within an international alliance network, in terms of how it creates value by obtaining access to resources for international expansion; furthermore, we learned that access is as necessary as mobilisation to increase internationalisation speed, and that, mobilisation is required to mediate the capture of network opportunities. Consequently, the study provided insights for managerial practice: MNEs should pursue centrality in their networks at the same time as planning their resources mobilisation strategies.
... For this paper, I only consider the data gathered in accordance with the first objective from the preceding list 1 . These data arise from the responses of both workshop participants who completed the research instrument and other actors who were mentioned by such attendees and subsequently contacted by the GED team using the snowball method (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). ...
... The average number of actors who participated in the study of different ecosystems with respect to the number of nodes/actors identified by those attending the workshops was 15.8%, with a maximum of 24.2%. It should be mentioned that, contrary to traditional statistics, in the discipline of network analysis, there is no unequivocal notion of sample size (Kolaczyk & Krivitsky, 2015), and no approximations have been developed concerning the distribution samples of most descriptive statistics used in network analysis, as there are generally no viable ways of identifying populations and extracting samples using probabilistic methods (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). ...
... I recommend reviewing the available literature in regard to Section 3.3. 4 While the mathematical meaning of the metrics remains unchanged, the final interpretation depends, to a large extent, on the type of network that is being constructed(Hanneman & Riddle, 2005) ...
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In the context of discussions regarding the relevance of innovation to the task of building new economic models that foster sustainable development, this paper focuses on clarifying and specifying the term “ecosystem”, which is typically used as a metaphor. Taking into account research concerning biological ecosystems, the article describes the components, structures and dynamics that biological ecosystems share in common with business, entrepreneurial, and innovation ecosystems, which together form one aspect of economic ecosystems as a whole. The paper utilizes primary data that were collected through a mixed methodology involving participatory workshops and an online survey instrument that involved members of innovation-oriented entrepreneurial ecosystems in eight cities throughout Europe and Latin America from June 2019 through February 2020. Drawing on complex system theory as a unifying approach to describe and explain the components and structural conditions of any ecosystem, whether biological or economic, this paper proposes a theoretical approach and metrics that can be used to attain a better understanding of the social dynamics of ecosystems. Based on observations from the field of biology, it is proposed that such structural conditions tend toward equilibrium when they are constructed mainly through collaborative mechanisms. The results are shown graphically based on the data collected, utilizing metrics taken from complex network analysis and mathematical modeling from the perspective of complex system theory. This paper finds that the ecosystemic approach is more than a metaphor and can functionally describe how an ecosystem is structured and how it works by opening a wider path toward comprehending the dynamics underlying the interactions among components of economic ecosystems and their environment. The paper concludes by proposing that collaboration relationships among actors provide the required characteristics to increase balance and resilience in economic ecosystems.
... They are often the third parties and dealmakers in exchanges among others and are able to benefit from this brokerage. 12 Therefore, in a co-authorship network, the degree centrality of each author indicates the times he/ she has co-authored with those present in the network. As to closeness centrality, according to Hanneman and Riddle "closeness centrality approaches emphasize on the distance of an actor to all others in the network by focusing on the geodesic distance from each actor to all others". ...
... As to closeness centrality, according to Hanneman and Riddle "closeness centrality approaches emphasize on the distance of an actor to all others in the network by focusing on the geodesic distance from each actor to all others". 12 As to betweenness, according to Hanneman and Riddle "views an actor as being in a favored position to the extent that the actor falls on the geodesic paths between other pairs of actors in the network. That is, the more people depend on me to make connections with other people, the more power I have". ...
... That is, the more people depend on me to make connections with other people, the more power I have". 12 According to Abbasi et al, the nodes with high betweenness centrality are highly contributive in the network connection. They have a core position in the network and can promote information flow in the network. ...
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Background: Detecting the main actors and important topics of Iranian cancer research is essential for Iranian policymakers, clinicians, and researchers. This study was conducted to demonstrate the trends and tops in Iranian cancer research from 1960 to 2018. Methods: A total of 22,370 Iranian cancer articles in Web of Science (WoS), PubMed, and Scopus, from 1960 through 2018, were extracted and preprocessed based on data mining techniques and analyzed using the collaboration network analysis, keywords analysis, and bibliometrics methods. Results: The results reveal that, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (11.46%) among organizations, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention (5%) among journals, Malekzadeh R (1.09%) among authors, and Breast cancer (10.37%) among topics ranked the first. The trend of Iranian cancer research represents three periods: 1) germinating period, from 1970 to 2000, 2) developing period, from 2002 to 2014, and 3) flourishing period, from 2014 to 2018. It is expected that this trend will continue. The results indicate an average 12.8% increase in the logarithm of the count of articles published by Iranian cancer researchers each year. The findings are contextualized with Price's publications trends principal for determining global and Iranian cancer research publication trends. Conclusion: The number of research papers published by Iranian researchers on cancer is increasing. In order to maintain the publication growth in this field, greater participation by other Iranian institutions is suggested. Although the quantity and quality of papers are increasing in some topics, certain topics and types of cancers should be still further studied and the Iranian policymakers should be encouraged to invest more in these topics.
... Agentes que entonces se ven persuadidos por una lógica proyectual, que implica compromisos y exigencias para la conexión y mantención de un entramado relacional. A partir de ello, las redes resultantes generan pequeños espacios de apreciación, al interior de los cuales se engendran y justifican órdenes, que en la práctica responden a un ejercicio en torno a "la noción de justicia y criterios normativos de decisión" (Boltanski y Chiapello, 2002, p.30 entre los que existen y se dan relaciones (Easley y Kleinberg, 2010;Hanneman, 2005;Kadushin, 2013). Este conjunto se expresa gráficamente a través de sociogramas 111 los cuales pueden ser analizados matemáticamente mediante la teoría de grafos 112 . ...
... Así cuando un nodo desea vincularse con otro, pero para ello debe utilizar a un tercero, el número de caminos mínimos utilizados, establece su cualidad de intermediación (Shimbel, 1953), pudiendo "potencialmente ejercer algún control sobre las interacciones, es decir, "ejercer roles de porteros (gatekeepers) de ciertos flujos de interacción" (Wasserman y Faust, 2013, p.212) Desde esta perspectiva, hay que tener conciencia de que la metodología proyectual latamente desarrollada en las asignaturas de taller, se estructura en la interacción y colaboración de diversos agentes, los cuales ejercen roles diferenciados en cuanto a la naturaleza y objetivos de sus vínculos. Haciendo posible, la idea de "punto de conexión o conmutación" (Kadushin, 2013, p.61 (Hanneman, 2005). En el contexto de tipologías de inserción laboral en los egresados estudiados, está medición permite conocer potencialmente aquellos agentes de mayor centralidad absoluta dentro de la red conformada por la comunidad académica y laboral. ...
