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Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales

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Abstract

In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

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... During episodes of heightened fear, perceptual distortions can occur, which are believed to function as an adaptive psychological mechanism: accentuation of threatening features enables more effective behavior (Rachman and Cuk, 1992). Siegel and Stefanucci (2011) studied the influence of negative affect, defined as a trait tendency to experience a broad range of negative feelings, such as worry and anxiety, and poor self-concept (Watson et al., 1988) on auditory perception in healthy participants. They found that, in negative affect state, participants rated a series of neutral tones with varying pitch as being significantly louder compared to participants in a neutral state. ...
... Before audiometry, we asked participants to fill in two validated questionnaires, namely the Dutch versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), measuring state (STAI-S) and trait (STAI-T) anxiety (van der Ploeg, 1982), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), measuring positive (PANAS-P) and negative (PANAS-N) affect (Watson et al., 1988). After the anechoic room visit, participants filled in the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale (WNS), measuring noise sensitivity (Weinstein, 1978). ...
... The PANAS (Watson et al., 1988) is a widely used measure consisting of two 10-item scales measuring positive and negative affect over a certain time frame. Items are rated on a five-point scale. ...
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Aims and hypotheses: In an environment of absolute silence, researchers have found many of their participants to perceive phantom sounds (tinnitus). With this between-subject experiment, we aimed to elaborate on these research findings, and specifically investigated whether-in line with the fear-avoidance model of tinnitus perception and reactivity-fear or level of perceived threat influences the incidence and perceptual qualities of phantom sound percepts in an anechoic room. We investigated the potential role of individual differences in anxiety, negative affect, noise sensitivity and subclinical hearing loss. We hypothesized that participants who experience a higher level of threat would direct their attention more to the auditory system, leading to the perception of tinnitus-like sounds, which would otherwise be subaudible, and that under conditions of increased threat, narrowing of attention would lead to perceptual distortions. Methods: In total, N = 78 normal-hearing volunteers participated in this study. In general, the study sample consisted of young, mostly female, university students. Their hearing was evaluated using gold-standard pure tone audiometry and a speech-in-noise self-test (Digit Triplet Test), which is a sensitive screening test to identify subclinical hearing loss. Prior to a four-minute stay in an anechoic room, we randomized participants block design-wise in a threat (N = 37) and no-threat condition (N = 41). Participants in the threat condition were deceived about their hearing and were led to believe that staying in the room would potentially harm their hearing temporarily. Participants were asked whether they perceived sounds during their stay in the room and rated the perceptual qualities of sound percepts (loudness and unpleasantness). They were also asked to fill-out standardized questionnaires measuring anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) and noise sensitivity (Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale). The internal consistency of the questionnaires used was verified in our study sample and ranged between α = 0.61 and α = 0.90. These authors have contributed equally to this work and share last authorship SPECIALTY SECTION Frontiers in Psychology 02 frontiersin.org Results: In line with incidence rates reported in the literature, 74% of our participants reported having heard tinnitus-like sounds in the anechoic room. Speech-in-noise identification ability was comparable for both groups of participants. The experimental manipulation of threat was proven to be effective, as indicated by significantly higher scores on a Threat Manipulation Checklist among participants in the threat condition as compared to those in the no-threat condition (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, participants in the threat condition were as likely to report tinnitus percepts as participants in the no-threat condition (p = 1), and tinnitus percepts were not rated as being louder (p = 0.76) or more unpleasant (p = 0.64) as a function of level of threat. For participants who did experience tinnitus percepts, a higher level of threat was associated with a higher degree of experienced unpleasantness (p < 0.01). These associations were absent in those who did not experience tinnitus. Higher negative affect was only slightly associated with higher ratings of tinnitus unpleasantness (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Whereas our threat manipulation was successful in elevating the level of fear, it did not contribute to a higher percentage of participants perceiving tinnitus-like sounds in the threat condition. However, higher levels of perceived threat were related to a higher degree of perceived tinnitus unpleasantness. The findings of our study are drawn from a rather homogenous participant pool in terms of age, gender, and educational background, challenging conclusions that are applicable for the general population. Participants generally obtained normophoric scores on independent variables of interest: they were low anxious, low noise-sensitive, and there was little evidence for the presence of subclinical hearing loss. Possibly, there was insufficient variation in scores to find effects.
... Furthermore, to examine the relationship between Affect and perceptions of fatigue, participants were asked to complete the Positive and Negative Affect Scale-Short Form (PANAS-SF; Watson et al., 1988) consisting of 20 items (10 positive Affect items, such as "proud" and "determined," and 10 negative Affect items, such as "afraid" and "ashamed"). Participants were asked to gauge the extent to which they felt each Affect at the present moment. ...
... Participants were also instructed to circle the number on a 5-point Likert scale for their level of fatigue at the moments of FS and FP (1 = very mild to 5 = severe). At the end of the study, all dancers were given the pen-and-paper PANAS-SF (Watson et al., 1988) to measure momentary affect at the time of reporting fatigue. ...
... For this study, we included various indices to aid in our investigation of the relationship between fatigue and various other psychological traits. We included the PANAS-SF (Watson et al., 1988), the Freewill and Determinism scale-Plus (FAD-Plus; Paulhus and Carey, 2011), and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen et al., 1983) to investigate these correlations. Based on research suggesting that stress sequesters energy, thus diminishing available energy reserves (Segerstrom, 2007;Hobfoll, 1988), we expected that stress would correlate positively with level of fatigue and negatively (earlier reported times) with FS and FP. ...
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Attitudes that are blindly adopted, termed premature cognitive commitments, can place unnecessary limitations on how we perceive and engage in the world around us, including how we perceive fatigue. Fatigue is still widely treated as a somatic reaction, caused by physical limitations. In contrast to this, our hypothesis, based on Langer’s mind/body unity theory, states that people perceive fatigue at proportional milestones during a task, regardless of how long it is, how strenuous it is, or whether it is physical or cognitive, and that fatigue can be manipulated psychologically. Five studies were designed to investigate (a) whether or not proportional perceptions of fatigue, or fatigue milestones, exists, rendering fatigue an illusion and (b) whether perceptions of fatigue are malleable by way of Langerian mindfulness, offering individuals control in the management of fatigue. Study 1 introduced a fatigue scale and used retrospective perceptions about travel-fatigue. Study 2 added an objective measure of physical fatigue in a cognitive task. Study 3 tested the illusion of fatigue on an athlete population in a physical task. Study 4 included the Langer Mindfulness Scale to further study subjective perceptions of fatigue in physical tasks. Study 5 tested mindful interventions on fatigue. The findings indicate that (a) an illusion of fatigue exists, with proportional set-in and peak milestones, what we label the fatigue illusion and (b) constructs of Langerian mindfulness offer individuals control over the timing, amount, and even the experience of fatigue.
... To measure affect, the PANAS-C was employed and is one of the most widely used scales to measure mood or emotion (Laurent et al., 1999;Watson et al., 1988). The PANAS-C measures adolescent affect using a multilateral model of anxiety and depression with dimensions of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) mood descriptors (Felver et al., 2015;Watson et al., 1988;Wróbel et al., 2019). ...
... To measure affect, the PANAS-C was employed and is one of the most widely used scales to measure mood or emotion (Laurent et al., 1999;Watson et al., 1988). The PANAS-C measures adolescent affect using a multilateral model of anxiety and depression with dimensions of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) mood descriptors (Felver et al., 2015;Watson et al., 1988;Wróbel et al., 2019). PA refers to the propensity to experience positive emotions and interact with others, including life's challenges, in a positive way. ...
... Each item is rated on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 = not at all; 2 = a little; 3 = moderately; 4 = quite a bit; and 5 = extremely. According to Watson et al. (1988) and Laurent et al. (1999), the PANAS-C is based on psychometric and theoretical grounds that demonstrate good convergent and discriminant validity with existing self-report measures of childhood anxiety and depression. Internal consistency reliability alphas ranging from 0.86 to 0.90 for PA and 0.84 to 0.87 for NA were reported by Watson et al. (1988). ...
Article
This quasi-experimental study investigates differences in the impact of school-based yoga interventions and mindfulness practices on psychological well-being impact factors in at-risk Hispanic adolescent high school students compared to similar students enrolled in traditional physical education classes. Due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, experimental conditions were delivered virtually. The BRUMS and PANAS-C were utilized to assess psychological well-being constructs of mood and affect. Statistical analyses included Friedman’s test for nonparametric data, comparisons of pre post change scores between yoga and physical education classes, and longitudinal data trends for each subscale from the study’s inception to conclusion. The findings show that school-based yoga participants exhibited higher levels of improved mood and affect with large effect sizes than those enrolled in a standard physical education (PE) class during the 12 weeks of the intervention. Implications and further directions are discussed.
... INSERT Chapter 1, I also included the following measures in the pilot: resilience (Connor & Davidson, 2003), posttraumatic growth (Tedeschi & Calhoun, 1996), positive affect (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), adversity response (Stoltz, 2000), optimism ...
... Research on redemption sequences suggests that adversity is overcome when a person's recollection of an event shifts from negative to positive. Given that trait positive affect is related to perceiving events in a more positive manner (Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005;Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), it follows that trait positive affect should be positively related to the construct of overcoming adversity identity. In addition, I also investigated the adversity response profile and its relationship to overcoming adversity identity. ...
Article
The limited organizational scholarship on past adversity has characterized it as something to cope with, positing that how past adversity is perceived is key to employees’ coping effectiveness (Nurmohamed et al., 2021; Stephens et al., 2015; Vogel & Bolino, 2020). Conversely, lay theory suggests that “what does not kill you makes you stronger.” Through this dissertation, I aim to provide empirical evidence for this claim in an organizational setting. To do so, I draw on positive identity growth theorizing (Maitlis, 2009; 2020) to empirically examine the organizational benefits of identity growth after experiences of overcoming adversity. In doing so, I introduce a new concept to the organizational behavior literature, an “overcoming adversity identity,” which is when an experience of hardship, whether singular or continuous, has been redeemed in the eyes of the person with that experience, thereby becoming a positive part of that person’s identity. Through two longitudinal studies and one randomized experimental intervention, I find promising evidence that having a stronger overcoming adversity identity is associated with interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual character enrichment (the tripartite model of character; Park et al., 2017). I also find some evidence that suggests that this character enrichment, in turn, is positively related to extra-role performance and in-role performance, and negatively related to burnout. Implications and future directions are discussed. In conclusion, this dissertation provides preliminary empirical evidence to suggest that indeed, what does not kill you can make you stronger.
... The PANAS (Watson et al., 1988) was used to measure the participants' emotional states. This scale comprises 10 items that reflect positive states (e.g., "interested" and "inspired") and another 10 that reflect negative states (e.g., "irritable" and "distressed"). ...
... The PANAS exhibits satisfactory discrimination between its positive and negative subscales, and each subscale has satisfactory internal consistency. The Cronbach's α values for the positive and negative subscales were 0.89 and 0.85, respectively (Watson et al., 1988). ...
