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Nature unbound: Conservation, capitalism and the future of protected areas

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This groundbreaking volume is the first comprehensive, critical examination of the rise of protected areas and their current social and economic position in our world. It examines the social impacts of protected areas, the conflicts that surround them, the alternatives to them and the conceptual categories they impose. The book explores key debates on devolution, participation and democracy; the role and uniqueness of indigenous peoples and other local communities; institutions and resource management; hegemony, myth and symbolic power in conservation success stories; tourism, poverty and conservation; and the transformation of social and material relations which community conservation entails. For conservation practitioners and protected area professionals not accustomed to criticisms of their work, or students new to this complex field, the book will provide an understanding of the history and current state of affairs in the rise of protected areas. It introduces the concepts, theories and writers on which critiques of conservation have been built, and provides the means by which practitioners can understand problems with which they are wrestling. For advanced researchers the book will present a critique of the current debates on protected areas and provide a host of jumping off points for an array of research avenues © Dan Brockington, Rosaleen Duffy and Jim Igoe, 2008. All rights reserved.
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... La principal justificación para tal decisión se basaba en la idea de que la naturaleza necesitaba ser preservada de forma prístina, por lo cual debía estar inhabitada e intocada (Colchester, 2004). Dicho principio acompañó durante casi un siglo la creación de gran parte de las áreas protegidas en todo el mundo, particularmente bajo un modelo "colonial" en que las potencias occidentales impusieron sus condiciones de conservación a las poblaciones locales (Brockington, Duffy, & Igoe, 2008). Este principio permaneció casi inalterable hasta la década de los '70s, cuando se comenzaron a escuchar las primeras voces de organizaciones indígenas y políticas reclamando por la injusticia que implicaba despojar de sus tierras a grupos que tenían derechos legítimos para vivir, cazar, pescar o cultivar y que ahora eran protegidos para preservar la vida silvestre, bosques, arrecifes o ecosistemas (Redford & Fearn, 2007). ...
... La principal justificación para tal decisión se basaba en la idea de que la naturaleza necesitaba ser preservada de forma prístina, por lo cual debía estar inhabitada e intocada (Colchester, 2004). Dicho principio acompañó durante casi un siglo la creación de gran parte de las áreas protegidas en todo el mundo, particularmente bajo un modelo "colonial" en que las potencias occidentales impusieron sus condiciones de conservación a las poblaciones locales (Brockington, Duffy, & Igoe, 2008). Este principio permaneció casi inalterable hasta la década de los '70s, cuando se comenzaron a escuchar las primeras voces de organizaciones indígenas y políticas reclamando por la injusticia que implicaba despojar de sus tierras a grupos que tenían derechos legítimos para vivir, cazar, pescar o cultivar y que ahora eran protegidos para preservar la vida silvestre, bosques, arrecifes o ecosistemas (Redford & Fearn, 2007). ...
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La exclusión por acción u omisión de las comunidades locales en el manejo de las áreas protegidas, conocida como ‘conservación fortaleza’, es una práctica que persiste a pesar del amplio consenso teórico que promueve una mayor integración de la población local en la conservación de la biodiversidad. Este artículo presenta el caso de estudio de dos áreas protegidas en el bosque templado del sur de Chile en donde, a través del mapeo de actores y el análisis de redes sociales, se ha indagado sobre el grado de vinculación social entre múltiples actores con interés y/o influencia en el área protegida y su zona de amortiguación. Los resultados muestran una baja densidad de relaciones sociales, alta fragmentación de la red social en torno a intereses sectoriales (agricultura, pesca, turismo, entre otras), así como un significativo nivel de aislamiento social del área protegida. Este aislamiento es explicado, en parte, por la existencia de un modelo de manejo del área protegida que no ha incorporado, principalmente por omisión, la participación activa de la amplia variedad de actores locales y regionales, en especial de las comunidades. Esta omisión ha generado un escenario territorial adverso para la gobernanza del área protegida y su zona de amortiguación, creando una situación de riesgo al polarizar la conservación y el desarrollo en el territorio.
... La principal justificación para tal decisión se basaba en la idea de que la naturaleza necesitaba ser preservada de forma prístina, por lo cual debía estar inhabitada e intocada (Colchester, 2004). Dicho principio acompañó durante casi un siglo la creación de gran parte de las áreas protegidas en todo el mundo, particularmente bajo un modelo "colonial" en que las potencias occidentales impusieron sus condiciones de conservación a las poblaciones locales (Brockington, Duffy, & Igoe, 2008). Este principio permaneció casi inalterable hasta la década de los '70s, cuando se comenzaron a escuchar las primeras voces de organizaciones indígenas y políticas reclamando por la injusticia que implicaba despojar de sus tierras a grupos que tenían derechos legítimos para vivir, cazar, pescar o cultivar y que ahora eran protegidos para preservar la vida silvestre, bosques, arrecifes o ecosistemas (Redford & Fearn, 2007). ...
