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Abstract

Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The feeling is the emotional response to positive and negative feelings. It is also a joyful and pleasant experience [3,4]. Well-being is the individuals' perceived feeling of meaning and pleasure. ...
... Well-being consists of individuals' subjective happiness. Common measurement structure comprises dimensions like life satisfaction, positive emotion, and negative emotion [3]. ...
... The four factors are physical and mental health, life satisfaction, family flourishing, and positive emotions. Life satisfaction and positive emotion are similar to concepts previously proposed by scholars, such as subjective well-being, emotional well-being, and psychological well-being [3,11]. These concepts were often cited by scholars to measure the well-being of taking part in recreational sports. ...
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The purpose of this study is to develop the “Recreational Sport Well-being Scale”, which will be used to investigate the subjective recreational sport well-being individuals’ experience after participating in recreational sports. The study participants were Taiwanese who were over 20 years old and participated in recreational sports. Four sets of samples and 4050 questionnaires in total were collected. Using exploratory factor analysis, four factors were extracted from the scale –life satisfaction, physical and mental health, family flourishing, and positive feelings. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the scale’s overall goodness of fit, convergent validity, and composite reliability all passed the thresholds. The results of cross-validation indicated that the model passed configural invariance, metric invariance, covariance invariance, and error variance invariance, which suggested that the scale has cross validity. Nomological validity analysis was conducted, showing that Recreational Sport Well-being Scale is nomologically valid since it is positively correlated to Subjective Health Scale. Test-retest reliability analysis suggested that the test results were stable when a retest was carried out two weeks later. The developed “Recreational Sport Well-being Scale” is highly reliable and valid and can be applied to measure future recreational sports participants’ well-being.
... Subjective wellbeing refers to a broad psychological phenomenon, including both emotional and cognitive elements (Diener, 1984;Diener et al., 1999), it is not only the eternal pursuit of individual but also the goal of public administration (Ott, 2018;Fan et al., 2022). Reliable and valid subjective wellbeing can be interpreted as an important factor of formulation of public policy (Cummins, 2018). ...
... Subjective wellbeing refers to people's cognitive and affective evaluations of their lives, comprising life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect (Diener, 1984). It is used to describe the level of satisfaction people experience according to their subjective evaluation of their objective living conditions. ...
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Both corruption and subjective wellbeing are of concern to academics and governments. Although some evidence suggests that corruption deteriorates subjective wellbeing, the relationship between perception of official corruption and subjective wellbeing is still unknown. This study aims to examine the link between perceived official corruption and subjective wellbeing in the context of China and whether satisfaction with government performance has a mediating effect in the process. Based on data from China General Social Survey, a structural equation model was used to test the hypotheses. The results of 3,033 Chinese respondents suggest that perception of official corruption is negatively related to subjective wellbeing, and satisfaction with government performance plays a mediating role in the relationship between perception of official corruption and subjective wellbeing.
... Research that focuses primarily on physical and mental health often relies on the WHO definition of well-being, which emphasizes how people develop their own potential, their relationships, and their ability to cope with everyday stress (The World Health Organisation, 2013). In our research, we focus only on subjective well-being (SWB), which refers to an individual's assessment of life (Moksnes and Espnes, 2013 Widely accepted theoretical conceptualization of SWB (Diener, 1984(Diener, , 2013 comprises three relatively independent components: perceived life satisfaction (cognitive component), positive experiences, and negative experiences (affective component). If more traditional approaches emphasize the presence or absence of negative feelings and experienced problems, then contemporary positive psychology posits that SWB is based more on positive quality of life indicators such as life satisfaction, happiness, self-esteem, and experiencing positive emotions. ...
... Self-esteem as a global self-evaluation fits well together with life satisfaction considerations of adolescents' SBW (Diener, 1984;Grob et al., 1996;Harter, 2006;Moksnes and Espnes, 2013). Diener and Diener (2009) found that self-esteem is a powerful predictor of life satisfaction, especially in individualist cultures (Kwan et al., 1997). ...