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Focused-distraction strategies are commonly used for thought control, but their effectiveness in handling personal worries with different types of distractors has rarely been examined. To examine this issue, 101 undergraduate and graduate students whose depression levels fell below mild depression were recruited (64.4% female, Mage = 20.27) and were randomly assigned to one of the three strategy conditions: 34 participants for the focused-breathing strategy (FBS), 34 for the focused-positive-distractor strategy (FPS), and 33 for the focused-neutral-distractor strategy (FNS). After a short introduction and practice, they applied the assigned strategy during a 5-min worry control session to prevent thoughts regarding a recent worrying event. The number of worry intrusions was measured using an online self-caught method. Participants rated their emotional states before and after the worry control session. Their working memory capacities (WMCs) and depressive tendency were comparable across conditions. The results showed the FBS and FPS groups exhibited fewer worry intrusions than did the FNS group. Furthermore, worry intrusions were negatively related to WMC for the FNS group but independent of WMC for the other two. The above findings together indicate that the FBS and FPS are relatively effective and effortless methods for reducing worry intrusions. Negative emotions decreased after the worry control session for all groups. However, decoupling of negative emotions from worry intrusions was only observed for the FBS and FNS groups. Overall, FBS outperforms FPS and FNS in managing worries from the above aspects. Several theoretical and practical implications of the study were discussed.
... Affect. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) is a 20-item self-report measure of mood, consisting of 10 positive affective states and 10 negative affective states. 6 The PANAS subscales have good to excellent reliability (α = .84-.91) among international community, criminally involved, and outpatient samples (Crawford & Henry, 2004;Serafini et al., 2016;Watson et al., 1988). ...
... The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) is a 20-item self-report measure of mood, consisting of 10 positive affective states and 10 negative affective states. 6 The PANAS subscales have good to excellent reliability (α = .84-.91) among international community, criminally involved, and outpatient samples (Crawford & Henry, 2004;Serafini et al., 2016;Watson et al., 1988). ...
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Section III of the fifth iteration of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes an alternative model of personality disorder diagnosis that conceptualizes antisocial personality disorder as an interpersonal, rather than behavioral, construct. However, the diagnostic specifier for psychopathy has been met with recent controversy due to its conceptual and empirical overlap with triarchic boldness, which has been debated as a necessary and sufficient domain of psychopathy. This study examined the concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity of the specifier using canonical correlation analysis in samples of undergraduate students (N = 224) and community adults with prior criminal involvement (N = 306). Findings highlight the specifier as a multidimensional construct with divergent associations across its three facets. There was limited validity evidence for two of the three facets, raising concerns regarding the clinical utility of the psychopathy specifier.
... ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.09.21.508780 doi: bioRxiv preprint measurement sessions followed the same procedure: Firstly, the participants performed the short Vienna Emotion Recognition Task (VERT) [84], before blood samples (i.e., 2x9ml EDTA) were drawn by medically trained staff for the plasma hormone determination. Subsequently, the participants were presented with a battery of questionnaires addressing mood with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) [85] and the Beck's Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) [86]. Upon completion, participants were briefed on the MR scanner. ...
... Positive and negative affective states were assessed by the previously validated Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) [85]. To assess their present mood, participants indicate on a 5-point Likert scale from 'very little or not at all' to 'very much', to what degree they experience an affective state described by the respective item at this very moment. ...
Preprint
Oral contraceptive (OC) intake has been associated with alterations in functional brain architecture and socio-affective processes. However, most previous studies have been limited by cross-sectional designs and/or did not account for synthetic sex hormone concentrations. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine the effects of starting vs discontinuing OCs on socio-affective functions such as mood and emotion cognition, and to identify their possible neuroendocrinological substrates. To this end, 88 young healthy women performed the behavioral and fMRI measures twice, three to eight months apart: 26 natural cycling women twice during menstruation, 26 OC users twice during OC intake, 25 OC discontinuers and 11 OC starters before and after discontinuation or start, respectively. In addition to mean-based analyses, we used intersubject representational similarity analyses to determine relationships between interindividual variability in within-subject changes of hormone profiles, including concentrations of endogenous and synthetic hormones, region-specific resting state functional connectivity (parcelwise RSFC) and socio-affective measures. Across the whole sample, interindividual patterns of changes in RSFC of fronto-parietal regions, parts of the left hippocampus and the right cerebellum reflected change patterns of progestogen levels. For the right superior orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG), a trinity of idiosyncratic patterns was found in changes of progestogens, RSFC and positive mood. Active OC intake was associated with higher self-reported depressive symptoms in OC discontinuers (and starters). Emotion recognition performance was not associated with changes in hormone profiles or RSFC. Overall, progestogens rather than estrogens appear to be associated with functional brain architecture of the frontal and subcortical/cerebellar regions and positive mood. The right superior OFG represents a possible neural substrate for progestogen-induced changes in positive mood. This study indicates the importance of a multidimensional, longitudinal approach when being interested in effects of hormonal contraception on women’s brain and behavior.
... Subjective wellbeing, in the general sense, is the best psychological function and experience of an individual, which can be measured by life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect (see Diener, 1994). The combination of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) or a single measure containing the cognitive and affective aspects (e.g., Index of Wellbeing, IWB; Cummins, 1998) are commonly used for subjective wellbeing assessment. This wellbeing account is often described as hedonic. ...
... The heterogeneity test (Q test) was used to evaluate the variance among the independent samples. (1) Samples with a star (⋆) record effect sizes using longitudinal data or measures based on eudemonic approach, which were not included in the calculation of overall mean effect size to keep the independency of the effect sizes, and they were only included in subgroup analyses; (2) MVS, Materialistic Value Scales (Richins and Dawson, 1992;Li and Guo, 2009); MVS-C, Materialistic Value Scale for Children (Opree et al., 2011), AI = aspiration index (Kasser and Ryan, 1996;Tang et al., 2008), AI-CE, Aspiration Index for Chinese employee (Zhang, 2019); Extrinsic goals, extrinsic goal items (Kasser, 2005); a plus sign (+), the combination of the two measures of subjective wellbeing, a slash (/), using two measures of subjective wellbeing separately; SWLS, Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) and PANAS, Positive Affect Scale and Negative Affect Scale (Watson et al., 1988;Emmons, 1992;Qiu et al., 2008), ABS, Affect Balance Scale (Bradburn, 1969(Bradburn, , 2015, SLSQA, School Life Satisfaction Questionnaire for Adolescents (Tao et al., 2005), ALSS, Adolescent Life Satisfaction Scale (Zhang et al., 2004), MSLSS, Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner and Gilman, 2002;Zhong et al., 2013), GWBS = General Wellbeing Schedule (Duan, 1996), SWBS-C, Subjective Wellbeing Scale for College Students (Ji and Li, 2006); SWB-CC, Subjective Wellbeing Scale for Chinese Citizens (Xing, 2003), PWBS, Psychological Wellbeing Scale (Ryff and Keyes, 1995), SCS, Self Concept Scale (Anderman, 2002). SHS, Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999), MHQ-S, Multiple Happiness Questionnaire-subjective wellbeing subscale; Miao, 2003), MHQ-P, Multiple Happiness Questionnaire-psychological wellbeing subscale; Miao, 2003), IWB, Index of Wellbeing (Campbell et al., 1976); OHS-eudemonic, Oxford Happiness Scale-eudemonic wellbeing subscale (Hills and Argyle, 2002), MSWBS-S, Multilayer College Students' Wellbeing Scale-subjective wellbeing subscale (Yang, 2015), MSWBS-ST, Multilayer College Students' Wellbeing-self-transcendent wellbeing subscale (Yang, 2015); (3) Ad, adults (graduated from college), C, college students, ES, elementary and/or secondary school students; (4) J, journal articles, T, thesis, CP, conference paper, D, data set; (5) CS, cross-sectional, L, longitudinal; (6) a dash (-), information is not available; (7) language of publication and country economic indicators were omitted to keep the size of the ...
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This meta-analysis examines the relationship between materialism (materialistic values and extrinsic aspirations) and subjective wellbeing in the Chinese population. Fifty-six relevant studies covering the period from 1998 to 2022 were included in the meta-analysis. Fifty-eight independent effect sizes from a total of 52,368 participants were obtained to calculate the mean effect sizes. Materialistic values correlated with significantly lower subjective wellbeing (r = −0.205), while the mean effect size for extrinsic aspirations was found to be not significant (r = −0.048). The effect sizes varied across different types of wellbeing outcomes (materialistic values: rs = −0.095 to −0.202; extrinsic aspirations: rs = 0.066 to −0.125). The associations were also moderated by certain demographic factors (age and gender), methodological factors (study design and scoring method), publication features (type of publication and publication year), and economic indicators (economic growth and wealth inequality). We discuss our limitations and the implications for future research.
... Participants completed Watson et al. (1988) Positive and Negative Affect Scale to provide an index of their experience of emotion. This measure contains a list of 16 different emotions, with participants stating how often they experienced each of these in the preceding week. ...
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There is a fervent social debate ongoing that relates to the ownership of child-like sex dolls. On the one hand, some proponents of dolls suggest that they offer a safe sexual outlet for minor-attracted people (MAPs) and could be used in efforts to prevent the sexual abuse of children. On the other side of the debate, child-like dolls are seen as articles that sexualize children, encourage deviant fantasies, and increase offending risk. To date, no empirical analyses have been undertaken with people who own such dolls. In this paper, we present data from child-like sex doll owners (n = 85) and MAPs who do not own dolls (n = 120) recruited from online forums visited by people who own sex dolls or forums for people with sexual attractions to children. Specifically, we compared their psychological characteristics and proclivities for sexual aggression. Among non-owners, 79.2% of participants declared an interest in owning a sex doll, which is higher than the 20–40% rate reported in adult-attracted samples of non-owners. We found few differences between the groups on most personality variables, with doll owners being less antisocial and anxiously attached than non-owners, but exhibiting more schizotypal traits. Related to offending proclivities, doll ownership was associated with lower levels of sexual preoccupation and self-reported arousal to hypothetical abuse scenarios, but higher levels of sexually objectifying behaviors and anticipated enjoyment of sexual encounters with children. We discuss these data in relation to a functional model of child-like sex doll ownership among MAPs.
... The procedure was the same as in Study 2a, except that after completing the measures of self-dehumanization (α = .79) and PVD (αPI =.78 and αGA= .70), the participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988; positive: α = .93; ...
Article
Air pollution is a major global environmental issue, yet its psychological consequences have only started to receive attention from scholars. We examined whether and how air pollution would lead to self- and other-dehumanization. Across one field study and five pre-registered experimental studies, we showed that air pollution increased people's dehumanization of themselves (Studies 1–2b) and others (Study 3a-4). Air pollution also increases people's perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD), including perceived infectability (PI) and germ aversion (GA). Further, across our studies, PI consistently accounted for the effect of air pollution on dehumanization (Studies 2a-4). In addition, our findings also supported the roles of negative affect (Study 2b) and disgust (Study 4) in shaping dehumanization in the face of air pollution. Therefore, air pollution not only impairs our physical health but also influences our perception of humanness. We discussed the implications of these findings for the literature on air pollution and dehumanization.
... Negative affect toward the target was evaluated using the Spanish version of the negative-affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Sandín et al., 1999;Watson et al., 1988). The participants were asked to indicate the emotions that the target provoked in them. ...
Article
Pornography is the primary means by which young people learn about sex. This, combined with a generalized lack of comprehensive sex education, can contribute to fuelling negative attitudes toward women. This research aimed to examine social perceptions of porn actresses versus porn actors, based on the stereotypes attributed to them, considering viewer’s sexist ideology. In a sample of 306 individuals (53.9% women; Mage = 27.13; SDage = 9.35), results showed that pornography contribute to stereotyping women, with the discrimination that this entails. This research contributes to a better understanding of how discrimination against women is perpetuated in the realm of pornography.