... .2.4 Concepto de modularidad, la fortaleza de conexiones características por grupos de agentes Conocer cómo un agente está inmerso en una estructura de subgrupos en una red, constituye un aspecto crítico para comprender su conducta. Así, una de las mayores preocupaciones del Análisis de Redes Sociales apunta a identificar subgrupos cohesionados de actores, "caracterizados por presentar vínculos relativamente fuertes, directos, intensos, frecuentes o positivos entre sus miembros"(Wasserman y Faust, 2013, p.269).De este modo, algunos agentes consiguen actuar como puentes entre subgrupos, otros tener todas relaciones dentro de una única comunidad, algunos sabiendo ser parte de una elite cerrada y densamente conectada, mientras que otros pueden estar completamente aislados de dicho subgrupo(Hanneman, R., 2005). Así, se constituyen diadas y triadas las cuales consiguen, ser pensadas como estructuras más pequeñas de una red y las combinaciones de éstas como subgrupos, que conectados, constituyen finalmente una red.En esta condición, el concepto de subgrupo se formaliza por características de cohesión entre miembros de una red, basaándose en "propiedades específicas de los vínculos entre actores"(Wasserman y Faust, 2013, p.271). ...
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Noting the small number of works within the field of design that pay attention to the development of technology-based entrepreneurial processes and overcoming a reductionist view oriented towards economic positions, this work set out to develop a study whose descriptive and correlational scope would allow us to question the presence of entrepreneurial conditions in the trajectories of agents who, in their professional practice, seek to insert themselves stably in the Chilean labor market. Its purpose has been to develop an analysis of technology-based entrepreneurial training in Product Design Engineering (IDP) at the Federico Santa María Technical University, stressing the existing link between those particular structures of the nascent professional field that emerged in a society that embraced economic neoliberalism, with those micro-strategies transformed into professional paths by graduates in their eagerness to join the professional field. This makes evident the need to advance from the observation of macro structures that account for power games in the nascent professional field and the subsequent study of labor insertion trajectories that allow questioning the presence of capitals and greatness in graduates. To finally approach the particularity of project operations that, translated into technological products, are reflected as evidence of a relational act. Thus, the general hypothesis that sustains this research establishes that "the entrepreneurial and stable professional development of the graduates articulates the attitude of entrepreneurship as a relational process between actors, resources, social processes and conditions of possibility, technological and economic". It seeks to take charge of a systemic perspective around the technology-based entrepreneurial process, putting in tension aspects housed in historical and institutional conjunctures, which modeled training processes of which the 123 IDP graduates from 2006-2015 constitute their heirs and their trajectories. professionals, its measurable dimension.
... Moreover, the structural characteristics of a network explaining the information flow in the community based on previous studies are connectivity, activity, and power. Centrality in a network structure controls information flow in the network and increases access to important information and significantly affects the decision making of other members [21,22]. ...
... Conformity appeal attributes include cascades of shared information, which represent reputation and clustering related to the imitation of shared information in beauty-focused one-person media; utility value efficiency, which represents the significance of the utility value of beauty-focused one-person media in information access and decision making; reference group influence related to the opinions of reference groups on beauty-focused one-person media, such as utilitarian influence, value-expressive influence, and informational influence; and subnetwork structure, which represents activity, connectivity, and power related to information flow in the community. A total of 12 items were measured based on research by Barringer and Milkovich [20], Culotta [6], Hanneman and Riddle [21], Huang and Chen [19], Jun and Rhee [25], Lakhani et al. [8], Lee et al. [22], Pihlstrom and Brush [28], Goldenberg et al. [1], and Wellman and Frank [9]. Social conformity includes social imitation conformity, which is formed by informational influence in beauty-focused one-person media and represents the tendency to accept others' behaviors as information about objective reality; social connection conformity, which is formed by normative influence in beauty-focused one-person media and represents the tendency to meet the expectations of the majority for social approval; and social comparative conformity, which is formed by identification influence in beauty-focused one-person media and represents the tendency to form a positive self-concept by comparing with others. ...
... However, hypotheses H1-2-2 and H1-3-2 are not supported because accuracy and situational timeliness of information utilization are insufficiently utilized as a tool to actively respond to the needs of participants and express personal values. Moreover, research hypotheses H1-1-3, representing the significant relationship between reference group influence and social imitation conformity, and H1-3-3, representing the relationship between reference group influence and social comparative conformity, are promoted by studies showing that centrality in a network structure controls information flow in the network, improves access to important information, and significantly affects other members' decisions [21,22]. However, hypothesis H1-2-3 is not supported because the useful and informational influence of the reference group was insufficiently utilized as a tool to express individuality, values, and identity. ...
Article
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In the beauty industry, the use of one-person media is making new, more active relationships that differ from those of past online services and information sharing. Therefore, in this study, we developed conformity appeal attributes in one-person media, identifying their effects on information diffusion behavior through social conformity and collaborative innovation networks, to investigate the social contagion effect of information in beauty-focused one-person media and develop a model by connecting them to the conformity threshold of individuals influenced by others. In this study, a total of 694 complete samples of experienced consumers in the beauty-focused one-person media category were selected, and research questions were verified through reliability and validity tests, path analysis, and measurement model analysis. The research results are as follows. First, conformity appeal attributes of beauty-focused one-person media in terms of information cascade, utility value efficiency, reference group influence, and subnetwork structure significantly affected social imitation conformity. However, only subnetwork structure significantly affected social connection conformity. Similarly, only reference group influence and subnetwork structure significantly affected social comparative conformity. Second, social imitation conformity, social connection conformity, and social comparative conformity in beauty-focused one-person media significantly affected cocreation. Third, cocreation in beauty-focused one-person media significantly affected information diffusion behavior. The detailed use of the conformity appeal attribute factors shown in the above results will be combined with functional changes for online and mobile services of beauty companies, and it will be a driving force to create new value for the network. Moreover, the results of this study not only enable social connection among members within the reference group of beauty-focused one-person media but are also applied as an effective phenomenon to explain the continuous maintenance, reinforcement, and expansion of these relationships, thereby enabling researchers to achieve theoretical expansion and evaluation of relevant variables.
... SA is a qualitative method to understand a system by determining the key actors and their interests (Grimble and Wellard, 1997), and has become an essential part of stakeholder research (Chevalier and Buckles, 2008). SNA is a quantitative method to construct the relationships among individuals or groups to calculate and analyze the characteristics and connotations of these relationships (Hanneman, 2001;Mok et al., 2017). The introduction of the stakeholder concept into SNA has been successfully implemented to depict relationships among stakeholders (Muchangos et al., 2017) and analyze the influence of stakeholders (Liang et al., 2017). ...
... Node betweenness centrality is a measure of the degree of a node's control over resources (Hanneman, 2001). The procedure for calculating the node betweenness centrality of each value appeal is given as follows. ...