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While the assumption that the sociopolitical and economic situation affects adolescents’ well-being, encompassing life satisfaction and a positive sense of self, is plausible, few studies have confirmed such macrosocial influences. The case of the Czech Republic offers an example of a society transitioning from totalitarian government (from 1989) to western democracy. Our study provides statistical description of Czech adolescents’ well-being over the past 30 years in association with the subjective perception of everyday problems. These daily hassles represent experiences and conditions of daily living that have been appraised as salient and harmful or threatening to adolescents’ well-being. We analyzed four samples of adolescents aged 14–17 years surveyed at four time points over the last three decades—1992, 2001, 2011, and 2019, total N = 4,005 (1992: 255, 2001: 306, 2011: 363, 2019: 3081; 54.6% females). The results show that life satisfaction, self-esteem, and self-reported daily hassles changed only marginally from 1992 to 2019 with small differences related to the post-revolution 1992 cohort. Adolescents reported increasing problems in school, relationships with parents, sports, and leisure time over the study period. A model linking daily hassles and self-esteem to life satisfaction across four cohorts showed that daily hassles strongly predicted life satisfaction except in the post-revolution cohort of 1992 when life satisfaction was also the lowest. The effect was slightly higher in females. Across the cohorts, gender differences in life satisfaction changed from males being more satisfied in 1992 to females being more satisfaction in 2019. Limitations stemming from sampling differences across cohorts are discussed.
... Our study adds to this finding by providing evidence of an association between PSE and emotional wellbeing. While prolonged stress may at times exceed an individual's ability to cope effectively, which consequently affects their mental wellbeing, it has been recognised that subjective wellbeing is a state of frequent positive affect and cognitive evaluations, and not merely the absence of negative affect (Diener, 1984). Therefore, as well as reducing parenting-related stress, our findings indicate that effective parenting interventions could also be grounded on promoting parent wellbeing. ...
Article
Parents living in deprived communities are more likely to report lower parental self‐efficacy and wellbeing. Poor parental wellbeing and self‐efficacy are known risk factors in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions are key to prevent adverse outcomes in children, however, the mechanisms by which parents learn to understand and support their children are still not well understood. This study evaluated the acceptability of Kids Matter, a parenting intervention targeting parents who are struggling with financial adversity. Secondarily, the relationship between parental wellbeing and and self‐efficacy was examined. The present is a retrospective, consecutive case series design study, comparing routinely collected data at pre‐intervention, post‐intervention, and at 3‐month follow‐up. Descriptive frequencies were drawn to explore parents' impressions of the programme. Multivariate analysis of variance and regression modelling were used to evaluate associations between parental wellbeing and self‐efficacy at different time points. Parents found the programme enjoyable and useful. The intervention led to significant improvements in parental wellbeing and self‐efficacy. Improvements in parental wellbeing were significantly associated with improvements in self‐efficacy. This study provides evidence of the acceptability and effectiveness of Kids Matter.
... The presence of children potentially leads to more housework, but it was unclear whether this would bring more work-family conflicts and so stress, or whether women with children would be able to adapt (Kalucza et al., 2015;Singley & Hynes, 2005;Yavorsky et al., 2015). Consistent with the former, our findings suggest that individuals' mental health and subjective well-being are Fig. 1 The interaction effects between different employment/job statuses on women's mental health adaptive to life events or life goal changes (Diener, 1984;Zhao et al., 2017). Once they have children, most women (especially middle-class women) shift the focus of their lives from work to family (Baxter et al., 2008;Belsky & Kelly, 1994;Singley & Hynes, 2005). ...
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Despite women's increased participation in the labor market over the last several decades, many women still perform a disproportionate share of housework, and lack the support of flexible working arrangements. Thus, women are facing a trade-off between doing paid inflexible work and doing unpaid housework, both of which have negative impacts on their mental health. However, the effects of work flexibility and unpaid housework are rarely examined together. This study aims to compare the effects of paid inflexible work and unpaid housework on women's mental health. It also examines whether parenthood affects the mental health impacts of different employment and economic statuses on women. This study applies nationally representative longitudinal data from the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (2010-2020, N = 23,552), and uses two-way fixed effects models to process this data. The results show that women who have paid inflexible work have significantly better mental health than those who do only unpaid housework. This pattern is consistent for women who lack different types of flexible work arrangements. Moreover, the mental health benefits of inflexible working over unpaid housework are particularly pronounced for women without dependent children. Paid work, even paid inflexible work, matters for women's mental health, especially women without children. Future research needs to incorporate various employment and economic statuses into one theoretical framework to examine women's mental health and further investigate the role of parenthood in moderating the health effects of employment and economic status.