... 10. Using PANAS-SF negative affect [( Watson et al., 1988) and psychological discomfort scales (Elliot & Devine, 1994), revealing nonsignificant mediations (ps > .15). Shortened and adapted from Kovács (2014). ...
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While most people believe they would speak up against prejudice, many fail to do so. We identify a harmful consequence of such inaction through examining its impact on bystanders’ own prejudice. Across four studies in two countries (N = 1,003) using a behavioral paradigm and experimental pretest–posttest design, participants witnessed prejudice and discrimination against an outgroup minority (Jewish/Roma in Hungary, Muslim/Latinx in US). Drawing on self-justification theories, we predicted and found across Studies 1–3 that those who had an opportunity but did not confront, endorsed more negative intergroup attitudes following the incident both compared to their own prior attitudes and to control groups—that is, those who witnessed the same prejudice but had no opportunity to confront and those who did not to confront different (nonintergroup) prejudice. In Study 4, the proposed effect occurred only among those who initially valued confronting. We suggest that failure to speak up amplifies prejudice in society.
... Perceived stress was assessed with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, 1988), and items were rated from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). Positive and negative affect were assessed with the 20-item Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (Watson et al., 1988), and responses were measured from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (extremely). Finally, Big Five personality traits were measured with the Big Five Inventory (Soto & John, 2017), including 60 brief characteristics that were rated from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). ...
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Young adulthood is a critical developmental life stage and a period of enhanced vulnerability to stress. In 2020, young adults in Northern California were faced with a series of unforeseen, collective stressors: the COVID-19 pandemic, extreme wildfires, social tension associated with the murder of George Floyd, and a contentious election that culminated in an attack on the nation’s capital. In a natural experiment, we compared the psychosocial development of 415 young adults across 8 monthly assessment waves during 2020 to a control cohort (n = 465) who completed the same assessment protocol in 2019, prior to the onset of stressors. Results of latent growth curve models indicated that the 2020 cohort had less adaptive trajectories of affective well-being and lower levels and less adaptive trajectories of social functioning, suggesting detrimental effects of cumulative, collective stressors on the socio-emotional development of young adults.
... After each gameplay session, participants completed the positivity items on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), a widely used measure of current affect (Watson et al., 1988). Participants rated how much, at that moment, they identified with each of 10 positive (e.g., determined, excited) adjectives on a scale of 1 = very slightly or not at all to 5 = extremely. ...
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Augmented Reality video games such as Pokémon GO have a structure that encourages face-to-face social interactions between players, leading to potentially unique benefits for positivity (positive affect). This study investigated how participants’ social interactions while playing Pokémon GO relate to their positivity after gameplay, crucially, after accounting for other non-social factors typically associated with positivity (participants’ satisfaction with their game accomplishments). Participants were 108 Pokémon GO players, consisting of 54 dyads who signed up for the study together. Dyads were asked to play Pokémon GO together for eight sessions over 2 weeks, and to report on their gameplay experiences and positivity after each session. Multilevel modelling analyses revealed that more positive social interactions with their gameplay partner incrementally predicted participants’ greater positivity post-gameplay. The association between positive social interactions and greater positivity was accentuated for participants who reported more frequent noxious mood states (depressive symptoms) at the start of the study. Findings suggest that above and beyond typical contributions such as achieving game accomplishments, there may be affective benefits for Pokémon GO players from the social interactions they have within the game, especially for those with noxious mood states.
... The PANAS (Krohne et al., 1996;Watson et al., 1988) assesses current positive and negative affect with 10 adjectives rated on a five-point scale from 1 ("not at all") to 5 ("extremely"). In the present study, the internal consistency for the PA subscale was α = 0.84 and ω T = 0.85 and for the NA subscale α = 0.62 and ω T = 0.66. ...
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Positively imagined activities may capture visual attention due to an increase in positive value. Increasing attention toward activities, in turn, may prove useful for clinical interventions aiming to motivate behavioral engagement. Employing a within-subject experimental design, we examined the effect of positive imagery on attention using a visual probe task with concurrent eye tracking. Adults from the general population ( N = 54) imagined performing activities involving visually presented objects in a positive (focusing on the positive emotional impact) or neutral (focusing on a neutral circumstance) manner. They then completed a visual probe task using picture stimuli depicting one object per type of imagery. Positive compared to neutral imagery increased self-reported behavioral motivation and biased the direction, but not the duration, of gaze toward objects associated with the imagined activities. An exploratory analysis showed a positive association between the direction bias and depressive symptoms. Our findings build on existing literature on positive imagery as a motivational amplifier by highlighting early attention as an underlying cognitive mechanism.
... We collected questionnaire and interview-based measures related to clinical psychiatric status outside of the scanner, prior to the MR experiments. These included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, 24 item version; Ventura et al., 2000), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS; Andreasen, 1982), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS; Andreasen, 1984), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988), and a questionnaire about sleep habits and recent use of prescription and non-prescription drugs. BPRS, PANAS, and the sleep and recent use questionnaire were collected for all individuals, while SAPS and SANS were collected only for PwPP. ...
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Visual perception is abnormal in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. In addition to hallucinations, laboratory tests show differences in fundamental visual processes including contrast sensitivity, center-surround interactions, and perceptual organization. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain visual dysfunction in psychotic disorders, including an imbalance between excitation and inhibition. However, the precise neural basis of abnormal visual perception in people with psychotic psychopathology (PwPP) remains unknown. Here, we describe the behavioral and 7 tesla MRI methods we used to interrogate visual neurophysiology in PwPP as part of the Psychosis Human Connectome Project (HCP). In addition to PwPP (n = 66) and healthy controls (n = 43), we also recruited first-degree biological relatives (n = 44) in order to examine the role of genetic liability for psychosis in visual perception. Our visual tasks were designed to assess fundamental visual processes in PwPP, whereas MR spectroscopy enabled us to examine neurochemistry, including excitatory and inhibitory markers. We show that it is feasible to collect high-quality data across multiple psychophysical, functional MRI, and MR spectroscopy experiments with a sizable number of participants at a single research site. These data, in addition to those from our previously described 3 tesla experiments, will be made publicly available in order to facilitate further investigations by other research groups. By combining visual neuroscience techniques and HCP brain imaging methods, our experiments offer new opportunities to investigate the neural basis of abnormal visual perception in PwPP.
... Participants rated each item on a 5-point Likert scale (1=very slightly or not at all, to 5= extremely) to measure the extent to which the affect has been experienced. Previous research revealed adequate psychometric properties of the scale, with α Cronbach coefficient ranged from 0.86 to 0.91 (Joiner et al. 1997;Tran 2013;Watson, Clark and Tellegen 1988). 4. Revised Academic Hardiness Scale-RAHS (Benishek et al. 2005). ...
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Personality variables contribute to the development of passion for studies leading undergraduates to different affective experiences. Academic hardiness, an affective personality trait, may have effect on undergraduates’ passion for studies. The purpose of the study (which uses a quantitative methodological approach) was twofold: (a) to examine the psychometric properties of Passion scale in Greek undergraduates and (b) to investigate the role of Academic Hardiness 3Cs in the Harmonious (HP) and Obsessive (OP) passion. A convenience sample of 293 undergraduates completed the following scales: (a) Passion scale, (b) Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, (c) The Positive and Negative Affect schedule, and (d) The revised Academic Hardiness scale. Initially, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the two-factor passion scale. Moreover, results from SEM analyses revealed that control and challenge were positively related to HP, whereas commitment was positively related to both HP and OP. A negative relationship was found between control and OP. OP was positively related with negative affect, which, in turn, was negatively related with undergraduates’ happiness. On the contrary, HP was positively related with positive affect, which, in turn, was positively related with happiness. Findings of the study are discussed, focusing on the adaptive nature of academic hardiness and harmonious passion in academic settings.
... Materials. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to assess the emotional state of the participants prior to each round [24]. The scale consisted of 20 words describing emotions. ...
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Previous research has shown that sleep deprivation can affect emotions and some cognitive functions. However, research on how sleep deprivation influences the visuomotor memory have rarely been reported. In the current study, a Fitts’ Law task was used to investigate how movement and the visuomotor memory are affected under the condition of sleep deprivation. Experiment 1 had 36 participants (15 males, mean age = 21.61 years) complete the same Fitts’ Law task 10 days apart under standard conditions. Experiment 2 had five participants (three males, mean age = 27.2 years) complete the task after 7 days of sleep deprivation, then complete it again after 10 days without sleep deprivation. Experiment 1 demonstrated the stability of the trial-to-trial effects. Experiment 2 showed that the previous trial (n) exerted no effect on the current trial (n + 1) under the conditions of sleep deprivation (p = 0.672). However, the effect was observed after 10 days without sleep deprivation (p = 0.013). This suggests that sleep deprivation did not affect task performance but influenced the transfer of the trial history. Future studies are required to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation with more participants.
... and negative mood (α = .66) that we adapted from the PANAS scale (Watson et al., 1988). Finally, participants answered demographic questions, an attention check, and a question asking participants to indicate how seriously they took the study. ...
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Sustainable products are engineered to reduce environmental, ecological, and human costs of consumption. Not all consumers value sustainable products, however, and this poses negative societal implications. Using self-expansion theory as a guide, we explore how an individual’s general sense of belonging—or the perception that one is accepted and valued by others in the broader social world—alters their responses to sustainable products. Five experimental studies and a field study demonstrate that individuals lower in belonging respond less favorably to sustainable products in terms of evaluations and willingness to pay than individuals higher in belonging. Process evidence shows that the extent to which individuals low in belonging perceive that collective, sustainable choices will impact them personally drives this result and that belonging does not impact responses to conventional (i.e., non-sustainable) products. However, perceiving a shared human experience—or that individuals share some important, basic similarities with all people—attenuates the negative effect of low belonging on responses to sustainable products for consumers both low and high in belonging. This research has significant implications for businesses and society given the growing sense of disconnect in modern society.
... Data recorded by FaceReader were analysed both by the same software and by the software serving for the analysis of observational data (Noldus Observer XT). Changes in student emotions were measured both before and after the observation by a self-report questionnaire measuring their emotional state (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, PANAS, Watson et al. 1988;Rózsa 2009). ...
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Jelen tanulmány az episztemikus, vagyis ismeretelméleti szakértelem fogalmát és az episztemikus függés jelenségét, és ennek főbb tudománykommunikációs aspektusait vizsgálja. A kutatás bemu-tatja a legelterjedtebb tudós-laikus viszonyt leíró akadémiai modelleket: a publikus tudományfelfo-gás (Public Understanding of Science, PUS) deficit- és kontextusmodelljét, a laikusszakértelem-modelljét (Lay Expertise Model), a társadalmirészvétel-modelljét (Public Participation Model), va-lamint a hétköznapi emberek tudományművelését leíró Citizen Science koncepcióját; majd az ezen modellekkel kapcsolatos kritikai észrevételeket összegzi. Ezt követően a szerzők az egyes elméletek szakértőképének azonosítására, fejlődésére és meghatározott szempontok szerinti összehasonlító elemzésére vállalkoznak. A tanulmány arra a kérdésre keresi a választ, hogy a hétköznapi emberek-nek van-e érdemi lehetőségük az egyes szakértői vélemények értékelésére, illetve hogy a tudás ér-vényességnek eldöntése érdekében milyen mértékben kénytelenek episztemikus szakértőkre ha-gyatkozni.
... Given the parallels between the Review Task and content moderation work, we looked to well-being surveys used in research measuring the efficacy of various content moderation interventions. These include versions of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) [56] used in [15,16,31] and the Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) [17] used in [15,16]. ...