Article
As a characteristic new means for China to curb the excessive and disordered expansion of construction land, Construction Land Reduction (CLR) plays a significant role in achieving the sustainable use of land resources in economic, ecological and social terms. However, frequent value conflicts inevitably arise over diverse value appeals of various stakeholders throughout all phases of CLR projects, which has greatly impeded the effective implementation of CLR projects in China. To systematically recognize and strategically coordinate stakeholder value conflicts regarding multidimensional dynamic values under limited management resources and insufficient project experience, this study proposes an integrated SA (stakeholder analysis) - SNA (social network analysis) - TRIZ (theory of inventive problem solving) approach built on a systematic framework for stakeholder value conflict management. An empirical study on Shanghai's CLR projects is conducted to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed approach. A total of 280 pairs of value conflicts over 53 value appeals of 11 stakeholders are identified during the four phases of CLR projects in the SA-based conflict identification process, with 4 key value appeals and 21 key value conflicts prioritized in the SNA-based criticality evaluation process. Through the TRIZ-based strategy proposal process, 31 targeted coordination strategies are proposed, from which six major managerial and policy implications for CLR can be distilled. Methodologically, this study contributes to conflict management research by providing an integrated SA-SNA-TRIZ approach with a novel systematic methodological framework. Practically, the research outcomes provide policy makers and practitioners with useful new insights into managing stakeholder value conflicts, thereby driving successful project implementation and facilitating sustainability practices.
... Atores que possuem um maior número vínculos com outros atores podem ter posições favorecidas e formas alternativas de satisfazer necessidades, tornando-se menos dependentes de outros indivíduos. Por terem muitos vínculos, podem ter acesso e usar mais recursos da rede como um todo (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). A centralidade de grau é obtida através da fórmula: ...
... Podem ser criticadas porque levam em conta apenas os laços imediatos que um ator possui, ou os laços dos vizinhos do ator, em vez de laços indiretos com todos da rede. Um ator pode estar vinculado a um grande número de atores, mas esses atores podem estar bastantes desconectados da rede como um todo (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). A centralidade de proximidade é calculada através da fórmula: ...
Conference Paper
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O trabalho visa analisar a estrutura da rede de pesquisadores em sustentabilidade e desenvolvimento sustentável da Amazônia brasileira, formada entre os anos de 2016 a 2020, com base em estudos de redes sociais e com foco em pesquisas publicadas em periódicos da área de estudo das ciências sociais aplicadas. Quanto ao objetivo a pesquisa é caracterizada como descritiva, pois busca apresentar as propriedades estruturais dos pesquisadores que compõem a rede. Em relação ao método de pesquisa é classificada como quantitativa. O corpus de pesquisa foi formado por artigos científicos publicados nestes periódicos e que possuíam foco em sustentabilidade ou no desenvolvimento sustentável, disponibilizados nas bases de dados Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science (WoS) e Scielo. Foram localizados 352 artigos. A aplicação dos critérios de exclusão resultou em uma amostra de 115 artigos. Foram identificados 459 autores, pertencentes a 171 instituições, 100 estrangeiras e 71 brasileiras, que tiveram ao menos uma publicação de artigo científico. A Universidade Federal do Pará e o Instituto Tecnológico Vale se destacaram com o maior número de pesquisadores filiados. Quanto aos resultados referentes as medidas de centralidade, esta rede caracterizou-se como homogênia e através de uma média das três medidas analisadas pode-se dizer que a pesquisadora Rachael D. Garrett é uma colaboradora de grande importância para estudos na Amazônia brasileira. Identificaram-se evidências de que a construção do conhecimento por meio das relações sociais para colaboração em pesquisa encontra-se em fase de interação na rede de pesquisadores da Amazônia brasileira, considerando as práticas isoladas identificadas. Palavras-chave: Amazônia Brasileira. Sustentabilidade. Redes de Pesquisa.
... The structure of a sample network may not be representative of the structure of the network from which it is drawn (Scott, 2000). Therefore, a common approach within social network studies is to use a bounded-saturated approach (or full network census) where all members of an identified group are included (Lin, 1999;Scott, 2000;Hanneman and Riddle, 2005;Borgatti et al., 2018). This approach is a standard method in social network research in schools, for example, in studies of: advice seeking (Sinnema et al., 2021), data use (Farley-Ripple and Buttram, 2015), and curriculum implementation (Hopkins et al., 2017). ...
... This approach is a standard method in social network research in schools, for example, in studies of: advice seeking (Sinnema et al., 2021), data use (Farley-Ripple and Buttram, 2015), and curriculum implementation (Hopkins et al., 2017). This strategy, coupled with high response rates, produces more valid information as it provides a more complete picture of the relations within the network (Scott, 2000;Hanneman and Riddle, 2005). In this study, two groups were identified-the two CoLs-and all educators were included in the study. ...
Article
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Wellbeing in schools is often focused at the individual level, exploring students’ or teachers’ individual traits, habits, or actions that influence wellbeing. However, studies rarely take a whole-school approach that includes staff wellbeing, and frequently ignore relational and organizational level variables. We take a systems informed positive psychology approach and argue that it is essential to build greater understanding about organizational and relational influences on wellbeing in order for schools to support educator wellbeing. Our study evaluated the relative contributions of individual, relational, and organizational factors to educator wellbeing. Our measure of wellbeing focused on the life satisfaction and flourishing of 559 educators in 12 New Zealand schools. We used a social network analysis approach to capture educators’ relational ties, and demographic data and psychometric scales to capture individual and organizational level variables. Results of hierarchical blockwise regressions showed that individual, relational, and organizational factors were all significantly associated with educator wellbeing; however, it was educators’ perceptions of trusting and collaborative school conditions that were most strongly associated with their wellbeing. The number of relational ties educators had explained the least amount of variance in wellbeing. Educators were more likely to experience high levels of support when their close contacts also experienced high levels of support. However, for many educators, there was a negative association between their most frequent relational ties and their reported levels of support. Our results suggest that attending to the organizational factors that influence wellbeing, through creating trusting and collaborative school conditions, may be one of the most influential approaches to enhancing educator wellbeing. We call for whole-school approaches to wellbeing that not only consider how to support and enhance the wellbeing of school staff as well as students, but also view the conditions created within a school as a key driver of wellbeing within schools.
... The snowball is an alternative method for tracking a small group of people mixed with a large number of others (Hanneman, 2000). Snowball sampling proved to be the recruitment method of choice when Allan and Larsen (2003) faced the difficulty of reaching enough participants through their study gatekeeper (RCN) database. ...
... Firstly, individuals who are not connected (i.e. "isolates") are not located by this method (Hanneman, 2000;Shelton and Rianon, 2004;Dicicco-Bloom, 2004). The presence and numbers of isolates can be a very important feature of populations with regard to some analytic purposes. ...
... Clique is a cohesive subgraph structure par excellence with a variety of applications in network analysis [9]- [11]. A kclique is a dense subgraph of a graph G with k nodes, and each pair of nodes are adjacent [12]. ...
Preprint
Listing all k-cliques is a fundamental problem in graph mining, with applications in finance, biology, and social network analysis. However, owing to the exponential growth of the search space as k increases, listing all k-cliques is algorithmically challenging. DDegree and DDegCol are the state-of-the-art algorithms that exploit ordering heuristics based on degree ordering and color ordering, respectively. Both DDegree and DDegCol induce high time and space overhead for set intersections cause they construct and maintain all induced subgraphs. Meanwhile, it is non-trivial to implement the data level parallelism to further accelerate on DDegree and DDegCol. In this paper, we propose two efficient algorithms SDegree and BitCol for k-clique listing. We mainly focus on accelerating the set intersections for k-clique listing. Both SDegree and BitCol exploit the data level parallelism for further acceleration with single instruction multiple data (SIMD) or vector instruction sets. Furthermore, we propose two preprocessing techniques Pre-Core and Pre-List, which run in linear time. The preprocessing techniques significantly reduce the size of the original graph and prevent exploring a large number of invalid nodes. In the theoretical analysis, our algorithms have a comparable time complexity and a slightly lower space complexity than the state-of-the-art algorithms. The comprehensive experiments reveal that our algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms by 3.75x for degree ordering and 5.67x for color ordering on average.