... The concept of wellbeing refers to experiencing pleasure and achieving optimal functioning with two approaches: Hedonic and eudaimonic (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The hedonic or subjective wellbeing (Diener, 1984) has an affective and a cognitive component. The first refers to the person's evaluation of pleasant or unpleasant feelings experienced in his/her life. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact upon teachers across the world. In Chile, the confinement also had a negative effect on teachers’ wellbeing. However, there are no studies assessing teachers' mental health, affect, burnout, or social support during this period. Consequently, our study tested a mediation moderation model with Macro from SPSS in a sample of 635 teachers examining subjective wellbeing with the Pemberton Happiness Index, their emotions using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, their burnout with the Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Burnout Syndrome and their social support with the Social Support Questionnaire-Short Form. The study results suggest that the impact of burnout on teachers' wellbeing is mediated by negative and positive emotions. Additionally, this mediation was moderated by social support levels perceived by teachers. These results confirm the importance of providing additional support to teachers during the Pandemic.
... Life satisfaction, defined as the cognitive dimension of subjective well-being [1,2], is linked to adolescents' physical and mental health. Low life satisfaction in adolescence has been associated with suicide ideation [3], increased psychopathology [4], obesity [5], school disengagement [6], substance abuse [7], and other risk behaviors [8] that can negatively influence adolescents' important life outcomes [9][10][11]. ...
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Life satisfaction, an important precursor of adolescents’ well-being, is linked to daily activities. Substantial changes have been noted in adolescents’ daily activities over the years, raising the question of possible consequences for life satisfaction. This study aimed to explore changes in adolescents’ life satisfaction and their time spent on daily activities (sleeping, engaging in sports, online gaming, school commuting, time spent at school) and further investigate the associations between adolescents’ life satisfaction and these daily activities. The sample comprised 2715 adolescents from birth cohorts surveyed at four time points between 1992 and 2019. Participants were administered the Daily Activities Inventory and the Berne Questionnaire on Adolescents’ Well-Being. Robust ANOVA with post hoc tests and spline regression were employed. We found cohort differences in sleep duration (8.6 h a day on average in 1992 and 7.5 in 2019). Sleep duration of 8 h and 1 h of sports activities had a beneficial effect on life satisfaction, while more than 1 h of online gaming had a negative impact. Neither school attendance nor commuting to school was associated with adolescents’ life satisfaction. The results of this study can inform public-health policies to promote sleeping and sports habits in adolescence.
... The efforts to conceptualize happiness underline the subjective nature of this notion as well as the role of people as the ultimate decision makers of what qualifies as happy experiences (Myers & Diener, 1995). Thus, for the most part, the concept of subjective well-being has been used instead of the concept of happiness in many research studies (Diener et al., 2009), and happiness has been treated as one of the emotional dimensions of subjective well-being in some others (Diener, 1984). ...
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COVID-19 pandemic has brought about many uncertainties and adversities for young people, negatively influencing their mental health. The present study investigated the mediation role of intolerance to uncertainty (IU) in the relationship between social emotional learning (SEL) skills and happiness, and between SEL skills and life satisfaction (LS) of young people, within the framework of Positive Youth Development (PYD). The study included 589 university students (51% women) aged 18–24, and the participants completed a Demographic form, Social Emotional Learning Scale-Young Adult Form, Intolerance to Uncertainty Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. In the study, the mediating role of IU on the relationship between SEL skills and happiness (Model 1) and between SEL skills and LS (Model 2) were tested. The analysis first indicated positive direct relations of SEL skills with happiness and LS, as well as negative direct relations with IU. In addition, there were negative associations between IU and happiness, and between IU and LS. The results also demonstrated the mediation role of IU on the relationships between SEL skills and both happiness and LS. These findings confirmed the pivotal role that SEL skills play in happiness and LS by reducing the impact of IU, thus promoting PYD during the pandemic.
... La satisfacción de vida, los afectos positivos y negativos componen el bienestar subjetivo, es decir, en creencias evaluativas sobre la propia vida (Diener, 1984;Diener, Suh, Lucas & Smith, 1999;Schimmack, 2008). Por tanto, el grado de satisfacción se determina a través de dominios valorados por las personas. ...