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We describe our early efforts to red team language models in order to simultaneously discover, measure, and attempt to reduce their potentially harmful outputs. We make three main contributions. First, we investigate scaling behaviors for red teaming across 3 model sizes (2.7B, 13B, and 52B parameters) and 4 model types: a plain language model (LM); an LM prompted to be helpful, honest, and harmless; an LM with rejection sampling; and a model trained to be helpful and harmless using reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF). We find that the RLHF models are increasingly difficult to red team as they scale, and we find a flat trend with scale for the other model types. Second, we release our dataset of 38,961 red team attacks for others to analyze and learn from. We provide our own analysis of the data and find a variety of harmful outputs, which range from offensive language to more subtly harmful non-violent unethical outputs. Third, we exhaustively describe our instructions, processes, statistical methodologies, and uncertainty about red teaming. We hope that this transparency accelerates our ability to work together as a community in order to develop shared norms, practices, and technical standards for how to red team language models.
... 55 The MEmind app The MEmind app asks short daily questions that appear on the mobile screen. Each day, a prompt will appear containing 2-4 random questions-four questions during the first 2 months, as this is the period with the higher risk of suicide reattempt 56 ; two questions afterwards-will be asked at random times (respecting sleep hours: from 9:00 to 21:00) from the pool of 34 questions that make up the questionnaire, which is based on the Salzburg Suicide Process Questionnaire, 57 the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 58 the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, 59 the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire 60 and previous EMA studies. 17 19 22 23 The EMA questions belong to four categories: ► Suicidality: 5 questions. ...
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Introduction Suicide is one of the leading public health issues worldwide. Mobile health can help us to combat suicide through monitoring and treatment. The SmartCrisis V.2.0 randomised clinical trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Intervention to prevent suicidal thoughts and behaviour. Methods and analysis The SmartCrisis V.2.0 study is a randomised clinical trial with two parallel groups, conducted among patients with a history of suicidal behaviour treated at five sites in France and Spain. The intervention group will be monitored using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) and will receive an Ecological Momentary Intervention called ‘SmartSafe’ in addition to their treatment as usual (TAU). TAU will consist of mental health follow-up of the patient (scheduled appointments with a psychiatrist) in an outpatient Suicide Prevention programme, with predetermined clinical appointments according to the Brief Intervention Contact recommendations (1, 2, 4, 7 and 11 weeks and 4, 6, 9 and 12 months). The control group would receive TAU and be monitored using EMA. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Fundación Jiménez Díaz. It is expected that, in the near future, our mobile health intervention and monitoring system can be implemented in routine clinical practice. Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and psychiatric congresses. Reference number EC005-21_FJD. Participants gave informed consent to participate in the study before taking part. Trial registration number NCT04775160 .
... Positive and negative affect. We measured the subjects' state affect with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988;German version: Krohne et al., 1996). It consists of two 10-item-scales to measure positive affect (PA; e.g. ...
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Behavioral activation (BA) interventions systematically encourage positive and value-based activities. Engaging in them is an effective way to counteract negative affect, but it is unknown whether there are subtypes of activities that may have differential effects on mood. This study investigated the factorial structure of 99 potentially rewarding activities used in an online BA intervention during the COVID-19 lockdown. About 3624 German-speaking participants evaluated a list of 99 activities that were easy to apply. We analyzed the initially 99 activities by means of confirmatory factor analysis. Since activities can either be seen as reflective or formative indicators, a reflective as well as a formative model was analyzed. Although the range of chosen activities differed clearly between respondents, a one-factor model provided the best fit. It seems that a general "activity" factor is more important for explaining whether people choose a certain activity or not, than specific characteristics of the activity itself.
... Therefore, the results of this study are expected to be used as a rationalized basic knowledge to systematically organize existing vehicle design concepts and seek improvement directions on the user's emotional experience. Simply, user responses can be collected on a Likert scale using defined affective roles from this research and used as an indicator for quantitatively measuring users' emotional experiences, for example, with a user experience questionnaire [21], NASA-TLX [14], and PANAS [39] which are widely used to quantify users' emotional experiences from using products. ...
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Recent advancements in autonomous technology allow for new opportunities in vehicle interior design. Such a shift in in-vehicle activity suggests vehicle interior spaces should provide an adequate manner by considering users' affective desires. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the affective role of future vehicle interiors. Thirty one participants in ten focus groups were interviewed about challenges they face regarding their current vehicle interior and expectations they have for future vehicles. Results from content analyses revealed the affective role of future vehicle interiors. Advanced exclusiveness and advanced convenience were two primary aspects identified. The identified affective roles of each aspect are a total of eight visceral levels, four visceral levels each, including focused, stimulating, amused, pleasant, safe, comfortable, accommodated, and organized. We expect the results from this study to lead to the development of affective vehicle interiors by providing the fundamental knowledge for developing conceptual direction and evaluating its impact on user experiences.
... Immediately afterward, subjects were sent a link to an online questionnaire, which served to collect demographic and health-related information, as well as to assess several individual difference variables via standardized questionnaires. This included the German versions of the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Speilberger and Vagg, 1984), the SCD-Questionnaire (SCD-Q; Gifford et al., 2015) including an added question ("Do you experience a significant decrease in your cognitive abilities beyond a normal age-related decline?", with answer options "I do and I am worried about it, " "I do but I am not worried about it" and "No"), the short version of the NEO-Five Factory Inventory (NEO-FFI30; Körner et al., 2008) the Beck-Depression Inventory V (BDI-V; Schmitt and Maes, 2000), the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA; Döring and Bortz, 1993), three questions regarding the subjective feeling of social isolation before and during the first lockdown due to the Corona-pandemic preceding this study (Shankar et al., 2011), as well as currently (at the end of the second lockdown), the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS; Dietzen and Nater, 2006) and the Positive and Negative Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988). A summary table of these questionnaire measures is presented in Supplementary Material 1. ...
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Aging is accompanied by a decline in associative memory, whereas item memory remains relatively stable compared to young adults. This age-related associative deficit is well replicated, but its mechanisms and influencing factors during learning are still largely unclear. In the present study, we examined mediators of the age-related associative deficit, including encoding intentionality, strategy instructions, the timing of the memory test (immediate vs. 24 h delayed) and the material being learned (words vs. pictures) in a within-subject design. Older and younger adults performed seven encoding tasks on word pairs and picture pairs on two consecutive days, followed by item and associative recognition tests. The associative deficit was evident after all encoding tasks. We found no evidence for a difference in the magnitude of the associative deficit between incidental vs. intentional learning conditions. However, there was some evidence for a larger associative memory deficit with pictures versus words when the encoding task was held equal. Sentence generation and interactive imagery instructions in which participants generated their own mediators reduced the magnitude of the associative deficit. However, increased encoding guidance through the provision of mediators did not lead to an alleviation of the deficit, potentially because the specified mediators were implausible or difficult for the older adults to reconcile with prior knowledge. Finally, we found some evidence for a reduced age-related associative deficit with a test delay of 24 h. These results contribute to a better understanding of the factors affecting the relative difficulty of older adults with encoding and retrieving novel associations.
... Participants' wellbeing and life satisfaction were evaluated using the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS; Diener et al., 1985), self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the positive and negative affect scale (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and parenting satisfaction scale (Chang & Greenberger, 2012). To measure relationship quality and satisfaction, the enriching relationship issues, communication, and happiness scale was administered (ENRICH, Fowers & Olson, 1993). ...
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This mixed-methods study compared couples in which childcare responsibilities are shared equally, or assumed primarily by the father, with more traditional arrangements. Combining survey data from a nationally representative sample of British parents as well as in-depth interviews with couples with young children, the study found that both fathers and mothers in all the parenting arrangements want to spend time with their children and be closely involved in their lives. However, most couples feel forced to identify a main carer with reduced involvement in paid work, and a main breadwinner with reduced involvement in childcare. Considerations that led couples to reverse roles seem to mirror those taken by traditional couples: they were often motivated by the mothers’ greater attachment to work and higher earnings, combined with a desire to avoid or limit the use of formal childcare provision and the fathers’ desire to spend more time with their children. Equal sharing was typically motivated by couples’ egalitarian gender ideologies and an expectation of a 50/50 split of family responsibilities. Equal sharing mothers had the highest levels of satisfaction with their division of responsibilities, with 83% reporting they were satisfied or very satisfied (compared to 60% of mothers in traditional arrangements and 52% of mothers who reversed roles). Equal sharers tended more than other parents to perceive their arrangement as resulting from their conscious choice and were the least likely to want it to change. In contrast, mothers in traditional arrangements reported significantly lower wellbeing and relationship quality, while both men and women who were the main breadwinners tended more than others to feel they had been forced into their role. The study recommends to introduce equal parenting leave entitlement, including non-transferable ‘use-it-or-lose-it’ parenting leave for fathers, and high quality affordable childcare provision to enable both parents to return to work after leave. As parents would also like to see the normalisation of part-time and flexible working, the research recommends government policies supporting shorter and more flexible work hours for both fathers and mothers.
... Indeed, satisfaction with family, work, and social life are highly relevant to veterans as they reintegrate into a civilian lifestyle (Borsari et al., 2017). Two studies (Barbour, 2014; Colbow, 2017) combined a life satisfaction measure with positive and negative affect ratings (Watson et al., 1988) to index subjective wellbeing. Subjective wellbeing was operationalized by subtracting negative affect from combined life satisfaction and positive affect (e.g., Elliot et al., 1997). ...
... Una vez finalizado el visionado, los participantes cumplimentaron el STAI/E y el cuestionario sobre el impacto cognitivo diseñado ad hoc para el estudio y dividido en tres bloques: el primero mide la respuesta consciente al impacto emocional del vídeo; para calibrarla, primero pregunta al participante si ha sido capaz de ver los vídeos en su totalidad, después le pide que seleccione entre las 20 emociones de la Escala de Afecto Positivo y Negativo PANAS (Watson et al, 1988) aquellas que ha experimentado y precise en qué grado lo ha hecho (desde 1 "muy poco o nada" hasta 5 "siempre o casi siempre"); se le pregunta también por su capacidad de distinguir entre realidad y ficción en este formato híbrido, si le resulta verosímil y si este formato liminal ha influido en sus emociones. El segundo bloque calibra el nivel de identificación, comprensión e interpretación de los dispositivos narrativos y formales que vehiculan el discurso propagandístico del EI en Nation of the Cross, para lo que el sujeto debe identificar estos dispositivos ordenados de mayor a menor grado de detalle en el cuestionario: estructura narrativa, elipsis y metáforas, por un lado, y construcción de personajes y roles, por otro. ...
... positive and negative) and arousal (i.e. the degree of activation). These items were derived from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) and from previous EMA studies (e.g., Beddig et al., 2019Beddig et al., , 2020aKuehner et al., 2017;Timm et al., 2017Timm et al., , 2018. For PA, participants were asked how "cheerful", "energetic", "enthusiastic", "satisfied", "relaxed" and "calm" they felt, and for NA how "upset", "irritated", "nervous", "listless", "down", and "bored" they felt at the moment. ...