... Industry and management forum, 23(4), 4-36. (Francis, 2004;Frobel, Heinrichs, & Kreye, 1978, 1980 要性的意涵 (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005;Krackhardt, 1992) 當行動者的點度中心性越高就代表該行動者與其他行動者之間的連結越高,而位居 於網絡的中心地位,具有較大的影響力。點度中心性又分為向內點度中心性(in-degree)、 向外點度中心性(out-degree) (Knoke & Burt, 1983)。本研究透過專利間的引證關係中,向內 點度中心性代表技術的接受者,向外點度中心性代表技術的提供者,故以上兩者的分析都 納入探討時,便能解析出國家在技術擴散網絡中的影響力。而點度中心性的計算如下: ...
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台灣對東南亞的實質聯繫,是台灣推動新南向政策的基礎,亦為政府找尋台灣對東南 亞各國合作的利基。但如何加強區域鏈結,有賴於探索台灣在此區域所扮演的角色,以發 展台灣與各國之互惠政策。 本研究觀察新南向政策相關國家之技術擴散,解析出台灣與週邊各國之技術擴散結構, 此項探索在於了解台灣在技術鑲嵌之下其技術重要性的樣貌。其次在於探索東南亞國家之 技術轉變的樣貌,再藉此結果來產生我國對東南亞地區之科技交流的策略。 研究發現台灣可以運用本身技術轉化優勢來維持區域內外的角色地位,並針對東協內 重要的橋接角色國家,如泰國、印尼、馬來西亞、新加坡等國進行策略性互動,以此來提 升台灣在東協區域內的技術重要性。 Taiwan's New Southbound Policy is based on the practical connection that can create the reciprocity niche between Taiwan and Southeast Asia. However, to precisely posited Taiwan's role-play in Asia-Pacific is critical for policy initiation. Therefore, this study investigates international technology diffusion that has been involved in the New Southbound Policy. Analyzing their diffusion structure can reveal Taiwan's critical position in technological embeddedness. Furthermore, understanding the technological change of ASEAN can identify the opportunity to induce the science & technology diplomacy strategy. This study found that Taiwan has maintained the regional status via the core competence in technological reinvention. Meanwhile, strategically interact with the vital brokerage countries that allow Taiwan to realize the critical status in Southeast Asia, which include Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.
... If a node is pointed to by many nodes (which also have high eigenvector centrality), that node will have high eigenvector centrality. These provide a basis for determining the most significant words (nodes) in the network (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005;Opsahl, Agneessens, & Skvoretz, 2010). The result of eigenvector shows that words like "firm," "ambidexterity," "develop," "management," "innovation," "product," "new," "business," "market," "explore," and "exploit" have high eigenvector values, which are almost similar to degree centrality. ...
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Ambidexterity is an important driver of organizational success to meet the future needs of fast-changing markets. Building on the organizational ambidexterity (OA) literature, this study investigates the concept of OA from the emerging market perspective. It adopts semantic network analysis and meta-analysis to identify the factors affecting OA in emerging markets. Semantic network analysis measures degree and eigenvector centralities to understand how the studied words are connected to OA in emerging markets. Meta-analysis summarizes the factors affecting OA in the emerging markets and categorizes them as homogenous or heterogeneous. The results reveal the homogeneity in factors such as firm age, firm size, research and development intensity, top management team (TMT) size, environment instability , ownership, competitive intensity, risk aversion, and international experience, and the heterogeneity in factors such as innovation, firm performance, technological turbulence , new product development, slack resources, TMT social, and market orientation. Future research directions and managerial implications are discussed. K E Y W O R D S emerging markets, firm factors, meta-analysis, organizational ambidexterity, semantic network analysis, top management team
... According to previous studies, assessing the flash floods susceptibility is a reliable method of predicting the occurrence probability of flash floods (Tehrany et al. 2014;Vogel 2016;Ngo et al. 2018). In addition, based on the topological properties of the network, the centrality models, such as the betweenness centrality (Girvan and Newman 2002), the closeness centrality (White and Borgatti 1994), and the straightness centrality (Hanneman and Riddle 2005), have been widely used to assess the importance of links (Porta et al. 2006;Mattsson and Jenelius 2015). Roads with a higher centrality carry more transport functions and have more serious consequences when damaged by flash floods. ...
... To determine whether the KCPK fulfils its proclaimed function In Figure 9, the depicted betweenness centralization score reflects "the inequality of betweenness centrality scores among individuals […] as a percentage", meaning the overall centralization in terms of how many organizations are dominant, central nodes within the whole network (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). If the centralization measure is close to one (id est 100 percent), the network is dominated by a few brokers, whereas a centralization measure gravitating towards zero (id est 0 percent) means that the network is relatively heterarchic concerning bridging power. ...
Thesis
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The Dutch paper and board industry (PBI) managed to survive four centuries of capitalist development, albeit in more marginal form. Even though this industry carries great importance for the politico-economic development of the Netherlands, it has seldomly been researched. This dissertation builds a trans-disciplinary link by drawing on insights from social network research, critical management studies and critical political economy, in order to answer the central research question as to how the Dutch PBI managed to stand up to politico-economic changes, including competitive pressures, technological changes, shifting industrial policy landscapes and labor-related concerns, since its establishment in the late 16th century. My dissertation aims to examine the role inter-organizational networks played, and will continue to play, for the survival of industries more generally, and the Dutch PBI more specifically. By contributing to a more critical approach towards studying inter-organizational networks in management research, my dissertation acknowledges inter-organizational networks (1) as historically contingent, (2) as always involving multiple agents including the state, and (3) as arenas of power asymmetry. Furthermore, this dissertation traces four crucial dimensions of inter-organizational networks to safeguard industrial survival over time, namely state-industry relations,capital-labor relations, technology, and competition and cooperation. Such a renewed theoretical framework for studying inter-organizational networks necessitates the advancement of current methodological approaches. Consequently, my dissertation incorporates Dialectical Network Analysis (DNA), a critical methodology, which foregrounds the convergence of multiple sources of qualitative and quantitative data sourced from diverse research methods. This research finds that inter-organizational networks, in the case of the Dutch paper and board industry, are neither new nor heterarchic. It can thus be concluded that throughout all phases of capitalism inter-organizational networks existed within and beyond the Dutch PBI in the form of close cooperation between different companies and in the form of state-industry projects. Furthermore, the changing content, form and scope of these inter-organizational networks corresponds with the different spatial-temporal power relations between capitalist class fractions in each phase. Consequently, the inter-organizational networks at hand are not heterarchic, but exhibit different degrees of power asymmetry between the involved agents. In contrast to the wide-spread belief that networks are a heterarchic form of cooperation, outside of markets and hierarchy, my dissertation sheds light on the fact that inter-organizational networks remain organizational models pierced by capitalist principles of profit and growth.
