Prevalence of chronic kidney diseases and its determinants among perimenopausal women in a rural area of North India: A community-based study
The burden of noncommunicable diseases is rising in India. A high prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases in perimenopausal women in the community makes them vulnerable to chronic kidney diseases (CKD). A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among women >35 years of age in the village of Ballabgarh, Haryana (north India). Eligible women were selected by the probability proportionate to size sampling method. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was carried out by using the age- and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equations. Association of risk factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus with CKD was also assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 455 women were studied. The prevalence of low GFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) by the CG/BSA equations and MDRD equation was found to be 18.2% (95% confidence interval 14.6, 21.8) and 5.9% (95% confidence interval 3.7, 8.1), respectively. Obesity (odds ratio 15.5) (P = 0.002), hyperlipidemia (odds ratio: 2.5) (P = 0.017), and age (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced GFR on multivariate logistic regression analysis. This study observed a high prevalence of CKD and its risk factors among perimenopausal women in a rural community in north India. The study highlights the need of a multipronged, community-based intervention strategy that includes a high-risk screening approach and awareness generation about CKD and its risk factors in the community.