Article
Major Depressive Disorder is a recurrent condition. Potential risk factors for future episodes are maladaptive cognitions such as rumination and unfavorable reactivity toward negative daily events. Positive thoughts and positive daily events, in contrast, could act as a buffer against mood deterioration. The aim of the present study is (1) to examine differences in daily affect and cognitions in remitted depressed patients with a history of recurrent episodes (rMDD) and healthy controls, (2) to analyse reciprocal prospective effects of momentary cognitions and affect and (3) to investigate effects of daily events on affect and cognitions in both groups. A sample of N = 102 participants underwent an Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) phase of five consecutive days, where rMDD patients (n = 51) and healthy controls (n = 51) indicated their momentary rumination, positive thoughts, affect and the occurrence of daily events ten times per day. Via multilevel lag models, we found higher rumination to predict a decrease of positive affect (PA) in the rMDD group, but no effect of rumination on subsequent negative affect (NA) in either group. Higher positive thoughts predicted an increase in PA and a decrease in NA, similarly strong in both groups. Regarding daily events, rMDD patients reported a stronger increase in NA and rumination following negative daily events compared to controls, whereas an observed subsequent decrease of PA and positive thoughts was not moderated by group. Following positive daily events, rMDD patients showed a stronger increase in PA and positive thoughts and a stronger decrease in NA and rumination than controls. For interventions targeting relapse prevention, our results indicate the implementation of strategies fostering the responsiveness to positive events and the up-regulation of positive affect.
... Una vez finalizado el visionado, los participantes cumplimentaron el STAI/E y el cuestionario sobre el impacto cognitivo diseñado ad hoc para el estudio y dividido en tres bloques: el primero mide la respuesta consciente al impacto emocional del vídeo; para calibrarla, primero pregunta al participante si ha sido capaz de ver los vídeos en su totalidad, después le pide que seleccione entre las 20 emociones de la Escala de Afecto Positivo y Negativo PANAS (Watson et al, 1988) aquellas que ha experimentado y precise en qué grado lo ha hecho (desde 1 "muy poco o nada" hasta 5 "siempre o casi siempre"); se le pregunta también por su capacidad de distinguir entre realidad y ficción en este formato híbrido, si le resulta verosímil y si este formato liminal ha influido en sus emociones. El segundo bloque calibra el nivel de identificación, comprensión e interpretación de los dispositivos narrativos y formales que vehiculan el discurso propagandístico del EI en Nation of the Cross, para lo que el sujeto debe identificar estos dispositivos ordenados de mayor a menor grado de detalle en el cuestionario: estructura narrativa, elipsis y metáforas, por un lado, y construcción de personajes y roles, por otro. ...
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Introducción: Este trabajo pretende demostrar la efectividad del análisis fílmico de A Message to America, primer vídeo de decapitaciones del Estado Islámico, como herramienta de educación mediática para reducir la ansiedad y el impacto emocional (reacción inconsciente) y cognitivo (reacción consciente) que este tipo de vídeos de violencia real provocan en los jóvenes. Metodología: Multidisciplinar, aprobada por el Comité de Ética de la UPV/EHU, que combina herramientas de psicología, neurociencia y comunicación. Se reclutaron 80 voluntarios distribuidos en dos grupos homogéneos de 40. El grupo A visionó un vídeo didáctico con el análisis fílmico de A Message to America, el grupo B no. Después, todos los participantes (80) vieron otro vídeo de ejecuciones del EI, visionado que fue monitorizado para registrar su estado de ansiedad antes y después del experimento (mediante cuestionario STAI/E), y sus respuestas fisiológicas (HRV y EDA) y cognitivas (mediante cuestionario ad hoc). Discusión y resultados: La exposición al análisis fílmico de A Message to America no atenúa la ansiedad ni el impacto emocional que los vídeos de ejecuciones producen en los estudiantes, pero sí reduce su impacto cognitivo y mejora su comprensión e interpretación, al tiempo que prueba empíricamente la correspondencia entre los recursos audiovisuales del vídeo y las reacciones fisiológicas del espectador. Conclusiones: El experimento ratifica la idoneidad del análisis fílmico para educar la mirada de los jóvenes en el contexto audiovisual contemporáneo.
... Participants' affect was measured by Watson et al. (1988)'s 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). In this questionnaire, half of the items represent positive affect (e.g., active, enthusiastic, and proud), and the remaining half corresponds to negative affect (e.g., upset, guilty, and irritable). ...
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The growing demand for mental health support has highlighted the importance of conversational agents as human supporters worldwide and in China. These agents could increase availability and reduce the relative costs of mental health support. The provided support can be divided into two main types: cognitive and emotional support. Existing work on this topic mainly focuses on constructing agents that adopt Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) principles. Such agents operate based on pre-defined templates and exercises to provide cognitive support. However, research on emotional support using such agents is limited. In addition, most of the constructed agents operate in English, highlighting the importance of conducting such studies in China. In this study, we analyze the effectiveness of Emohaa in reducing symptoms of mental distress. Emohaa is a conversational agent that provides cognitive support through CBT-based exercises and guided conversations. It also emotionally supports users by enabling them to vent their desired emotional problems. The study included 134 participants, split into three groups: Emohaa (CBT-based), Emohaa (Full), and control. Experimental results demonstrated that compared to the control group, participants who used Emohaa experienced considerably more significant improvements in symptoms of mental distress. We also found that adding the emotional support agent had a complementary effect on such improvements, mainly depression and insomnia. Based on the obtained results and participants' satisfaction with the platform, we concluded that Emohaa is a practical and effective tool for reducing mental distress.
... The design of the mental factors scale is based on the theory of planned behavior by Ajzen [19], with reference to the Positive and Negative Affect Scale developed by Watson et al. [52], which gives the question of affective attitudes. "In metro construction, a happy mood is conducive to smooth work and increased work efficiency". ...
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Safety problems in metro construction occur frequently, causing substantial economic losses and even resulting in injuries and fatalities. Studies have shown that human errors, which are usually caused by complex reasons, are an important cause of safety related accidents. However, little research has analyzed the causes of accidents from the perspective of human errors. To explore the factors influencing human errors, the factors were systematically sorted out and studied based on theoretical analysis. Firstly, the theoretical hypothesis and model were formulated through a literature review. Secondly, the scale was developed for mental factors, physical factors, technical factors, environmental factors, organizational factors, cultural factors, and human errors. Thirdly, the research data were obtained by distributing questionnaires, and the validity and reliability tests were conducted using the data and the structural equation model was tested and run. Finally, the theoretical hypotheses were tested using the structural equation models and came up with the paths of the six factors of human errors. The results of the study showed that mental factors, physiological factors, and technological factors are found to be the direct influencing factors of human errors. However, environmental and cultural factors are the indirect influencing factors. The influencing paths are environment-mental-human errors, environment-physiological-human errors, culture-physiological-human errors, and culture-technology-human errors. Organizational factors can affect human errors directly or indirectly through cultural factors. These findings could provide practical implications for reducing the safety related accidents caused by human errors during metro construction.
Article
Objective In harsh and unpredictable environments, individuals tend to engage in activities that yield immediate rewards as delayed benefits can be unavailable. Substantial evidence suggests that a harsh and unpredictable childhood environment is associated with overeating. However, the neuromechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate amygdala connectivity in relation to environmental harshness and unpredictability (EHU) from an evolutionary perspective and examine their relationship with overeating in children. Methods Eighty-five children aged 8 to 12 years were scanned using a magnetic resonance imaging machine to assess resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the two subregions of the amygdala (i.e., centromedial amygdala [CMA]; basolateral amygdala [BLA]). Self-reports of EHU and parental reports of overeating, including food responsiveness and enjoyment of food, were obtained cross-sectionally. Furthermore, findings indicated that children completed high- and low-calorie food portion choice tasks in the absence of hunger at 12 months of follow-up. Results EHU was positively associated with parental reports of overeating, including food responsiveness and enjoyment, as well as children's selection of high-calorie food portion sizes. Moreover, static RSFC analyses revealed that EHU was negatively associated with bilateral BLA-left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) connectivity, while dynamic RSFC analyses found that EHU was negatively associated with right CMA, left inferior parietal lobule, and right CMA-right precuneus connectivity. Particularly, the left BLA-left IFG connectivity mediated the association between EHU and parental reports of food responsiveness. Conclusion EHU was negatively associated with amygdala connectivity, which is implicated in the intrinsic processing of emotional regulation. Furthermore, deficits in emotional regulation resulted in increased energy intake. These insights provide a new perspective for understanding the developmental neuromechanisms underlying obesity.
Article
Objective Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent mental health disorder that often goes untreated. A core aspect of GAD is worry, which is associated with negative health outcomes, accentuating a need for simple treatments for worry. The present study leveraged pretreatment individual differences to predict personalized treatment response to a digital intervention. Methods Linear mixed-effect models were used to model changes in daytime and nighttime worry duration and frequency for 163 participants who completed a six-day worry postponement intervention. Ensemble-based machine learning regression and classification models were implemented to predict changes in worry across the intervention. Model feature importance was derived using SHapley Additive exPlanation (SHAP). Results Moderate predictive performance was obtained for predicting changes in daytime worry duration (test r² = 0.221, AUC = 0.77) and nighttime worry frequency (test r² = 0.164, AUC = 0.72), while poor predictive performance was obtained for nighttime worry duration and daytime worry frequency. Baseline levels of worry and subjective health complaints were most important in driving model predictions. Limitations A complete-case analysis was leveraged to analyze the present data, which was collected from participants that were Dutch and majority female. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment response to a digital intervention for GAD can be accurately predicted using baseline characteristics. Particularly, this worry postponement intervention may be most beneficial for individuals with high baseline worry but fewer subjective health complaints. The present findings highlight the complexities of and need for further research into daily worry dynamics and the personalizable utility of digital interventions.
Article
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused dramatic changes to our lifestyle, particularly affecting our ability to interact “in person” with our social network. These changes have had a detrimental effect on the mental welfare of the global population. The international questionnaire “Pets in Lockdown” was designed to investigate whether feelings of loneliness were affecting the mood of people during the COVID-19 lockdown, and whether pet ownership may have had a positive influence on both loneliness and general mood. As expected, higher loneliness scores were associated with higher negative and lower positive affective states. In addition, lower loneliness scores were associated with pet ownership and living with other people, but not with more frequent interactions with people from outside the household, suggesting that physical and close contact has an important role decreasing feelings of loneliness. Besides the effects on the loneliness score, pet ownership was not associated with positive or negative affective states. The strength of the attachment to animals, measured as the amount of comfort that people obtain from their pets, was stronger in people with potentially limited access to affiliative physical human contact and was associated with both higher positive and negative affective states. Additionally, people obtained significantly more comfort from dogs and horses compared with other pet species. The results suggest that during the confinement period, pets may have benefited people with smaller social networks by alleviating loneliness and offering comfort and embodied close contact.
Article
We explore how the impacts of unethical leadership are influenced either beneficially or detrimentally by perceived organizational support. A stress–resource view suggests organizational support is a resource that should offset the negative implications of unethical leadership. The negative exacerbator view suggests that receiving organizational support in light of unethical leadership should heighten the threat because it draws a stronger focus on and salience to the harm of the leader’s behavior for the employee. The results of a time-separated survey study and an experiment support our model and the negative exacerbator view. The findings show that unethical leader behavior elicits negative affect and indirectly (through negative affect) diminishes employees’ well-being and has a stronger effect when perceived organizational support was higher rather than lower.