... where ∆ is the density; L is the number of real relations; and g (g − 1) is the number of possible relationships. The shared interests and values of empathy and social cohesion, among social actors, reveals a network's structural transitive capacity and also the dynamics of social overlap within it [74]. This allows one to identify dense, compact and connected groups called cliques. ...
Article
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Several biosafety gaps in agri-food sectors have become evident in recent years. Many of them are related to the global livestock systems and the organizational models involved in their management and organization. For example, producing pigs requires a global system of massive confinement and specific technological innovations related to animal production and health that involve broad technical and scientific structures, which are required to generate specific knowledge for successful management. This suggests the need for an underlying socially agglomerated technological ecosystem relevant for these issues. So, we propose the analysis of a specialized scientific social structure in terms of the knowledge and technologies required for pig production and health. The objective of this work is to characterize structural patterns in the research of the swine health sector worldwide. We use a mixed methodological approach, based on a social network approach, and obtained scientific information from 4868 specialized research works on health and pig production generated between 2010 to 2018, from 47 countries. It was possible to analyze swine research dynamics, such as convergence and influence, at country and regional levels, and identify differentiated behaviors and high centralization in scientific communities that have a worldwide impact in terms of achievements but also result in significant omissions
... The collection of network data to describe network relationships by participants was done by means of the Net-Map tool (Hauck et al. 2016). It is grounded on social network analysis (Hanneman and Riddle 2005), influence mapping (Schiffer 2007) and is highly interactive (Schiffer and Hauck 2010). ...
... Ego network analysis allows researchers to rapidly make sense of large data sets by focusing on the ties or edges of individual "focal" actors. 33 Social network exploratory analysis is best conducted with significant background knowledge of the network in mind. 34 ...
Technical Report
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This paper assesses Mexico's organized crime alliance and subgroup network structures. Through social network analysis (SNA) of data from Lantia Consultores, a consulting firm in Mexico that specializes in the analysis of public policies, it demonstrates differential alliance structures within Mexico's bipolar illicit network system. The Cártel de Jalisco Nueva Generación's (CJNG) alliance structure is top-down and hierarchical, while the Sinaloa Cartel is denser, particularly in the broader Tierra Caliente region. Additionally, our analysis found a sparse overall network with many isolates (organized criminal groups with no relations to other groups) and disconnected components. Further, we identified organized crime networks that might fill future power vacuums based on their network positions, following state or rival high-value targeting of major cartels. The implications of these findings are discussed, and policy recommendations are provided.
... Social network analysis allows for the examination of the interactions between actors in a holistic and dynamic way, which has proved crucial to understanding the structural capacity for collective action (Hanneman and Riddle, 2005). First, the criteria for including actors in either research network were defined. ...
Article
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Efforts to reduce the gap between the research evidence base and humanitarian responses have focused on producing quality evidence and ensuring its use for decision‐making. Yet how evidence translates to field‐level implementation is not well understood in humanitarian contexts. This study analysed how recommendations produced through academic research partnerships were implemented by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Lebanon and Myanmar. Based on implementation theory, the methodology included social network analysis to represent collective dynamics; document reviews to assess implementation; qualitative interviews to understand why actors engaged; and a critical appraisal of these combined results. The application of implementation theory provided information on ‘anticipation of constraints’ (access to information, staff turnover, context specificity and the need to engage a cohesive group). Future research efforts should explicitly focus on identifying and tackling implementation barriers such as power imbalances and ethical dilemmas related to service delivery by humanitarian actors.
... We choose α to be 0.05. Automorphic equivalence is formally defined as "two nodes of a graph are automorphically equivalent if all the nodes can be re-labeled to form an isomorphic graph with the labels of u and v interchanged" [99]. Calculating this can be computationally expensive, as it requires computing graph automorphisms. ...
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To understand risk in a financial market we must understand how asset prices are related. By using correlation measures we can quantify the relationships between asset pairs, and then using network science we can then attempt to study the system as a whole. In this thesis we explore the use of various correlation and partial correlation estimators to estimate a financial network from returns data. We then show how these networks differ from the standard Pearson correlation models and attempt to evaluate their use. We firstly explore the use of sparse precision matrix estimators, and compare their success in selecting a known underlying model to simply thresholding the sample covariance matrix. Surprisingly we find that thresholding the sample covariance matrix is competitive with these sparse precision matrix estimators. Next we look at using a selection of these estimators for portfolio optimization. We find that in general they do not outperform non-sparse methods, such as the Ledoit-Wolf shrinkage estimators, but can provide some added robustness, and do force diversification upon the portfolios. We then look at constructing networks using these precision matrix estimations. Firstly we use the Ledoit-Wolf shrinkage method to construct partial correlation networks of the S&P500. These partial correlation networks have a significantly less variable largest eigenvalue than a correlation network, indicating the effect of the market has been removed, but in fact are more unstable than their correlation counterparts, with both the largest eigenvector and community structure changing significantly more between adjacent time periods. Furthermore we have less success in uncovering the underlying sector structure in these partial correlation networks compared to the equivalent correlation ones. These Ledoit-Wolf estimated networks are dense, which can inhibit interpretability. Therefore next we look at using a sparse precision matrix estimator, the SPACE method. Again these networks seem quite unstable, with a large number of edge changes between networks adjacent in time, indicating that partial correlation networks in general are more unstable than their correlation counterparts. Next we explore the use of rank correlation methods for the construction of minimum spanning trees from financial returns, and explore how these compare to those constructed using Pearson correlation. We find that the trees constructed using these rank methods correlation tend to be more stable and maintain more edges over the dataset than those constructed using Pearson correlation and the trees have similar topologies. We also explore how deviations from Gaussianity drive differences in the trees. There is little correlation between MST differences and deviations from univariate Gaussianity, but if we use quantile normalization to force the dataset to be univariate Gaussian then the differences between the MSTs drops, indicating this does have an effect. Finally we look at how the similarity and stability of correlation networks changes during times of market calm and market stress. Using some simple measures, such as the change and standard deviation of the entries in the leading eigenvector and the mean L2 difference between nodes, we look at three different markets, the US, UK and Germany, and find that the UK and US markets become more similar and more stable during times of market stress, but the German market does not see such effects.
... El ARS es una herramienta que en los últimos años ha cobrado gran importancia, ya que tiene la característica de ser adaptable para explicar fenómenos sociales y estructurales en diversos campos de estudio (Franco-Bermúdez & Ruiz-Castañeda, 2019;Freeman, 2004;Hanneman & Riddle, 2005;Wasserman & Faust, 1994). En el sector agrícola ha sido utilizada para analizar procesos de difusión de innova- Desde el punto de vista comercial, las redes de comercio internacional son manifestaciones de una combinación compleja de diversos factores subyacentes, tanto naturales como sociales (Shutters & Muneepeerakul, 2012). ...
... In stage two, after the composition of the patent database, the analysis to evaluate TR begin using search path link count (SPLC) algorithm trough SNPA (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005;Newman, 2010). The software Gephi (Bastian, Heymann & Jacomy, 2009) support the visualization and statistical analysis of social networks. ...