... While all these studies demonstrate the positive effect of embracing on physical health, less research has been conducted on the impact of embracing on subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is constituted by an individual's overall life satisfaction and the relative frequency of experienced positive and negative affect (Diener, 1984). Embraces with the romantic partner are behaviorally and neurophysiologically associated with stronger positive affective states compared to embraces of a body pillow (Packheiser et al., 2021). ...
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Embracing has several positive health effects, such as lowering blood pressure and decreasing infection risk. However, its association with general life satisfaction and daily mood has not been researched in detail. Here, we used a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approach to monitor the daily number of embraces and daily mood in a sample of 94 adults over the course of seven days. We found that embracing frequency differed slightly over the week, with embracing occurring more frequently on weekends than on weekdays. We also found that higher daily embracing frequencies were associated with better daily mood using multilevel modeling. Only singles benefitted from increases in average embracing regarding their life satisfaction, whereas individuals in a relationship were unaffected by their embracing tendencies. Although our results are strictly correlational and do not indicate any direction or causality, embraces may be important for daily mood and general life satisfaction, but their efficacy seems to depend on relationship status.
... A study by Hawro et al. [55] showed that per capita household income had a significant correlation with all areas of quality of life, including psychological and social relationships, and the lower the income, the lower the quality of life. Diener [56] mentioned that there is a positive relationship between income and subjective well-being, quality of life, and happiness. As such, when the income of the elderly is high, their quality of life and level of happiness are high as well [4,57]. ...
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In preparation for the expected super-aged society in 2025, this study attempted to prepare basic data that can help design development measures for the welfare of the elderly so that everyone can prepare for a healthy and happy retirement. Accordingly, the major factors affecting the quality of life of the elderly in Korea were verified. To this end, the questionnaire consisted of 22 questions in total, and a mobile survey was conducted between September and October 2021; in total, 250 copies were used for the final analysis, and the following conclusions are derived. The major factors that were found to determine the quality of life of the elderly were age, subjective health status, monthly household income, leisure activities, and health inequality fairness. It was found that the higher the age, the lower the quality of life. Further, the higher the subjective health status, monthly household income, participation in leisure activities, and perceptions of health inequality as fair, the more the quality of life of the elderly was affected. Therefore, policy support such as leisure activity, health programs, and medical welfare services for the elderly and sufficient attention from our society are all required.
... La satisfacción de vida, los afectos positivos y negativos componen el bienestar subjetivo, es decir, en creencias evaluativas sobre la propia vida (Diener, 1984;Diener, Suh, Lucas & Smith, 1999;Schimmack, 2008). Por tanto, el grado de satisfacción se determina a través de dominios valorados por las personas. ...
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Presently, well-being is a crucial study area for psychology due to its close relationship with physical and mental health, especially among adolescents, which are considered a priority in health care. However, there is still no consensus on how to define and measure well-being, which has resulted in the generation of various measurement instruments with different theoretical bases. In Chile, instruments have been validated to assess well-being. However, there has been no systematisation to identify and describe the instruments in terms of their theoretical perspectives and psychometric properties, particularly in the adolescent population. For this reason, a Scoping Review of the instruments used to measure well-being in adolescents was carried out using a systematic search according to the PRISMA statement. The results yielded 25 instruments validated in this population that presented adequate psychometric properties from different theoretical constructs. In conclusion, several validated instruments in Chile assess the multidimensionality implied by the concept of well-being in the adolescent population.
... WB includes the individual's general satisfaction regarding privacy, social relationships, work environment, and reduced stress [42][43][44]. Therefore, employers' concern for ensuring a better job for their employees and a WB status was considered a component of SR, which is part of ethical behavior. ...
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Social responsibility (SR) is a concept or practice by which organizations take into account the interest of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on all stakeholders. The SR of organizations implies ethical behavior concerning all stakeholders and a company’s commitment to the sustainable economic development of society. Organizational ethics is a set of written and unwritten codes of principles and values that govern decisions and actions within an organization. Ethics has a rather internal perspective, while social responsibility has a rather external perspective. This study examines the impact of social responsibility and organizational ethics on employees’ wellbeing. To perform the empirical analysis, we conducted a survey among 423 employees from Romanian organizations. Using the structural equation modeling, we analyzed the relationships between social responsibility, organizational ethics, and employees’ wellbeing, emphasizing the positive impact of ethical and responsible behavior of the organization on the employees’ wellbeing. The organization’s employees play a dual role: firstly, they are all internal stakeholders, and secondly, they are constituents of an external stakeholder essential for the organization—the community. The results show a significant positive influence of social responsibility and organizational ethics on employees’ wellbeing as a result of a responsible and ethical behavior in relation to the organizational stakeholders.