Article
The confrontation of prejudicial acts and comments promotes multiple benefits, most notably the prevention of future prejudicial remarks and the reduction of stereotype use. Research, however, consistently shows low rates of confronting prejudice, particularly regarding sexism. Here, we examine whether personal sense of power, known to increase action and activate the behavioral approach system, increases the likelihood of confronting a sexist remark. In Study 1, we demonstrate that for both women and men, self-reported power is associated with a higher frequency of confronting sexism. In Study 2, we manipulate women’s sense of power (i.e., high power, low power, or control) and subsequently present an opportunity to confront a sexist remark. Results show that women primed to feel powerful were more likely to confront the sexist remark and expressed greater disagreement with the comment, compared to women primed to feel powerless. Implications for the confronting literature and behavior are discussed.
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This study aims to investigate the temporal links between physical activity, sleep and affective wellbeing in young adults. In particular, the aim was to examine whether physical activity is associated with sleep indicators in subsequent nights and, in turn, whether sleep was associated with improved affective wellbeing the next morning. Relatedly, moderation by baseline levels of depressive symptoms, sleep quality, habitual physical activity and gender was analysed. One-hundred and forty-seven individuals (85.7% female) aged 18-25 years old participated in an experience sampling study over 14 consecutive days. Participants received seven prompts per day, and answered questions about their physical activity and affective states. Every morning, participants also reported their sleep. Physical activity throughout the day was not related to sleep during the following night or to affective wellbeing the next morning. An exception to that pattern was that physical activity before 14:00 hours was associated with longer subsequent sleep duration. Better subjective sleep quality predicted affective wellbeing the next morning. Associations of physical activity, sleep and affective wellbeing were not moderated by baseline depressive symptoms, sleep quality or habitual physical activity. However, investigation of gender as a moderator revealed that moderate physical activity was associated with better subsequent sleep quality for males, but not for females. Overall, we found that physical activity is associated with better subsequent sleep for males, but not for females. Also, our study provides further evidence that better sleep quality is associated with the next morning's affective wellbeing.
Article
Background: Fear-avoidance is one of the factors associated with chronic pain. However, it remains unclear whether the association between fear-avoidance and pain depends on sex. The present study aimed to investigate whether the association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity differed between men and women in chronic pain patients. Additionally, the potential confounding effect of affective experiences on the association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity was analyzed. Method: This cohort study included hospital referred chronic pain patients (n = 45). Short momentary assessment questions according to the experience sampling method (ESM) were used to repeatedly assess patients’ pain intensity, level of fear-avoidance and positive as well as negative affect during their daily life. Linear mixed-effects models were applied in the statistical analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted models were made, in which the latter corrected for statistically significant affective experiences and baseline variables, taking the Aikake Information Criterion into account to assess a better model of fit. Results: The results demonstrated an association between fear-avoidance and pain intensity that differed for men and women. In men (n = 13), no association between these variables was found (−0.04 (95% CI: −0.14, 0.06) with a p-value of 0.48), whereas in women (n = 32), an increase in fear-avoidance was associated with a (slight) increase in pain intensity (0.18 (95% CI 0.06, 0.30) with a p-value of 0.003). Affect did not confound the above-mentioned findings. Conclusion: Our data supports previous research highlighting the importance of sex differences in pain experience. These findings may be relevant for clinicians to consider more personalized (i.e., gender specific) pain management in chronic pain patients.
Article
Evidence accumulates that oral contraceptive (OC) use modulates various socio-affective behaviors, including empathic abilities. Endogenous and synthetic sex hormones, such as estrogens and progestogens, bind to receptor sites in brain regions (i.e. frontal, limbic, and cerebellar) involved in socio-affective processing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of OC use in empathy. In a cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study, women in different hormonal states, including OC use (n = 46) or being naturally cycling in the early follicular (fNC: n = 37) or peri-ovulatory phase (oNC: n = 28), performed a visual, sentence-based empathy task. Behaviorally, OC users had lower empathy ratings than oNC women. Congruently, whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger task-related activation of several brain regions, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal gyrus (dmPFG), left precentral gyrus, and left temporoparietal junction in oNC compared to OC women. In OC users, the activity of the left dmPFG and precentral gyrus was negatively associated with behavioral and self-reported affective empathy. Furthermore, empathy-related region-of-interest analysis indicated negative associations of brain activation with synthetic hormone levels in OC women. Overall, this multimodal, cross-sectional investigation of empathy suggests a role of OC intake in especially affective empathy and highlights the importance of including synthetic hormone levels in OC-related analyses.
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Background Subjective exercise experiences scale (SEES) is a 12-item questionnaire assessing global psychological responses to exercise, with three constructs including positive well-Being (PWB), psychological distress (PD), and fatigue (FAT). The present study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the SEES questionnaire in the Iranian population. Method This cross-sectional psychometric study was conducted on 138 adults immediately after 30 minutes of walking. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. To assess the test-retest reliability, 38 of the participants were requested to fill in the questionnaire again after a week. The test-retest reliability was analyzed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The concurrent validity was examined through the correlation matrix between the domains of SEES and SF12. Principle component analysis was performed to determine the factor loading of the measured variables. IBM SPSS statistics 24 was used for all calculations. Results Cronbach's alpha was 0.82, 0.82, and 0.81 for the PWB, PD, and FAT, respectively. The ICC value was acceptable for all subscales (ICC for PWB, PD, and FAT were 0.83, 0.88, and 0.74 respectively). There was a weak to moderate correlation between the SEES and SF-12 subclasses. Factor analysis confirmed the three-factor structure of the instrument, explaining 67.21% of the observed variance. Item 3 didn't fit in well with the three constructs and was deleted from the Persian version of the SEES. Conclusions The Persian version of the SEES is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate the psychological response to the exercise stimulus.
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Facial emotion recognition has attracted extensive attention from the affective computing community and several approaches have been proposed, mainly providing classification of facial expressions images using a set of discrete emotional labels. The quantification of human emotions from faces has been studied in a continuous 2D emotional space of valence and arousal, that describes the level of pleasantness and the intensity of excitement, respectively. Emotion assessment using valence-arousal computation is a challenging topic with several possible applications in health monitoring, e-learning, mental health diagnosis and monitoring of customer interest. Supervised learning of emotional valence-arousal for continuous affect prediction requires labeled data. However, annotation of facial images with the values for valence and arousal requires training human experts. In this paper, we propose a new and robust approach based on deep learning for continuous affect recognition and prediction. The novelty of our approach is that it maps the discrete labels and a learned facial expression representation to the continuous valence-arousal dimensional space. Given a discrete class of emotion and a facial image, our deep learning-based approach can predict the valence and arousal values accurately. Our proposed approach outperforms existing approaches for arousal and valence prediction on AffectNet dataset and it shows an impressive generalization ability on an unseen dataset for valence prediction.
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This study examines the congruency between the recently introduced Dark Factor of Personality (D) and Antagonism (A; low Agreeableness) from the Five-Factor Model of personality. Using two samples ( Ns of 365 and 600), we examined simple zero-order correlations between D and A ( rs of .69 and .65). In addition, we used a range of relevant external criteria (e.g., antisocial behavior, aggression, domains and facets of personality, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [ DSM] personality disorders [PDs], impulsivity, and political skill) to examine the degree of absolute similarity in the relations that D and A bear to these criteria. These similarity coefficients were then compared with the similarities produced by measures of constructs different from D and A but similar among themselves (i.e., psychopathy and narcissism in both samples, plus depression in Sample 1). The degree of similarity between D and A (rICCs = .96 and .93) is consistent with what is observed between other measures of the same construct. We conclude that D and A yield largely identical empirical correlates and thus likely represents an instance of the jangle fallacy. We believe that future efforts would be better spent furthering the literature around the well-established Agreeableness versus Antagonism construct.
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Epidemiological data and etiopathogenesis of brain fog are very heterogeneous in the literature, preventing adequate diagnosis and treatment. Our study aimed to explore the relationship between brain fog, neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in the general population. A sample of 441 subjects underwent a web-based survey, including the PANAS, the DASS-21, the IES-R, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and a questionnaire investigating demographic information, brain fog, subjective cognitive impairments (Scc) and sleep disorders. ANOVA, ANCOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed. In our sample, 33% of participants were defined as Healthy Subjects (HS; no brain fog, no Scc), 27% as Probable Brain Fog (PBF; brain fog or Scc), and 40% as Functional Brain Fog (FBF; brain fog plus Scc). PBF and FBF showed higher levels of neuropsychiatric symptoms than HS, and FBF showed the worst psychological outcome. Moreover, worse cognitive symptoms were related to the female gender, greater neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disorders, and rumination/indecision. Being a woman and more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms were predictors of FBF severity. Our data pointed out a high prevalence and various levels of severity and impairments of brain fog, suggesting a classificatory proposal and a multifaceted etiopathogenic model, thus facilitating adequate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
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Tremendous interest exists in the use of brief digital “micro-interventions” for online and mobile intervention. Most digital micro-interventions, however, lack a strong theoretical or empirical basis and have not demonstrated efficacy and acceptability. We developed a suite of brief digital stress management micro-interventions based on theory and empirical evidence and tested the efficacy and acceptability of these micro-interventions in managing stress, mood, and perseverative cognition. Participants were 1,050 US adults (ages 35-65) in good health who received digital micro-intervention content (or comparison content) and then completed post-intervention measures and acceptability ratings. We created 16 brief (<2 min) micro-interventions across four therapeutic domains (relaxation, response modulation, positive experiences, and resource buffers) and a brief active comparison activity. We also created one multi-component micro-intervention (∼20 min) that contained elements of all four domains, and a time-matched active comparison activity. A subset (n=850) of participants received one of the 16 brief micro-interventions or a brief comparator; the remainder (n=200) received either the longer multi-component micro-intervention or the time-matched active comparator task. All micro-intervention stress management content reduced acute stress, negative mood, and perseverative cognitions. For all outcomes, the multi-component intervention showed the strongest effects. Active comparator tasks were more weakly associated with outcomes (except that brief distraction was highly effective at reducing perseverative cognitions). Micro-intervention acceptability was generally high across multiple dimensions. These data demonstrate that a diverse set of 16 brief digital micro-interventions comparison activity were efficacious, and an integrative multi-component micro-intervention was more efficacious. Such micro-interventions hold great potential for scalable digital implementation, including “just-in-time” intervention in response to acute risk states.