Article
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Knowledge-intensive significantly contribute to technological development. This paper aims to explore technological routes (TR) on high analytics information (HAI) technologies for sake of technological forecasting through social network analysis (SNA) in a patent database from 2001 to 2020. Applying search path link count (SPLC) algorithm, this study provides five different TR in various business sectors. This study support decision makers to find additional core of technologies for their innovation strategies and help researchers in identifying HAI technologies that may still emerge in different industries support strategic R&D decisions about prioritizing investments, identifying partnerships to innovate, and collaborating in public policies based on promoting new HAI technologies development.
... Network data are inherently non-parametric and violate the assumptions of independent observations and random sampling from the population (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). Subjecting network data to classical inferential tests is likely to inflate Type I errors. ...
Article
Team identification and collective efficacy are important determinants of team functioning. A team’s collective efficacy is borne from its shared social identity and improved through iterative, interpersonal exchanges between teammates during training sessions and matches. Our study employed social network analyses to examine the impact of intra-team relationships on team identification and collective efficacy. We adopted a cross-sectional design including four elite teams (N = 67, 79% female) and collected athletes’ data on which teammates they communicated with during matches (match communication relationships) and which teammates they sought informational support from during training sessions (informational support relationships). Regression analyses were conducted to explore the impact of these relationships on team identification and collective efficacy. Communication ties positively predicted team identification, while incoming (i.e., receiving nominations for support from teammates) and outgoing support ties (i.e., perceiving teammates as available for support) were unrelated. In addition, outgoing support ties predicted collective efficacy, while incoming support ties and communication ties were unrelated. Findings are discussed through a social identity lens, with suggestions to curate the training environment with activities that increase the reciprocity of communication relations between certain pairs of teammates to strengthen identification as well as increase the quantity and distribution of outgoing, support-seeking relations to enhance collective efficacy. Network maps of the teams sampled are used to exemplify these suggestions. Future research using social network analyses to track changes in networks over time is encouraged to understand the role of intra-team relationships in team functioning. Keywords: social network analysis, teamwork, social identity, communication, informational support
... This approach was also applied during interviews to identify additional stakeholders (Hay, 2010). Regrettably, due to time limitations, it was not possible to interview every potential stakeholder until no new stakeholders could be identified, a strategy often recommended for attaining a saturation curve in the number of interviewees (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). We adopted the name-generator questionnaire method (de Lange et al., 2019), whereby respondents list the names of people with whom they interact and the frequency of those interactions (i.e., daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly). ...
Article
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Biodiversity conservation traditionally necessitates setting aside land, which frequently impacts local communities. Although progress has been made on how to optimize this process, conflict frequently emerges when conservation and community goals are at odds. Improving communication and community inclusiveness in decision‐making processes is strongly recommended to achieve livelihood goals and conservation outcomes. We used social network analysis to understand how local communities are embedded within the structure and dynamics of stakeholder interactions in Quirimbas National Park (Mozambique). We detected a network of limited cooperation that lacks bidirectional communication, displaying low average knowledge transfer but high bonding across stakeholder groups with similar perceptions. Local communities only interact with the district government and they have a passive voice in the system. A more inclusive network structure is needed so that conservation and community livelihood goals can be achieved. We used a social network approach to understand how local communities are embedded on the structure and dynamics of stakeholder interactions in Quirimbas National Park (Mozambique). We found a low cooperative network that lacks bidirectional communication, with low averaged transference of knowledge, but high bonding across stakeholder groups with similar perceptions. Local communities only interact with the district government, and they have a passive voice in the system.
... From 1 to n-1 ** While the mathematical meaning of the metrics remains unchanged, the final interpretation depends, to a large extent, on the type of network that is being constructed (Hanneman & Riddle, 2005). ...
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The benefits of using complex network analysis (CNA) to study complex systems, such as an economy, have become increasingly evident in recent years. However, the lack of a single comparative index that encompasses the overall wellness of a structure can hinder the simultaneous analysis of multiple ecosystems. A formula to evaluate the structure of an economic ecosystem is proposed here, implementing a mathematical approach based on CNA metrics to construct a comparative measure that reflects the collaboration dynamics and its resultant structure. This measure provides the relevant actors with an enhanced sense of the social dynamics of an economic ecosystem, whether related to business, innovation, or entrepreneurship. Available graph metrics were analysed, and 14 different formulas were developed. The efficiency of these formulas was evaluated on real networks from 11 different innovation-driven entrepreneurial economic ecosystems in six countries from Latin America and Europe and on 800 random graphs simulating similarly constructed networks.
... Sosyal ağ düzeneğine ilişkin olarak gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarda veri analizinin yapılabilmesinin temel koşulu, ağ düzeneği içerisinde yer alan aktörler arası ilişki durumunun saptanması olup, mülakat, anket ya de ikincil veri kaynakları ile bahse konu durum saptanabilmektedir. Ağ düzeneğine ilişkin olarak gerçekleştirilen çalışmalarda toplanan verilerin analizinde en uygun yöntemin matris yöntemi olduğu aktarılmaktadır (Hanneman ve Riddle, 2005). ...
Article
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Many behaviors of human being, who is a social being, in the organization are affected by the social network connections. The aim of this study is to reveal whether the social network connections of the actor in the organization have an effect on individual performance, which can be considered as the antecedent of many behavioral variables in the management and organization
... Hence, one measure can present a different social structure than another and different measures provide different perspectives on who are the most active [25]. In smaller and simpler network structures such measures may co-vary, while in larger and more complex networks, they may characterize actors very differently [45]. ...
Preprint
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For a firm in an open source software (OSS) ecosystem, the requirements engineering (RE) process is rather multifaceted. Apart from its typical RE process, there is a competing process, external to the firm and inherent to the firm's ecosystem. When trying to impose an agenda in competition with other firms, and aiming to align internal product planning with the ecosystem's RE process, firms need to consider who and how influential the other stakeholders are, and what their agendas are. The aim of the presented research is to help firms identify and analyze stakeholders in OSS ecosystems, in terms of their influence and interactions, to create awareness of their agendas, their collaborators, and how they invest their resources. To arrive at a solution artifact, we applied a design science research approach where we base artifact design on the literature and earlier work. A stakeholder influence analysis (SIA) method is proposed and demonstrated in terms of applicability and utility through a case study on the Apache Hadoop OSS ecosystem. SIA uses social network constructs to measure the stakeholders' influence and interactions and considers the special characteristics of OSS RE to help firms structure their stakeholder analysis processes in relation to an OSS ecosystem. SIA adds a strategic aspect to the stakeholder analysis process by addressing the concepts of influence and interactions, which are important to consider while acting in collaborative and meritocratic RE cultures of OSS ecosystems.
Article
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The paper presents a scalable and generalized approach to social network analysis using fuzzy graph theory. It proposes an intelligent sociocentric approach that calculates the degree of potential relationship of a social network of finite size by proposing a fuzzy graph social network model. It takes into account social entity functional and relational attributes simultaneously. It computes the degree of potential relationship of a social network in two steps. The first step computes the fuzzy pairwise relationship between all social nodes or entities by incorporating the proposed fuzzy node activeness index parameter with an online and offline communication relationship. The second step further uses all fuzzy pairwise relationships calculated in the first step to calculate the degree of potential relationship of a social network. It uses an astute function that utilizes weighted arithmetic and geometric means of the relationships between entities. It also uses two weights—betweenness and closeness centrality of an entity in the social network. The paper performs the experimental work on a small WhatsApp social network of undergraduate students in the university for 6 months. Hence, the paper proposes the degree of potential relationship in social networks, which may be used as a global parameter to compare different social networks by simultaneously incorporating social node's functional and relational attributes.