... Positive psychology is the scientific study of what makes life worth living (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) with an emphasis on subjective and psychological well-being. Whereas subjective well-being refers to a high level of positive affect, a low level of negative affect, and a high degree of life satisfaction (Diener, 1984), psychological well-being refers to hedonic (e.g. pleasure and positive emotions) and eudemonic (e.g. ...
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While there is evidence for the effects of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) in the Western world, we know little about their effects on Arab cultures. This review aimed to assess the effects of PPIs on well‐being and mental health across Arab countries. Systematic searches of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi‐experimental studies investigating PPIs in Arabia were conducted in six English and Arabic databases from the inception of positive psychology in 1998 to 28 February 2022. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk‐of‐bias tools. The protocol was published in the BMJ Open. Forty‐four studies from 10 Arab countries (n = 3598 participants) were included. Of these, 12 were RCTs and 32 were quasi‐experimental. The studies mainly focused on adults (73%) and healthy populations (86%). PPIs included mindfulness, positive thinking, strengths, hope, optimism, self‐compassion, positive traits, and multiple PPIs. Nearly all studies (91%) mentioned cultural adaptation; however, little detail was given. This is the first review in Arabia. PPIs appear to be effective for promoting well‐being and reducing mental health issues. However, there were some risks of bias concerns. Future research should include younger and clinical populations, using larger samples and providing more details about adaptation.
... These themes refer to Deci and Ryan's (2008) work on analyzing well-being from both a hedonic and eudaimonic tradition. Following the hedonic approach, most prominently represented by the work of Diener (1984Diener ( , 2009, professional well-being can be conceptualized as the absence of negative affect. In this study, therefore, hedonic professional well-being was assessed in terms of school staff members' work-related stress level. ...
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Individuals in brokerage positions are vital when further developing complex organizations with multiple subgroups only loosely coupled to each other. Network theorists have conceptualized an individual’s brokerage as the degree to which a person occupies a bridging position between disconnected others. Research outside the school context has indicated for quite some time that an individual’s social capital in the form of brokerage is positively associated with professional development—not only on a collective but also on an individual level. Schools are without any doubt complex organizations with multiple loosely connected stakeholders involved when further developing their educational practice. Thus, it is not surprising that in recent years, the concept of brokerage has gained interest in research on school improvement as well. Up to now, in school improvement research brokerage has been operationalized in different ways: as individuals’ formal entitlement to act as intermediaries (formal brokerage), their position within a social network (structural brokerage), or their behavior when linking disconnected groups of staff members (behavioral brokerage). As these perspectives have often been examined separately, this study, as a first step, aimed to simultaneously assess school staff members’ formal, structural, and behavioral brokerage, and examine their degree of interrelatedness. In a second step, associations of brokerage with professional well-being were analyzed. Even though there is evidence for the positive impact of brokerage on professional development, only little is known about its associations with professional well-being. In a third step, interaction effects were examined when formal brokerage is congruent or incongruent with other facets of brokerage. Based on a sample of 1,316 school staff members at 51 primary schools in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, we conducted both bivariate correlational and multiple-group structural equation modeling analyses. The findings revealed that formal, structural, and behavioral brokerage are interrelated facets. However, formal entitlement did not determine either structural position or behavior. Moreover, brokerage within schools was only partially related to professional well-being. In the discussion section, the study’s key contributions and practical implications are presented in detail.
... SWB refers exclusively to the subjective perspective by simply asking how people feel or think about their lives. Affective SWB-the extent of positive and negative feelings on a daily basis-or cognitive SWB-the evaluation of overall satisfaction with life-thus takes into account that circumstances which are functional for a good life may vary [24][25][26]. In the context of patient-centered care, the degree to which a medical intervention supports patients pursuing life goals can be defined as patient benefit [27]. ...
