Long-Term Dietary Intake and Nutritional Deficiencies following Sleeve Gastrectomy or Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass in a Mediterranean Population
Data on long-term dietary changes and nutritional deficiencies after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in grade 3 obese patients are scarce. To prospectively compare dietary changes and nutritional deficiencies in grade 3 obese patients 5 years after SG and Roux-en-y gastric bypass (GBP). Three hundred and fifty-five patients who had SG (n=61) or GBP (n=294) (May 2001-December 2006) at a Spanish university hospital. Longitudinal, prospective, observational study. PRIMARY OUTCOMES/STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Changes in energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake, and weight loss were analyzed using mixed models for repeated measurements. At the 5-year follow-up visit, the percentage of excess weight loss (P=0.420) and daily energy intake (P=0.826), as well as the proportion of energy from carbohydrates (P=0.303), protein (P=0.600), and fat (P=0.541) did not differ between surgical groups. Energy intake (P=0.004), baseline weight (P<0.001), and time period (P<0.001), but not the proportion of different macronutrients or the type of surgery, independently predicted the percentage excess weight loss over time. After SG or GBP, the mean daily dietary intake of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron was less than the current recommendations. Despite universal supplementation, the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies was comparable after SG or GBP, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D being the most commonly observed deficiency (SG, 93.3% to 100%; GBP, 90.9% to 85.7%, P=not significant). In an adjusted multivariate regression model, energy intake and lipid intake independently predicted plasma 25(OH)-vitamin D levels. Data show that SG and GBP are associated with similar long-term weight loss with no differences in terms of dietary intake. Furthermore, data demonstrate that both types of surgeries carry comparable nutritional consequences.