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Scientometric studies are one of the most efficient methods of scientific evaluation in a valid scientific database. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the co-word analysis of scientific outputs in the field of bibliotherapy in the Web of Science (WoS). This scientometric study was conducted using library methods and network analysis. The statistical population of this study included all documents indexed in the WoS with the subject of bibliotherapy from 1975 to 2020. Data were analyzed using Excel, Pajek, UCINET, Netdraw, and VOSviewer software. The results show that the scientific outputs in the field of bibliotherapy had no appropriate growth rate, and the growth rate of the total scientific outputs in this field was 3%. The field of "psychology" was the most active one with the production of 49% of bibliotherapy studies. Based on the study of the co-word network in the field of bibliotherapy, six thematic clusters were identified. The "Bibliotherapy for children" cluster with 1013 keywords was recognized as the largest cluster, and the "Bibliotherapy" keyword with 543 frequencies was the most frequent keywords. The "Bibliotherapy" and "Depression" keywords with 153 frequencies had the most co-word occurrence. The network density was 1.26. Moreover, the keywords of bibliotherapy, depression, and self-help had the highest rank centrality (100, 85.417, and 82.292), betweenness centrality (11.194, 5.378 and 4.310), and closeness centrality (100, 87.273, and 84.956), respectively. The trend of bibliotherapy studies was poor, and the medical fields had not paid much attention to its use in the treatment of diseases. Therefore, health policymakers must take the necessary plans to improve and strengthen bibliotherapy studies in all areas.
Conference Paper
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Damgalanma, özellikle Covid 19 küresel salgın sürecinde ortaya çıkan riskli ve güvenli olmayan çalışma koşulları karşısında sağlık çalışanlarının sıklıkla maruz kaldığı durumu ifade etmektedir. Literatürde, sağlık çalışanlarının salgın ve bulaşıcı hastalıklar sebebiyle damgalanmayla karşılaştığı ve damgalanmanın doğurduğu çeşitli sonuçların ele alındığı görülmektedir. Bu doğrultuda, çalışmada Covid 19 sürecinde görev yapan sağlık çalışanlarının damgalanmaya maruz kalma şekillerinin ve damgalanmanın sonuçlarının bir model çerçevesinde sunulması amaçlanmaktadır. Araştırma amacı kapsamında farklı hastanelerde görev yapan; kıdem, yaş, çalışma birimi gibi farklı kriterler esas alınarak, 28 çalışan ile yarı yapılandırılmış soru formu aracılığıyla mülakatlar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Mülakatlardan elde edilen veriler MAXQDA nitel veri analizi programı kullanılarak kodlanmış ve kategorize edilmiştir. Kodların ve kategorilerin görselleştirilmesinde frekans analizi, karşılaştırmalı analiz ve ilişki analizlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre, damgalanmaya maruz kalan sağlık çalışanlarının karşılaştığı sonuçlar dört ana tema çerçevesinde sekiz alt-tema olarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Bununla birlikte sağlık çalışanlarının maruz kaldığı damgalanma sonuçları “bireysel”, “örgütsel”, “toplumsal” ve “ailevi” olarak dört ana tema kapsamında sınıflandırılmıştır.
Chapter
In contemporary societies, forms of communication have become, in many ways, predominantly online. The rise of social media has reshaped the culture of communication and created new virtual environments offering multiple opportunities for individuals to create profiles on different platforms, to communicate both personally and professionally. Although there is research on the phenomenon of Branding in social media, it is observed that the people-related perspective presents gaps in conceptual alignment and scientific depth and therefore holds immense room for progression. Thus, the objective of this article is, through a theoretical revision, to investigate and discuss the influence of communication practices and dynamics in the process of Personal Brand Management in social media, in order to contribute to overcome some of the gaps in scientific knowledge and enable the use of this knowledge by society in general.
Article
The formation of an industrial network is inevitable because an industrial structure evolves to a higher level. The continuous material exchange among sectors creates a path for the embodied carbon in products to flow freely among industries. With the gradual complication of industrial networks, however, the emission reduction behavior of sectors not only becomes rooted in individual conduct but also originates from the interaction forces between individuals. Therefore, carbon management in industries in the real economy needs to be explored from the perspective of these complex networks. On the basis of these considerations, this study utilized a hybrid model, the Economic Input‐Output Life Cycle Assessment model, to construct the carbon footprint network of China’s industries in 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017. We also applied social network analysis to quantify the structural characteristics and evolutionary patterns of the network. Results showed that the transmission efficiency of resources and the subgroup‐integrated degree of the actors within the carbon footprint network were excellent, which was conducive to coordinated carbon emission reduction of these sectors from a network perspective. Agriculture and services were the engines driving sector‐wide carbon emission reduction through links within the network. Furthermore, some sectors, such as transportation and warehousing industry, basic chemicals and chemical products manufacturing, and metal smelting and rolling processing industry, act as bridges and brokers. These sectors are keys to ensuring network cohesion and reducing the risk of network fragmentation. Finally, the industrial block network presented a hierarchical structure of a core‐edge network. The network followed a trend of structural changes in which the network core became increasingly clear, and the network distribution pattern gradually concentrated on a single block. This finding revealed a new pathway for collaborative carbon mitigation in the industry from the perspective of the industrial community.
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I progetti integrati per le aree rurali in Calabria.
Chapter
With the development of Internet technologies, social networks attain an indispensable part in the day to day life of human beings because it enables better understanding of the perplexity of the interconnectedness. One methodology that has been predominantly helpful in finding covered up connections, associations, and patterns of complex frameworks through numerical and graphical strategies is social network analysis (SNA). This methodology has become progressively useful for healthcare, specifically as a large number of issues connected to the healthcare frameworks with dynamic entertainers that connect with one another and show emerging complex practices. It acts as an assistive medium for both the patients and the healthcare advisors, as medicine alone is not sufficient for the recovery of patients. The tremendous usage of social media states that the people depend mostly on online available information rather than advertisements for making purchases. The assessment of cost and quality rating of the public leads the way for others to know about better healthcare advices. The health options provided by the social media help the public to be aware about the health‐related issues. This chapter provides a deep insight of SNA and its applications in the healthcare system.
Chapter
In the past twenty years continuous change has transformed the face of rural Greece. The Euro- pean agricultural and rural development policies, other international developments, as well as the recent economic crisis have accelerated past and created new rural transformation processes. ‘De-agriculturalisation’ and rural restructuring have been accompanied by ‘rurbanization’ and socio-economic integration of rural population. These interrelated processes have internally transformed the rural areas, forming a ‘new rurality’ characterised by contraction of agriculture, expansion of tourism and construction, increased pluriactivity, increased employment of inter- national migrant labour and the reorganisation of farm operation and family labour division. In the environment of crisis, rural areas have been affected in diverse ways. On the one hand, they experience rising costs of production, falling incomes, increasing inequalities, contraction of public services and on the other, lower unemployment rates than urban areas, increased production and exports and a cowardly ‘back to the land’ movement in which agriculture’s role is enhanced. The paper will identify and discuss the main elements and the dynamics of the changing physiognomy of rurality in Greece over the past twenty years. On the basis of evidence provided by available statistical data, it will also investigate the main features of the internal and external to rural areas’ mobilities in the context of the recent economic recession.