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Purpose This qualitative study aimed to investigate the importance of subjective well-being (SWB) as an outcome of psoriasis treatment from patient’s perspective. We focused on the affective component of SWB as assessed with the Daily Experience Sampling Questionnaire (DESQ), a validated daily diary. Methods Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with in-patients of a dermatological rehabilitation clinic, after participants had completed the DESQ for up to seven days to get familiar with the concept of SWB. Patients were asked to reflect on the importance of SWB as treatment goal and on its relative importance as compared with other treatment outcomes. We also addressed whether SWB could be an indirect measure of benefit in that it reflects other important outcomes. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results Eleven patients participated (24–63 years, mean 53 years, 8 male, 3 female). Participants uniformly confirmed that changes in SWB reflected treatment benefit. All but one considered SWB to be a central aspect of treatment benefit—either as the most important treatment goal or as an indirect benefit indicator. In particular, participants described positive associations of SWB with other outcomes, such as symptoms. They reported that both the disease and the medical treatment had an impact on their SWB, which was reflected in the DESQ. Conclusion Our findings suggest that SWB is a relevant indicator of treatment benefit for patients with psoriasis. Therefore, SWB measures, such as the DESQ, could be used to operationalize patient-relevant benefit of psoriasis treatment, complementing outcome measures currently used.
... Traditionally, happiness has been found in two different aspects of life in what is known as hedonic and eudaimonic approaches to happiness (Waterman, 1993). In the hedonic tradition, happiness is defined as the experience of high levels of pleasant emotions and moods, low levels of negative emotions and moods, and life satisfaction (Diener, 1984). In the eudamonic tradition, however, happiness occurs when people's life activities are congruent with their true self and held values, and are fully engaged (Waterman, 1993). ...
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Previous evidence has shown that excessive valuing happiness may relate to lower psychological wellbeing across cultures. Considering the lack of data with Spanish population, we examined the relation between tightly holding happiness emotion goals and subjective wellbeing in a sample of Spanish women, and explored the mediation role exerted by psychological inflexibility components (namely, cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance) in the relation between valuing happiness and subjective wellbeing. A female adult sample (n = 168) filled out measures of excessive valuing happiness, psychological inflexibility, positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. Valuing happiness only showed positive total effects on negative affect and strong direct effects on both cognitive fusion and experiential avoidance. Analyses revealed the mediating roles exerted by psychological inflexibility components, with experiential avoidance leading to lower pleasure; and cognitive fusion leading to greater displeasure and lower life satisfaction. Psychological inflexibility components explained between 40 and 80% of the total effect of valuing happiness on our outcome variables. Our findings highlight the need for further research on the benefits of hedonic vs. values-based approaches to happiness.
... El análisis de los resultados de ese informe permitió llegar a la conceptualización del bienestar como el balance entre dos dimensiones del afecto denominadas sentimientos positivos y negativos. El segundo enfoque (Diener, 1984) tiene que ver con la evaluación que hacen los individuos de su vida en general, considerando sus juicios cognitivos y sus reacciones afectivas: salud, ocio, afectos, vida en familia, la predisposición a disfrutar momentos felices y asumir los problemas como retos. ...
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Factores predictores de la satisfacción vital en estudiantes de educación de la Universidad Surcolombiana Resumen. Preguntarse por la satisfacción vital en una facultad de educación permite un acercamiento a expectativas de futuros agentes formadores de la sociedad. Desde esa perspectiva, el objetivo de este estudio es analizar qué factores predicen la satisfacción vital del estudiantado de Educación de la Universidad Surcolombiana y compararlo con otros constructos en función de la variable sexo. Se realizó un estudio analítico y transversal con 408 participantes. Se recogieron datos a través de la Escala de Satisfacción con la vida en Adolescentes (ESVA), Versión española del Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), Cuestionario de Esquema Interpersonal Asertivo (AISQ) y Autoconcepto (Forma AF-5). Los resultados evidenciaron cómo la satisfacción vital fue predicha por la dimensión familiar del AF-5 (autoconcepto) (β = .274 [.210-.324]; p < .001) y dimensión de reparación emocional del TMMS-24 (inteligencia emocional) (β = .201 [.144-.231]; p < .001). No hay diferencias significativas en función de la variable sexo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con la literatura existente. Palabras clave. Inteligencia emocional, asertividad, autoconcepto, satisfacción, vida. Abstract. Asking oneself about the satisfaction of life within a faculty of education brings us closer to the expectations of the future trainers of society. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to analyze which factors predict life satisfaction of students at Surcolombiana University and compare them to other constructs based on the sex variable. An analytical and transversal study was carried out with 408 participants. Data were collected through the Adolescent Life Satisfaction Scale (ESVA), Spanish version of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS-24), Assertive Interpersonal Scheme Questionnaire (AISQ) and the Self-concept (Form AF-5). Results showed that life satisfaction was predicted by the family dimension of AF-5 (self-concept) (β = .274 [.210-.324]; p < .001) and the dimension of emotional repair of TMMS-24 (emotional intelligence) (β = .201 [.144-.231], p < .001). There are no significant differences depending on the sex variable. Results are discussed in relation to the existing literature.