Article
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... Pengaturan alam dan manusia di wilayah kawasan lindung menyuguhkan warisan pengetahuan kolonial tentang alam (Lowe 2006). Pergeseran pendekatan dalam mengatur alam dan manusia melahirkan pendekatan partisipatif dengan praktik dan cara-cara neoliberalisme yang fokus pada penguatan mekanisme konsensual (Orlove dan Brush 1996;Brosius 2004;Igoe, Brockington, dan Duffy 2008;Blanchard dkk. 2017). ...
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Keberhasilan tata kelola konservasi yang partisipatif bergantung pada relasi kekuasaan antara pemerintah dan masyarakat. Governmentality atau ‘kepengaturan’ menjadi kekuatan yang berdampak pada proses dan praktik seorang wali masyarakat. Dalam konteks pembalakan liar (illegal logging), intervensi pemerintahan kepada subjek target dapat memutus rantai deforestasi dengan cara menjalankan kehendak serta amalan perbaikan hidup. Penelitian ini ingin menjawab pertanyaan mengapa aktor pebisnis lokal yang mampu memobilisasi tenaga kerja dan berjejaring dengan kelompok klien pembalakan liar dapat berubah menjadi konservasionis. Artikel ini fokus pada pemeriksaan subjek yang menjadi target baru intervensi dan efek dari intervensi tersebut, serta pergantian posisinya. “Amal bijak” menjadi unit analisis dalam kajian ini dan akan ditempatkan sebagai medium di mana kekuasaan beroperasi. Penulis berargumen bahwa amal bijak merupakan mode kuasa paling relevan dengan tujuan-tujuan konservasi taman nasional di Indonesia karena mempromosikan aliansi yang bersifat saling menguntungkan, kolektif, sosial, dan afektif. Data dalam artikel ini bersumber dari penelitian selama dua bulan dari Februari – Maret 2018 di Kabupaten Ketapang dan Kayong Utara, Kalimantan Barat. Tulisan ini akan mengulas sejarah, strategi, dan skenario wali masyarakat dalam bidang kepengaturan taman nasional di Indonesia.
... The establishment of WMAs have, in most cases, resulted to the denial and dispossession of local peoples' needs and opportunities that were essential for their survival and development (Kiwango et al., 2015;Kicheleri et al., 2018). This has resulted into exposing local communities to high risks of living; and some have become marginalized, homeless, food insecure, jobless, and have lost environmental services (Brockington et al., 2008). Adams and Hutton (2007) posit that depriving local communities of conservation services that support their livelihood systems has resulted into some communities practising anticonservation actions like poaching and encroachment. ...
Article
Local community bordering protected areas bear conservation costs like crop damage, injury and loss of land despite the conservation benefits and tourism attractions situated within their localities. This paper examines the extent to which community adjacent to protected areas access subsistence resources in Makao WMA. The study was conducted in Makao Wildlife Management Area in Jinamo, Mwabagimu and Makao villages, in Meatu District, Tanzania. The data were collected from 281 heads of households using a survey design within a mixed approach. A random number generator was used to generate a random number of households to be surveyed in each study village. The study found a limited access to subsistence resources as local communities are restricted to access land for agriculture, livestock grazing, settlements, firewood, wood for charcoal production, building poles and grasses; hence limiting their livelihood supports. The study results show that limited access to subsistence resources in protected areas may, in the long-run, results to resource-use conflicts in wildlife management areas. This study recommends local community capacity building programs that enable local advocacy for sustainable wildlife conservation and ensure resources access.
Article
Past research linking tourism and reciprocal altruism (RA), although meagre, has typically focused on relationships between hosts and guests. To broaden the application of RA in tourism, the current study focuses specifically on a local community and their participation in conserving national park assets. Face-to-face interviews with 39 local stakeholders were conducted in Iran to investigate how locals' altruistic behaviours contribute to the conservation of Touran National Park. The results demonstrate that while altruism motives such as satisfying a moral obligation to support the environment, protecting wildlife, and doing something positive for the community were cited as the main reason for conservation cooperation for NGOs and environmentalists, self-interest was the main reason for conservation cooperation motives amongst tourism business operators in conserving the park. This study also showed that locals' altruistic behaviour is an important and influential factor in protecting valuable natural resources.