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Considering the inherent developmental nature of language learners’ affective variables (e.g., their motivation, grit, foreign language enjoyment, and boredom), nuances of the development of these constructs need to be approached from a complex dynamic systems theory (CDST) perspective. Among the qualitative research methodologies compatible with the CDST is the social network analysis (SNA) with the interconnectedness and interdependence of systems within a social network at its core. In this article, an overall introduction to SNA is presented first and then followed by a review of the limited existing literature on second language acquisition (SLA) studies. Then, I argue why this innovative research method is suitable to investigate the dynamic nature of L2 learners’ affective variables in the social network of classroom learning. I also suggest several relevant research questions that can potentially be formulated and answered using the SNA. The article ends with conclusive remarks on the need for a more extensive use of innovative CDST-compatible research methods such as SNA in the prospective SLA line of research.
Chapter
This study investigates how members of the Turkish diaspora connected online using Twitter as a social medium during the Gezi Park protests and how those connections and the structure of the resulting Twitter network changed after the protests ended. Further, the authors examine respondents' online influence and their roles in the movement, using social network centrality measures and Tommasel and Godoy's (2015) novel metric. The authors utilize data from Twitter to determine the connections between 307 distinct users, using both online and offline surveys. The findings reveal that Turkish diaspora members' use of Twitter provided the impetus for larger structural changes to the Twitter network. Moreover, results indicate that users' influence was not related to the frequency of their re-tweets or the number of their Twitter followers. Rather, users' influence corresponds to other factors such as their ability to spread information and engage with other users and also to the importance of their Twitter content.
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Wraz z rozwojem epidemii COVID-19 organy władzy publicznej wprowadziły liczne zmiany. Ich celem było przeciwdziałanie zakażeniom i minimalizowanie negatywnych skutków epidemii. Część zmian odnosiła się do organizacji organów władzy publicznej i sposobów wykonywania powierzonych ich zadań. Z jakim skutkiem?
Article
Human resource management (HRM) involves huge amounts of data, which requires the application of modern information technologies (IT). The paper looks at the role and development of human resource management in information technologies by employing bibliometric analysis of publications released in the period of 2001–2020 and aims to understand the interaction between the two fields. The methodological basis includes the concept of human resource management. In the article, the bibliometric methods were used, such as co-word, social network and keyword frequency analyses. The information basis of the study includes 562 articles indexed in Scopus database. The data obtained were processed using VOSviewer, Pajek and UCINET software. The 20-year period under study was divided into four periods of five years each to interpret the combination of methods, betweenness centrality and degree centrality values of the keywords for each period. Social network analysis findings reveal that sustainable HRM studies in the IT field are cohesive and connected, and appear to be building as an academic field. According to the research findings, human resource development, cloud computing, supply chain management, and job satisfaction are the most likely study fields in the future. Developments in the field of HRM provide a subjective assessment and interpretation of the emerging trends based on the quantitative approach and identify the existing research gaps, such as looking for an association between IT and sustainable HRM social effects.
Article
Despite the benefits of rural chickens in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa, this sector is still underdeveloped and poorly surveyed for poultry diseases. The lack of a sustainable poultry disease surveillance system coupled with communities and practices where the interactions between birds are high, emphasize the need for targeted surveillance of chicken diseases in the province. However, to set up such a system requires knowledge of the value chain and trade networks. Consequently, a survey, which involved a rural chicken value chain analysis that also included an assessment of trading practices to identify biosecurity hotspots and an identification of barriers to market entry for rural farmers was conducted. Secondly, a social network analysis of chicken movements in the province was carried out to identify trade hubs that could be targeted for disease surveillance based on their centrality within the network and their size and influence within their ego networks. Traders and their transport vehicles were identified as biosecurity hotspots that could be targeted for disease surveillance within the chain. Social network analysis identified three municipalities viz. Umzimvubu, King Sabata Dalindyebo (KSD) and Enoch Mgijima as trade hubs where interaction between rural chickens occurs and resources can be focused. The movement of spent hens from commercial operations that are transported over long distances and distributed in the rural areas and townships were a major risk for spread of poultry diseases. This is the first study to formally describe chicken trade networks within the province and the surrounding region. Its findings provide a model for cost effective targeted surveillance in the ECP and similar resource poor regions of the world. The study also provides insight into the profitability of rural chickens and a possible contribution to job creation and poverty alleviation once the barriers to market entry are lifted.
Article
Gender disparities in negotiation outcomes contribute to inequality in the workplace and beyond. Explanations of gender gaps in negotiation often focus on internal barriers women face as a consequence of contending with stigma in the workplace and other historically male‐dominated environments, such as stereotype threat and apprehension about negotiating. However, stigma is also associated with relational consequences that may influence success in negotiations. This research compared internal and relational mechanisms for gender disparities in negotiation performance. Seventy‐seven MBA executives reported their apprehension about negotiating, stereotype threat in negotiations, mindset about negotiation‐related stress, and class social networks. Participants were then randomly paired to complete a series of one‐on‐one negotiations based on real‐world scenarios. Overall, men outperformed women in negotiations. Significant gender differences emerged in stereotype threat, stress mindset, and social network centrality. However, only network centrality—specifically number and strength of ties—significantly mediated the relationship between gender and negotiation performance. Position in informal social networks may play an important role in negotiation outcomes, particularly in a shared social environment like the workplace. Although efforts to explain the gender gap in negotiation performance often center internal psychological mechanisms, this research suggests that relational explanations, such as disparities in social networks, merit further attention. Limitations and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.
Article
Extreme climatic events trigger changes in ecosystems with potential negative impacts for people. These events may provide an opportunity for environmental managers and decision-makers to improve the governance of social-ecological systems, however there is conflicting evidence regarding whether these actors are indeed able to change governance after extreme climatic events. In addition, the majority of research to date has focused on changes in specific policies or organizations after crises. A broader investigation of governance actors’ activities is needed to more fully understand whether or not crises trigger change. Here we demonstrate the use of a social network analysis of management and decision-making forums (e.g. meetings, partnerships) to reveal the effects of an extreme climatic event on governance of the Great Barrier Reef over an eight-year period. To assess potential shifts in action, we examine the topics of forums and the relative participation and influence of diverse governance actors before, during, and after two back-to-back mass coral bleaching events in 2016 and 2017. Our analysis reveals that there is little change in the topics that receive attention, and in the relative participation and influence of different actor groups in the region. Our research demonstrates that network analysis of forums is useful for analyzing whether or not actors’ activities and priorities evolve over time. Our results provide empirical evidence that governance actors struggle to leverage extreme climate events as windows of opportunity and further research is needed to identify alternative opportunities to improve governance.
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