Article
Background Mental health issues among emerging adults (aged 19-25 years) on a global scale have underscored the need to address their widespread experiences of depression and anxiety. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, emerging studies are being directed toward the development and deployment of digital peer emotional disclosure and support for the psychological well-being of emerging adults. However, it is important to explore the implementation and clinical effectiveness, as well as associated mechanisms of change, for optimal approaches in conducting digital peer support interventions for emerging adults’ psychological well-being. Objective We describe a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the implementation and clinical effectiveness of Acceset, a digital peer support intervention to address emerging adult mental well-being. The intervention has 2 components. First, the digital peer support training equips befrienders (ie, peers who provide support) to harness 4 components of psychological well-being—mattering, selfhood, compassion, and mindfulness—to provide effective peer support for seekers (ie, peers who seek support). Second, Acceset incorporates psychological well-being digital markers and harnesses community engagement to drive emotional disclosure among peers. Methods A total of 100 participants (aged 19-25 years) from the National University of Singapore will be recruited and randomized into 2 arms. In arm 1 (n=50), the seekers will use Acceset with befrienders (n=30) as well as moderators (n=30) for 3 weeks. Arm 2 comprises a wait-listed control group (n=50). A questionnaire battery will be used to monitor seekers and befrienders at 4 time points. These include baseline (before the intervention), 3 weeks (end of the intervention), and 6 and 9 weeks (carryover effect measurement). Implementation outcomes of the intervention will involve evaluation of the training curriculum with respect to adoption and fidelity as well as user acceptability of the Acceset platform and its feasibility for broader deployment. Clinical outcomes will include mattering, selfhood, compassion, mindfulness, perceived social support, and psychological well-being scores. Results This protocol received National University of Singapore Institutional Ethics Review Board approval in October 2021. Recruitment will commence in January 2022. We expect data collection and analyses to be completed in June 2022. Preliminary findings are expected to be published in December 2022. The Cohen d index will be used for effect size estimation with a .05 (95% reliability) significance level and 80% power. Conclusions This protocol considers a novel digital peer support intervention—Acceset—that incorporates components and digital markers of emerging adult mental well-being. Through the validation of the Acceset intervention, this study defines the parameters and conditions for digital peer support interventions for emerging adults. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05083676; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05083676 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/34602
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the co-occurrence in experience of various emotions placing the focus on positive vs negative affect. In Study 1, 72 college students read stories designed to produce varying levels of either positive or negative affect and then rated their level of both types of affect. In Study 2, 42 undergraduates rated their feelings during emotional times in everyday life for a period of 6 wks. Results show that emotions of the same hedonic valence (e.g., fear and anger) tend to co-occur. Results also show that positive and negative affect do not occur together at high levels of intensity. It is suggested that these 2 facts about the relation of positive and negative affect are probably responsible for the bipolarity that is often found between them. These findings represent a challenge to those who postulate that there are unrelated discrete emotions and that the terms positive affect and negative affect do not describe meaningful clusters of emotions. Findings suggest that if one type of affect is of low intensity, the other type can be at any level from low to high. Therefore, a truly inverse and linear relation does not characterize positive and negative affect. This finding represents a challenge to most structural models of emotion. It appears that mutual exclusion only at high levels of intensity characterizes the relation between positive and negative affect. (2 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Four studies with 131 college students demonstrated that (a) when measures of behavior were averaged over an increasing number of events stability coefficients increased to high levels for all kinds of data, including objective behavior, self-ratings, and ratings by others, and (b) objective behavior was then reliably related to self-report measures, including standard personality inventories (e.g., Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Epstein-Fenz Manifest Anxiety scales, Epstein Hostility scales, and Epstein-O'Brien Self-Esteem scale). It is concluded that the observation that it is possible to predict behavior averaged over a sample of situations and/or occasions, rather than from single instances, has important implications not only for the study of personality but for psychological research in general. (92 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Measures of stress and coping were obtained from two cohorts of urban adolescents during the seventh- to eighth-grade period and were related to indices of cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Predictions were derived from a stress coping model of substance use. Stress was indexed by measures of subjective stress, recent events, and major life events; coping was assessed by behavior-based and intention-based methods. Concurrent and prospective analyses were consistent with predictions, indicating that stress was positively related to substance use, and four coping mechanisms (behavioral coping, cognitive coping, adult social support, and relaxation) were inversely related to substance use. Two types of predicted interactions, Stress X Coping and Positive X Negative Events, were found. Measures indexing peer support, distraction coping, and aggressive coping were positively related to substance use, independent of other predictors. Implications for substance use theory and prevention research are discussed.
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This paper examines the association between psychological distress and persons' perceptions of their physical well-being. Associations between psychological distress and ratings of health status within four diverse data sets are examined, controlling for physical health status as well as for sociodemographic variables. The results indicate that, despite variation in the characteristics of the population under study, the mode of data collection employed, and the specific questions used to measure psychological distress, distress remains a statistically significant correlate of perceived health status.
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Most current models in health psychology assume that stress adversely affects physical health. We re-examined this assumption by reviewing extensive data from the literature and from six samples of our own, in which we collected measures of personality, health and fitness, stress, and current emotional functioning. Results indicate that self-report health measures reflect a pervasive mood disposition of negative affectivity (NA); self-report stress scales also contain a substantial NA component. However, although NA is correlated with health compliant scales, it is not strongly or consistently related to actual, long-term health status, and thus will act as a general nuisance factor in health research. Because self-report measures of stress and health both contain a significant NA component, correlations between such measures likely overestimate the true association between stress and health. Results demonstrate the importance of including different types of health measures in health psychology research.
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Three studies are reported that examine the relations between personality and happiness or subjective well-being. It is argued that (a) one set of traits influences positive affect or satisfaction, whereas a different set of traits influences negative affect or dissatisfaction; (b) the former set of traits can be reviewed as components of extraversion, and the latter as components of neuroticism; and (c) personality differences antedate and predict differences in happiness over a period of 10 years, thus ruling out the rival hypothesis that temporary moods or states account for the observed relations. A model of individual differences in happiness is presented, and the separate and complementary roles of trait and adaptation-level theories in explaining happiness are discussed.
Article
• Investigated the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for survey use in a college population by determining its concurrent validity, using psychiatric rating of depth of depression as the criterion. 56 undergraduate and graduate students served as Ss. Interrater reliability of psychiatric estimate as measured by a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was .62, perhaps because the primary and secondary raters used different diagnostic procedures. The Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficient between the inventory and the psychiatric rating was .77. These findings indicate that the Beck Depression Inventory is a valid instrument for use in a college population. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the inventory and the psychiatric estimate fell to .30 in a 2nd sample of 27 Ss with whom 1–24 days intervened between administration of the inventory and the psychiatric interview. This attenuation in Ss who experienced a time delay is consistent with the nature of the depression inventory as a measure of state as opposed to trait depression. The apparent decline in measured depression additionally suggests the need for longitudinal study to determine its course and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Investigated the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for survey use in a college population by determining its concurrent validity, using psychiatric rating of depth of depression as the criterion. 56 undergraduate and graduate students served as Ss. Interrater reliability of psychiatric estimate as measured by a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was .62, perhaps because the primary and secondary raters used different diagnostic procedures. The Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficient between the inventory and the psychiatric rating was .77. These findings indicate that the Beck Depression Inventory is a valid instrument for use in a college population. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the inventory and the psychiatric estimate fell to .30 in a 2nd sample of 27 Ss with whom 1–24 days intervened between administration of the inventory and the psychiatric interview. This attenuation in Ss who experienced a time delay is consistent with the nature of the depression inventory as a measure of state as opposed to trait depression. The apparent decline in measured depression additionally suggests the need for longitudinal study to determine its course and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Consistency and stability of feelings were examined in reports that were completed on 3,512 occasions randomly sampled from the lives of 42 subjects. The stability and consistency of responses depended on the situations, individuals, and responses involved. High degrees of consistency were unusual for single responses, although mean levels of responding tended to be both highly stable and consistent. The consistency and stability of variables covaried, suggesting a connection between the two. Persons who were more consistent across one pair of situations tended to be more consistent across other situational pairs. The results indicate that the question of whether personality consistency exists does not have a simple answer, and requires knowledge of the persons, situations, responses, and level of analysis involved.
Article
21 30–66 yr old community residents used abbreviated forms of the Mood Adjective Checklist (MAC) to self-report their moods 4 times daily (9 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, and 7 PM) and for the entire day (10 PM) for 14 days, to investigate how Ss' daily mood score was related to moods throughout the day. The 4 momentary reports and 2 derived summary indices, average and peak mood, were compared to determine which index best approximated daily mood reports. Peak momentary mood best mimicked absolute levels of daily mood reports within Ss, whereas average momentary mood achieved the highest day-to-day correlation with daily mood. Single momentary mood reports were relatively poor predictors of daily mood. It is concluded that daily mood reports reflect mood throughout the day with reasonable accuracy when assessed by the MAC. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated Japanese affective structure and its relation to English-language mood in an idiographic/nomothetic analysis. 57 Japanese mood terms were derived from an initial pool through factor analysis of content sortings. 18 Japanese undergraduates provided daily self-ratings on these terms for 3 mo. Each Ss' data were subjected to an individual factor analysis. Two large factors—Positive and Negative Affect, the major dimensions of mood found in previous research among English-speaking US Ss—emerged in most of the solutions. Japanese/English bilinguals made content sortings of the Japanese terms and 60 English mood words. The resulting 15 bilingual content categories were used in a comparison of Japanese and US mood structures, and a remarkable convergence was revealed. Factor score distributions were also similar in the 2 languages. The major difference between the structures involved the content factor Sleepy, which did not have a significant negative loading on the Japanese Positive Affect factor. This appears to be consistent with known cultural differences in values and behavior. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the utility of the Beck Depression Inventory for survey use in a college population by determining its concurrent validity, using psychiatric rating of depth of depression as the criterion. 56 undergraduate and graduate students served as Ss. Interrater reliability of psychiatric estimate as measured by a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was .62, perhaps because the primary and secondary raters used different diagnostic procedures. The Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficient between the inventory and the psychiatric rating was .77. These findings indicate that the Beck Depression Inventory is a valid instrument for use in a college population. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the inventory and the psychiatric estimate fell to .30 in a 2nd sample of 27 Ss with whom 1–24 days intervened between administration of the inventory and the psychiatric interview. This attenuation in Ss who experienced a time delay is consistent with the nature of the depression inventory as a measure of state as opposed to trait depression. The apparent decline in measured depression additionally suggests the need for longitudinal study to determine its course and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three separate but mutually compatible explanations are offered for N. M. Bradburn's (1969) finding that positive and negative affects are statistically independent: (1) In terms of a higher-order generalization, numbers of experienced desirable and undesirable episodes are generally uncorrelated. (2) The independence is a function of a response mode and scoring procedure that differ from those used elsewhere. (3) Short-term affective states are linked with more stable personality dispositions. 500 undergraduates served as Ss. Findings support each of these explanations: (a) Numbers of desirable and undesirable recent life events were statistically independent and correlated with positive and negative affect in the predicted manner. (b) Amending the response format from counting the number of positive and negative experiences to requiring reports of the proportion of time each was experienced yielded an intercorrelation of –.54 compared to –.01 in the original format. (c) Positive and negative affects were significantly associated with extraversion and neuroticism, respectively, but not with the other dispositional measure. Each explanation had value within 3 different conceptual and methodological frameworks. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated whether certain elementary properties of the human conceptual system for categorizing emotions are pancultural or are specific to particular languages and cultures. From similarity judgments provided by 147 native speakers (mostly middle-aged and elderly) of 5 languages, multidimensional scalings of emotion-related words in Gujarati, Croatian, Japanese, Chinese, and English provided evidence of several pancultural properties. In all 5 languages, emotion-related words fell in roughly a circular order in a space definable by 2 dimensions: pleasure–displeasure and arousal–sleep. Similar results were obtained from unilingual and bilingual Ss. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
