Violence against People with Disability in England and Wales: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey
Cardiff University, United Kingdom PLoS ONE
(Impact Factor: 3.23).
02/2013; 8(2):e55952. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055952
The recent World Report on Disability highlighted violence as a leading cause of morbidity among disabled people. However, we know little about the extent to which people with disability experience different violence types, and associated health/economic costs. The recent introduction of disability measures into the England&Wales victimization survey provided an opportunity to address this gap.
Analysis of the 2009/10 British Crime Survey (BCS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 44,398 adults living in residential households in England&Wales. Using multivariate logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of being a victim of past-year violence (physical/sexual domestic or non-domestic violence) in people with disability compared to those without, after adjusting for socio-demographics, behavioural and area confounders. 1256/44398(2.4%) participants had one or more disabilities including mental illness ('mental illness') and 7781(13.9%) had one or more disabilities excluding mental illness ('non-mental disability'). Compared with the non-disabled, those with mental illness had adjusted relative odds (aOR) of 3.0(95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-3.8) and those with non-mental disability had aOR of 1.8(95% CI: 1.5-2.2) of being a victim of past-year violence (with similar relative odds for domestic and non-domestic violence). Disabled victims were more likely to suffer mental ill health as a result of violence than non-disabled victims. The proportion of violence that could be attributed to the independent effect of disability in the general population was 7.5%(CI 5.7-9.3%), at an estimated cost of £1.51 billion. The main study limitation is the exclusion of institutionalised people with disability.
People with disability are at increased risk of being victims of domestic and non-domestic violence, and of suffering mental ill health when victimized. The related public health and economic burden calls for an urgent assessment of the causes of this violence, and national policies on violence prevention in this vulnerable group.
Available from: Louise Howard
- "In the general population, domestic and sexual violence are a public health priority due to their significant morbidity and mortality; including injuries, chronic physical illness, poor sexual health, adverse perinatal outcomes, substance misuse, mental illness and suicidal behaviour (Ellsberg et al. 2008; Devries et al. 2013; WHO, 2013a). There is some evidence that the health burden is even greater among those with pre-existing disability (Khalifeh et al. 2013), but the health burden among people with SMI is unknown. Interventions * Address for correspondence: Dr H. Khalifeh, Division of Psychiatry, UCL, Charles Bell House, 67-73 Riding House St, London, UK. (Email: email@example.com) "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population.
Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾ 1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey.
Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001).
Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Available from: Kirstin R Mitchell
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sexual violence is increasingly recognised as a public health issue. Information
about prevalence, associated factors and consequences for health in the British population is
Methods We undertook a probability sample survey of 15,162 women and men aged 16-74
resident in Britain. We asked participants about their experience of sex against their will
since age 13 and the circumstances surrounding the most recent occurrence. We explored
associations between ever experiencing non-volitional sex and a range of socio-demographic,
behavioural and health factors.
Findings Attempted non-volitional sex was reported by 20.2% (95% CI: 19.2-21.2) of
women and 4.9% (4.3-5.6) of men, and completed non-volitional sex by 10.2% (9.4-11.0) of
women and 1.4% (1.1-1.8) of men. Median age (inter-quartile range) at most recent
occurrence was 18 (15, 22) for women and 16 (14, 19) for men. Completed non-volitional sex
varied by ethnicity, religion and family up-bringing and was associated with poor heath,
disability, current treatment for mental health conditions, smoking and use of illicit drugs in
the past year amongst both genders, and with ?binge? drinking in women. It was also
associated with first heterosexual intercourse under 16, same sex experience, lifetime number
of sexual partners, ever being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection and low sexual
function amongst both genders, and with abortion, and first pregnancy under 18 in women. In
most cases, the perpetrator was known to the individual, although the nature of the
relationship differed by age at most recent occurrence. Talking to someone about the event
and reporting to police increased with younger age at interview.
Interpretation These data provide the first population prevalence estimates of non-volitional
sex in Britain. We found it to be predominantly an experience of young age and strongly
associated with a range of adverse health outcomes.
Available from: Zerrin Erkol
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the individuals who were accused of committing crime by means of firearms in terms of their competency to stand trial and to discuss preventive measures can be taken in order to reduce such crimes. Methods: The survey form that was prepared for this purpose applied to 50 subjects that accepted to interview out of accused persons, who were forwarded to Forensic Medicine Institution 4th Expertise Committee by court of law with accusation of committing crimes by means of firearms, to be evaluated in terms of their competency to stand trial. Results: Forty-eight of the subjects (96%) were male, 28 of them (56%) were between 21 and 40 years old. It is determined that 36 of the subjects (72%) were married, 27 of them (54%) committed crime by using short-barreled weapons and 33 of them (66%) used unregistered firearms. It was claimed that 35 of the subjects (70%) had committed murder; nine of them (18%) had committed attempted murder. It was observed that 12 of the murders (24%) occurred as spouse-killing, 12 of the subjects (24%) had crimi-nal records. It was determined as a result of evaluation conducted by the Committee that 22 subjects (44%) did not have competency to stand trial. 6 of the subjects (27%) with no competence to stand trial possessed gun license. Discussion: Determining the profiles of perpetrators who commits crimes by using firearms will be instructive to prevent these kinds of assaults. Psychiatric examination of who applies for a gun license presents great importance in terms of evaluating riskiness criteria. Assuring societal awareness by ensuring support of Civil Society Organizations and mass media, and encouraging disarmament are other side of the issue. Furthermore, issuing firearm licenses in specialized agencies will lay the groundwork for more scientific and standardized practice.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.