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El capítulo de libro presenta un análisis sobre la segregación urbana en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, y describe los mecanismos que dan lugar a la marginalización de la población de las favelas y cómo estas personas desarrollan estrategias para resistir su situación de subordinación. Explica que los procesos de urbanización en la América Latina neoliberal responden a la comodificación del espacio urbano y a la producción de plusvalía, la cual relega a un segundo plano las necesidades y derechos de sus habitantes.
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To better understand current conflicts related to human–wolf interactions in Finland, this article undertakes a longue‐durée examination of societal structural transformations and how they have influenced ways of relating to nature in the country. Through a world‐ecological perspective, we weave together a historical review and results of ethnographic fieldwork to explain how and why human–wolf relations in Finland transformed from indifferent coexistence to purposeful eradication in the late 19th century and ultimately to contemporary contested protection. We argue that the nature‐making capacities of capitalist development are an integral part of the historical circumstances that led to the eradication of wolves, which was not only the result of animosity towards wolves but also fuelled by the interests of elite hunters. The resulting negative perceptions, coupled with changes in practices and landscapes during the wolf‐less era, are central in current contestations, illustrating the deep ideological, emotional, and practical nature relations that capitalism creates.
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Across the globe, community-oriented protected areas are increasingly recognised as an effective way to support the preservation and maintenance of the traditional biodiversity related knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities. We argue that guaranteed land security and the ability of indigenous and local peoples to exercise their own governance structures is central to the success of community-oriented protected area programs. In particular, we examine the conservation and community development outcomes of the Indigenous Protected Area program in Australia, which is based on the premise that indigenous landowners exercise effective control over environmental governance, including management plans, within their jurisdiction (whether customary or state-based or a combination of elements of both), and have effective control of access to their lands, waters and resources. Key Words: community-oriented protected areas, Indigenous rights, conservation, Australia
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The World Conservation Union (IUCN) plays a global leadership role in defining different types of protected areas, and influencing how protected area systems develop and are managed. Following the 1992 World Parks Congress, a new system of categorizing protected areas was developed. New categories were introduced, including categories that allowed resource extraction. Since that time there has been rapid growth in the global numbers and size of protected areas, with most growth being shown in the new categories. Further-more, the IUCN has heralded a ‘new paradigm’ of protected areas, which became the main focus of the 2003 World Parks Congress. The paradigm focuses on benefits to local people to alleviate poverty, re-engineering protected areas professionals, and an emphasis on the interaction between humans and nature through a focus on the new IUCN protected area categories.The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the implications of the new categories and paradigm shift in light of the main purpose of protected areas, to protect wild biodiversity. Wild biodiversity will not be well served by adoption of this new paradigm, which will devalue conservation biology, undermine the creation of more strictly protected reserves, inflate the amount of area in reserves and place people at the centre of the protected area agenda at the expense of wild biodiversity. Only IUCN categories I–IV should be recognized as protected areas. The new categories, namely culturally modified landscapes (V) and managed resource areas (VI), should be reclassified as sustainable development areas. To do so would better serve both the protection of wild biodiversity and those seeking to meet human needs on humanized landscapes where sustainable development is practised.
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During the past century, tropical rain forests have been reduced to about half of their original area, with a consequent loss of biodiversity. This book takes a close look at how this has happened and what the consequences may be, with an emphasis on those strategies that have proven successful in stemming the loss of plant and animal inhabitants. It describes the use of protected areas such as sacred groves, royal preserves, and today’s national parks, which have long served to shield the delicate forest habitats for countless species. Although programs for protecting habitats are under increasing attack, this book argues that a system of protected areas must in fact be the cornerstone of all conservation strategies aimed at limiting the inevitable reduction of our planet’s biodiversity. Written by leading experts with years of experience, the book integrates ecological, economic and political perspectives on how best to manage tropical forests and their inhabitants, throughout the world. In addition to conservationists, policy makers, and ecologists, the book will serve as a useful text in courses on tropical conservation.
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Ngorongoro Conservation Area in the heart of Maasailand is one of the world's most important conservation heritage areas. This book centres on a field study of the Ngorongoro Maasai and their herds, around which present knowledge of African rangeland, wildlife, livestock and pastoralist ecology is brought together and analysed. Management problems in Ngorongoro encapsulate many of the major debates in the ecology and conservation of African savannas. This book explores perceived problems, ecological facts and possible management solutions. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the authors argue a highly charged issue in terms of ecological fact and theory. This is an essential book for all those interested in the interface between wildlife conservation and human land use, whether professional ecologists or biologists, conservationists or resource managers, development workers or rural planners, and more generally, all those concerned with the ecological facts behind environmental and development issues.