50 16–31 yr old university students who participated in an experience-sampling procedure carried electronic pagers with them for 1 wk, during which time they were each paged 7 times/day. In response to each page, Ss immediately completed a self-report form designed to sample current thoughts, affects, wishes, and behavior. Both intimacy and affiliation motivation were assessed via a prior administration of the TAT. Over the course of the week, Ss high in intimacy motivation revealed more interpersonal thoughts and positive affects in interpersonal situations than did Ss low in intimacy. Both intimacy and affiliation motivation were positively related to conversations and letter writing, behaviors indicative of warm and close interpersonal relations. Intimacy motivation was negatively associated with expressed wishes to be alone when interacting with others, whereas affiliation motivation was positively associated with expressed wishes to be interacting with others when alone. Sex differences are discussed, and the implications for the measurement of motivational trends in operant thought and investigations into Person × Situation interactions are outlined. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Adequate attention to the psychology of happiness has been delayed partly by the lack of convincing methods of measurement. This paper describes the development of an inventory to measure happiness consisting of over 100 self-report "happy" and "unhappy" sentences and adjectives, which were significantly correlated with a simple happiness rating scale in 2 cross-validations conducted with 90 adults. Sentence items with the highest item validities were those with a global frame of reference; items concerning behavioral patterns or body sensations were usually not valid. Data from 212 university students show that internal consistency was higher than that of the best available alternative scales. Although highly associated with measures of neuroticism and depression, the inventory was not associated with age, verbal intelligence, or Eysenck Personality Inventory Lie scale. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 3 studies, 2 using prospective and 1 using cross-sectional methods, to examine mood variation in married men over the days of the week. In Study 1, 46 Ss (mean age 42 yrs) kept a record of daily events, illnesses, and moods for 90 consecutive days. In Study 2, 58 Ss (mean age 43 yrs) also kept records, but for 112 days; severe dysphoric mood was also measured. 57 Ss in Study 2 also were asked on the telephone about which days of the week were worst and best for their mood. 21 Ss from this study also participated in a study in which they reported on their mood 5 times/day for 2 wks. In Study 3, 616 Ss (aged 18–60 yrs) completed 1 depressed mood scale. Although Ss thought that their mood was lowest on Monday, mood measures collected on a daily basis did not support the belief. Monday's mood was not different than mood on Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday, but positive mood was higher and negative mood was lower on the weekend; measures of depressed mood did not vary by day of the week. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the structure of intra-individual mood (P-factors) for the presence of 2 dimensions of self-reported current mood—Positive and Negative Affect—found previously in interindividual R-factor analyses (A. Tellegen, 1980). 23 undergraduates completed a 60-item mood adjective checklist for 90 consecutive days. Quantitative comparisons of each S's 1st 2 rotated P-factors to the R-factor dimensions resulted in the identification of the 2 dimensions for 21 Ss, underscoring the congruence of the 2-dimensional structure identified within and across Ss. The belief that the idiographic study of individuals, rather than being antithetical to scientific psychology, can provide information of value and relevance to nomothetic description was basic to the investigation. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous work suggests 2 mechanisms whereby finding enjoyment in life decreases the likelihood of depressive affect: (a) Enjoyment counteracts depressive affect; and (b) failure to find enjoyment is itself a stimulus for depressive affect. The present study, based on interviews with 2,168 adults in 2 communities, yields findings consistent with the proposition that satisfaction with major life areas is a factor in finding enjoyment in life, thereby a factor in avoiding depressive affect and thereby a factor in avoiding psychophysiologic problems. Thus results support the proposition that finding enjoyment in life reduces the liklihood of depressive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A recent study by L. P. Rehm (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1978, 46, 854–859) reported strong associations between the daily report of pleasant and unpleasant events and a global mood rating. This study examined desirable and undesirable events in an effort to replicate and extend Rehm's work by having 26 married couples complete a daily event and mood checklist about husbands for 14 consecutive days. The group averaging strategy generally used to describe event-mood correlations was compared to a tabulation of significant individual correlations. The observed correlations were consistent with a previous study of pleasant events by P. M. Lewinsohn and M. Graf (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1973, 41, 261–268) and a study of unpleasant events by P. M. Lewinsohn and J. Talkington (Applied Psychological Measurement, 1979, 3, 83–101), yet were considerably smaller than those reported by Rehm. Wives' ratings of their husbands' mood revealed the same relationship with experiences as did husbands' self-rated mood. Differences in the populations studied and the event and mood assessments between our study and Rehm's could account for this finding. A tabulation approach to the data showed that few subjects actually achieved statistically significant associations in contrast to the group approach which indicated small associations across all subjects.
Article
Analysis of the Affect Balance Scale using a representative national British sample (N = 932) confirms Bradburn's (1969) two-dimensional model of psychological well-being. Comparisons between the British results and data from the United States are found to yield largely similar results between socio-demographic variables and the two postulated dimensions of well-being: positive and negative affect. In addition, support is found for Bradburn's claim that the balance derived from summing scores on the positive and negative affect scales is a more powerful predictor of psychological well-being than either of the independent affect scales taken separately. Finally, the lack of account made of predisposing personality variables as potential predictors of well-being is discussed.
Article
The concept of psychological well-being is introduced, and scales to measure three of its different facets are described and applied to 1655 British respondents. Results from measures of positive and negative affect are compared with North American findings, and hypotheses are broadly confirmed. Two clusters of specific anxiety items are identified, to do with financial and family anxiety and with health anxiety. The third measure (ratings of present life in general) yields a major cluster of happiness items, but suggests additional dimensions for more detailed investigation. Interrelationships between the several measures and with employment position, motivation to work, job characteristics and age are examined. The study of everyday life as 'normal psychology' is advocated.
Article
The present investigation was intended principally as a concurrent validation study for a new self-report symptom inventory: the SCL-90. A sample of 209 'symptomatic volunteers' served as subjects and were administered both the SCL-90 and the MMPI prior to participation in clinical therapeutic drug trials. The MMPI was scored for the Wiggins content scales and the Tryon cluster scales in addition to the standard clinical scales. Comparisons of the nine primary symptom dimensions of the SCL-90 with the set of MMPI scales reflected very high convergent validity for the SCL-90. Peak correlations were observed with like constructs on eight of the nine scales, with secondary patterns of correlations showing high interpretative consistency.
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Distinguishing between depression and anxiety has been a matter of concern and controversy for some time. Studies in normal samples have suggested, however, that assessment of two broad mood factors—Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA)—may improve their differentiation. The present study extends these findings to a clinical sample. As part of an ongoing twin study, 90 inpatient probands and 60 cotwins were interviewed with the anxiety and depression sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS; Robins, Helzer, Croughan, & Ratcliff, 1981). Respondents also completed trait NA and PA scales. Consistent with previous research, NA was broadly correlated with symptoms and diagnoses of both anxiety and depression, and acted as a general predictor of psychiatric disorder. In contrast, PA was consistently related (negatively) only to symptoms and diagnoses of depression, indicating that the loss of pleasurable engagement is a distinctive feature of depression. The results suggest that strengthening the PA component in depression measures may enhance their discriminative power.
Article
Daily mood ratings and corresponding diary entries were studied to determine relations between common events and two independent mood factors--Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA)--in a sample of 18 young adults over a 3-month period. In an extension of findings from earlier interindividual studies, PA (enthusiastic, delighted vs. sluggish, drowsy) was found to be associated with a wide range of daily events, whereas fewer correlations were found between these events and NA (distressed, nervous, angry vs. calm, relaxed). The relation between high PA and reported social interactions (particularly physically active social events) was especially robust, and its effects were noted repeatedly; NA was unrelated to social activity. As hypothesized, high NA was associated with physical problems; contrary to expectations, low PA also tended to be correlated with health complaints. Overall, the results reaffirm the importance of assessing NA and PA independently and suggest that PA is an interesting and important dimension that deserves more research attention. Theoretical considerations and clinical implications are discussed.
Article
I examined correlates of Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) through both within- and between-subjects analyses. Eighty subjects completed a daily questionnaire for 6-8 weeks. Each day they rated (a) their mood, (b) the extent to which they suffered from various minor physical problems, (c) their level of stress, (d) the time they spent socializing, and (e) whether or not they had exercised. Subjects also completed several trait tests measuring their general affective level, frequency of health problems, and social tendencies. A between-subjects analysis showed the expected pattern: Level of physical complaints and perceived stress were correlated with individual differences in NA but not in PA, whereas social indicators and frequency of exercise were related only to PA. The within-subjects results generally exhibited a similar pattern: Social activity and exercise were more strongly related to PA, whereas perceived stress was highly related to NA. However, the most significant finding was that, contrary to prediction, health complaints were as strongly related to intraindividual fluctuations in PA as in NA. Possible interpretations of the observed correlates of NA and PA are discussed.
Article
Three studies examined the psychometric characteristics of short Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) scales as a function of varying descriptors, time frames and rating formats. The stability of affective structure across time periods and response modes was also evaluated. Study 1 examined the effect of six specified time periods on mood ratings. Both orthogonal and oblique factor analyses indicated that highly convergent PA and NA dimensions emerged in each solution; moreover, in the oblique solutions the correlation between the factors did not systematically vary across the different time periods. Correlations between brief NA and PA scales were also unaffected by the specified time frame but were consistently influenced by the descriptors comprising the scales. Study 2 investigated the psychometric properties of several short PA and NA scales. Most showed reasonable internal consistency reliability and convergent correlations; however, the discriminant correlations between PA and NA scales varied as a function of their component terms. Study 3 investigated the effects of different response formats. Analyses indicated that highly similar factors emerged regardless of format but that the response mode did affect the discriminant correlations.
Article
Daily life events were grouped according to their life content area and according to the desirability of the event as rated by the subject. Associations among event groupings and concurrently measured daily mood were examined. As in studies of major life events, some event classifications were more strongly associated with mood than were others: Specifically, desirable family-leisure events and undesirable work events were strongly related to mood. The results suggests that particular life areas deserve special attention in understanding environmental stress.
Article
Reanalyses of a number of studies of self-reported mood indicate that Positive and Negative Affect consistently emerge as the first two Varimax rotated dimensions in orthogonal factor analyses or as the first two second-order factors derived from oblique solutions. The two factors emerged with varying sets of descriptors and were even replicated in several data sets characterized by possible methodological problems noted by earlier writers (acquiescence response bias, inappropriate response formats, and so on). The results thus strongly attest to the stability and robustness of Positive and Negative Affect in self-report. Because this same two-dimensional configuration has also been consistently identified in all of the other major lines of mood research, it is now firmly established as the basic structure of English-language affect at the general factor level.
Article
Research on emotions and several happiness scales suggest that positive and negative affect are strongly inversely correlated. However, work on subjective well-being indicates that over time, positive and negative affect are independent across persons. In order to reconcile this inconsistency, two dimensions are proposed for personal affective structure: the frequency of positive versus negative affect and the intensity of affect. Subjects in three studies completed daily and momentary reports on their moods. In support of the intensity dimension, the correlations between positive and negative intensity were strong and positive in all three studies. The intensities of specific emotions across persons were also highly correlated. Across the three studies the frequency and intensity of affect varied independently. Although average levels of positive and negative affect showed low correlations, this relation became strongly inverse when intensity was partialed out. Thus the intensity dimension helps explain the relative independence of positive and negative affect. In addition, emotional intensity is offered as a new personality dimension that manifests interesting characteristics.
Article
The feeling state of well-being is probably the reflection of a complex interaction among psychological processes. Evidence is presented that at least three affects may take part in this process: negative affect, positive sense of involvement, and long-term satisfaction. Different patterns of association are demonstrated between these three affects and variables such as social participation, cultivation of hobbies, planfulness, emotional reactivity, physical health, and expert ratings of psychiatric disorder. These associations demonstrate the heuristic value in attempting to conceptualize and measure the dimensions of psychological well-being, as opposed to dealing with such a global construct in empirical research.
Article
The emotional distress reported on the 64-item Patient Symptom Checklist by 133 anxious neurotic outpatients participating in a four-week drug trial was compared with that of 135 nonneurotic gynecological patients. Highly significant differences existed between the two patient groups before treatment. At the end of the trial period, those anxious patients who rated themselves as markedly improved had symptom distress levels that were not very different from those of the normal patients.