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The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels of the elderly residents in nursing home. In accordance with this aim what extent gratitude and self-compassion levels of the elderly that predicted the mental well-being was answer the question. Also, this study analyzed the relationship between the gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels and gender, age and length residence in nursing home. This study used to quantitative method based relational scanning model. The research was contucted with 120 elderly residing at Bursa Metropolitan Municipality Nursing Home. The sample consisted of 22 women elderly and 98 men elderly. As a data collection tools, Gratitude Scale, WEMWB Scale, Self-Compassion Scale and Basic Personal Information Form were used in the study. As result, it was found that there are relationships between gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels. In addition, it was found that gratitude and self-compassion levels predicted mental well-being and explained %33.5 of it. It was found that gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels did not differ in terms of gender, age and duration of stay in nursing home.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of subjective well-being and subjective health of households in Turkey by considering the interaction between these two variables. Micro data set of Survey of Income and Living Conditions (SILC) held by TurkStat for the period of 2017 is used in this study. The answers of the questions on “the ability to make ends meet with total household income” and “the general health status of household head” are defined as “subjective economic well-being” and “subjective health” variables, respectively, which denote the dependent variables of the study. Because of the ordered structure of dependent variables, bivariate ordered probit model is used to determine the effects of independent variables on household head’s well-being status and health status in order to focus the relationship between these two dependent variables. According to the findings obtained from the study, the higher the education level of the household head, the better the subjective health perception of the household head. In addition, the status of the household head as unemployed or divorced negatively affects the subjective economic well-being of the household head. Household income is the most important variable affecting both the subjective economic well-being and subjective health of the household head. As a result, although the determinants of subjective economic well-being and subjective health of the household head differ, there exists a relationship between these two subjective variables.
Article
Leader identity theory posits that, in addition to being positional, leadership is also a malleable state of mind. This means that even employees holding positions of authority within their organization may be nudged to identify more strongly with their leader role on some days versus others. The leadership literature, however, is silent about predictors that may prime leader identity day-to-day. We draw from leader identity theory and research on expressive writing to propose that leader identity can be activated daily via positive leader self-reflection (e.g., reflecting and writing about qualities that make one a good leader) in ways that are beneficial for the leader both at work and at home. We tested our theoretical expectations in two field experiments. In the first study, as expected, we find that leaders reported higher activated leader identity and more goal progress on intervention (vs. control) days. In turn, activated leader identity and goal progress enhanced leader well-being measured in the evening at home. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations, the well-being enhancing effects of positive leader self-reflection were weaker for leaders who were higher (vs. lower) in identity fusion with their followers. In the second study, we demonstrate the malleable nature of leader identity by showing not only that positive leader self-reflection activates leader identity, but also that negative leader self-reflection diminishes its activation.
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The study aims to determine the relationship between transformational leadership of school principals and subjective well-being of teachers. 517 teachers working in public secondary schools in the central districts of Ankara province participated in this study which was carried out with the quantitative correlational research method. Stratified sampling technique was used in the selection of the participants. “Transformational Leadership Scale” and “Teacher Subjective Well-Being Scale” were used and descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were utilized in the analysis of the collected data. The results show that teachers' perceptions of transformational leadership are high, but their perceptions of subjective well-being are low. The results of the study show that transformational leadership is a significant predictor of teachers’ subjective well-being and there is a positive and low level relationship between them. The findings that are expected to contribute to the literature were discussed and some suggestions were made for both researchers and practitioners based on these. It has been suggested that activities aimed at increasing the subjective well-being of teachers and contributing to their professional development in schools should be included in the general curriculum of the school, and various inclusion activities should be organized in and out of school for mutual expectations and needs between teachers and school administrators.
