Long-Term Dietary Intake and Nutritional Deficiencies following Sleeve Gastrectomy or Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in a Mediterranean Population

ArticleinJournal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 113(3):400-10 · March 2013with64 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.11.013 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Data on long-term dietary changes and nutritional deficiencies after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in grade 3 obese patients are scarce. To prospectively compare dietary changes and nutritional deficiencies in grade 3 obese patients 5 years after SG and Roux-en-y gastric bypass (GBP). Three hundred and fifty-five patients who had SG (n=61) or GBP (n=294) (May 2001-December 2006) at a Spanish university hospital. Longitudinal, prospective, observational study. PRIMARY OUTCOMES/STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Changes in energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake, and weight loss were analyzed using mixed models for repeated measurements. At the 5-year follow-up visit, the percentage of excess weight loss (P=0.420) and daily energy intake (P=0.826), as well as the proportion of energy from carbohydrates (P=0.303), protein (P=0.600), and fat (P=0.541) did not differ between surgical groups. Energy intake (P=0.004), baseline weight (P<0.001), and time period (P<0.001), but not the proportion of different macronutrients or the type of surgery, independently predicted the percentage excess weight loss over time. After SG or GBP, the mean daily dietary intake of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron was less than the current recommendations. Despite universal supplementation, the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies was comparable after SG or GBP, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being the most commonly observed deficiency (SG, 93.3% to 100%; GBP, 90.9% to 85.7%, P=not significant). In an adjusted multivariate regression model, energy intake and lipid intake independently predicted plasma 25(OH)-vitamin D levels. Data show that SG and GBP are associated with similar long-term weight loss with no differences in terms of dietary intake. Furthermore, data demonstrate that both types of surgeries carry comparable nutritional consequences.
    • "Because most of our patients took the prescribed daily multivitamin and mineral supplements 1 year after both GBP and SG, few patients experienced nutritional abnormalities (except for 25(OH)- vitamin-D3) and there was no difference between the two surgical groups. Our results were consistent with previous data from the literature [14, 15] . Conversely, others reported a higher risk of vitamin B12 and 25(OH)-vitamin-D3 deficiencies after GBP compared to SG [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have increased dramatically, potentially increasing the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of food restriction during the first year after bariatric surgery (BS) on nutritional parameters. Twenty-two and 30 obese patients undergoing GBP and SG were prospectively followed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after BS (N = 14 and N = 19 at T12). We evaluated food intake and nutrient adequacy (T0, T3, T12), as well as serum vitamin and mineral concentration (T0, T3, T6, T12). At baseline, GBP and SG patients had similar clinical characteristics, food intake, nutrient adequacy, and serum concentration. The drastic energy and food reduction led to very low probabilities of adequacy for nutrients similar in both models (T3, T12). Serum analysis demonstrated a continuous decrease in prealbumin during the follow-up, indicating mild protein depletion in 37 and 38 % of GBP patients and 57 and 52 % of SG patients, respectively, at T3 and T12. Conversely, despite the low probabilities of adequacy observed at T3 and T12, systematic multivitamin and mineral supplementation after GBP and SG prevented most nutritional deficiencies. GBP and SG have comparable effects in terms of energy and food restriction and subsequent risk of micronutrient and protein deficiencies in the first year post BS. Such results advocate for a cautious monitoring of protein intake after GPB and SG and a systematic multivitamin and mineral supplementation in the first year after SG.
    Article · Jul 2015
    • "Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism were associated with morbid obesity and therefore calcium deficiencies and acute hypocalcemia syndromes were reported following BS [78],(L2++), especially in patients who had thyroidectomy before [79],(L2++). 25-hydroxyvitamin D was the most commonly observed deficiency after SG &LRYGB [80], (L2++) while the major macronutrient deficiency after bariatric surgery was protein malnutrition [81], (L2++). A number of gastrointestinal or extra-gastrointestinal symptoms had raised the suspicion of malabsorption or dumping syndromes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The demand for bariatric surgery is increasing and the postoperative complications are seen more frequently. The aim of this paper is to review the current outcomes of bariatric surgery emergencies and to formulate a pathway of safe management. The PubMed and Google search for English literatures relevant to emergencies of bariatric surgery was made, 6358 articles were found and 90 papers were selected based on relevance, power of the study, recent papers and laparoscopic workload. The pooled data was collected from these articles that were addressing the complications and emergency treatment of bariatric patients. 830,998 patients were included in this review. Bariatric emergencies were increasingly seen in the Accident and Emergency departments, the serious outcomes were reported following complex operations like gastric bypass but also after gastric band and the causes were technical errors, suboptimal evaluation, failure of effective communication with bariatric teams who performed the initial operation, patients factors, and delay in the presentation. The mortality ranged from 0.14 %-2.2 % and increased for revisional surgery to 6.5 % (p = 0.002) .Inspite of this, mortality following bariatric surgery is still less than that of control group of obese patients (p = value 0.01). Most mortality and catastrophic outcomes following bariatric surgery are preventable. The awareness of bariatric emergencies and its effective management are the gold standards for best outcomes. An algorithm is suggested and needs further evaluation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
    • "Gastric surgery is mostly needed for the treatment of gastric cancer. After gastrectomy (GX), the daily dietary intake of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin B 12 , and folic acid is reported to be lower than the recommendations123. In particular, GX impairs calcium and vitamin D metabolism, leading to a risk of bone disease including not only osteoporosis, but also osteomalacia or a mixed pattern of osteoporosis osteomalacia with secondary hyperparathyroidism4567. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of gastrectomy (GX) on cortical and cancellous bones in rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into the two groups of 10 animals each: a sham operation (control) group and a GX group. Seven weeks after surgery, the bone mineral content and density (BMC and BMD, resp.) and the mechanical strength of the femur were determined, and bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on the tibia. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, ultimate force, work to failure, and stiffness of the femoral distal metaphysis and the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis. GX induced a decrease in cancellous bone mass, characterized by an increased osteoid thickness, osteoid surface, osteoid volume, and bone formation. GX also induced a decrease in cortical bone mass, characterized by increased endocortical bone resorption. The GX induced reductions in the bone mass and strength parameters were greater in cancellous bone than in cortical bone. The present study showed that the response of bone formation, resorption, and osteoid parameters to GX and the degree of GX-induced osteopenia and the deterioration of bone strength appeared to differ between cortical and cancellous bones in rats.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013
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