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Abstract Purpose Building on the work-home resources model and the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study proposes and explores a moderated mediation model on the effect of doctor's family incivility and burnout on doctor's job satisfaction as a function of psychological capital (PsyCap) at dual stages. Design/methodology/approach This study obtained data in two phases, using a time-lagged methodological design. The final sample comprised 324 emergency medicine doctors working in hospitals across India, and statistical analysis of the above-said relationships was carried out using PROCESS macro in SPSS 23.0. Findings Findings indicate strong evidence supporting the mediation effect of burnout, which means doctors facing family incivility at home experienced burnout at work, which influences doctors' job satisfaction. Also, the indirect effect of family incivility on job satisfaction through burnout gets attenuated at both stages when emergency physicians possess high PsyCap. Practical implications This study adds to the work-family literature by delving into the underlying mechanisms that link family incivility to various job outcomes. Despite procedural remedies, there remains a possibility of common method bias. Longitudinal research and validating the model across different samples are suggested. Originality/value This study expands the limited domain of knowledge on the work consequences of uncivil family behavior. This study is among the primary to empirically substantiate the long-term adverse consequences of family incivility as burnout. The implications of these findings for applications and applications' extension of the work-home resources model to the family domain are elaborated in detail.
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The aim of this study is to examine how much emotion regulation, coping and cognitive flexibility variables predict adolescents' subjective well-being at school. For this purpose, the research was conducted based on the relational screening model. The study group of this study consisted of a total of 389 students, 184 (%47.3) boys and 205 (%52.7) girls, studying at state secondary education institutions in the Bucak district of Burdur province in the academic year of the 2021-2022. The average age of the adolescents in the research group is 15.70. “Brief Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School Scale - Özdemir and Sağkal (2016)”, “Emotion Regulation Questionnaire - Ulaşan Özgüle and Sümer (2017)”, “The Coping Strategies for Adolescents Scale - Bedel, Işık and Hamarta (2014)”, “Cognitive Flexibility Scale - Çelikkaleli (2014)” and “Personal Information Form” were used as data collection tools. The data obtained from the research were analyzed with the multiple regression analysis (stepwise) method. As a result of the research, it was determined that the variables of emotion regulation, coping and cognitive flexibility significantly predicted subjective well-being at school. Finally, the findings obtained in the study were discussed and suggestions were made for future research.
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The current study aims to investigate the developmental perspective on the relationships between person-vocation (P-V) fit and its criteria (extrinsic job satisfaction, workplace satisfaction, and happiness) using longitudinal data of 1041 youths in South Korea. While most previous studies on P-V fit examined the fit between vocational interests and characteristics of actual vocation, we examined the fit between aspired and attained occupation in its prestige levels. We utilized data collected at two time points with an 8-year interval: when the participants were high school seniors and when they were in early adulthood. Polynomial regression and response surface graphs revealed that the levels of the criteria increased as attained occupation matched with the aspired occupation at a high-high fit compared to a low-low fit. However, P-V misfit did not have a systematic relationship with any criteria. Happiness was the most relevant outcome, suggesting important implications regarding youths’ vocational aspirations and attainment.
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This article proposes an approach to intervening in harms that is based on the integration of positive psychology and restorative justice. We begin by reviewing the importance of interpersonal relationships to restorative justice. Next, we discuss harms as viewed in restorative justice. We then explore the concept and language of happiness through models of satisfaction with life (SWL) from positive psychology. We end the article by proposing the integration of models of SWL into the practices of restorative dialogue and the development of restoration plans.
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Nature has healing powers that provide physical and mental benefits to tourists and reduce their anxiety related to COVID-19. However, few empirical studies have examined the emotional mechanism that induces tourists to feel satisfied with, rather than anxious about, their lives. We explain the underlying impact mechanism that connects nature and subjective well-being in a natural heritage context by analyzing data collected from a sample of 534 tourists in Wulingyuan (south-central China). Our study revealed interesting and meaningful findings: (a) nature has healing powers that directly and indirectly (via awe and place attachment) influence tourists' subjective well-being; (b) tourists with a relatively low level of positive emotions who become attached to a destination, subsequently experience a greater degree of healing; and (c) there are significant gender differences concerning the healing powers of nature among tourists. These findings contribute to well-being research by highlighting the underlying emotional mechanism whereby nature influences tourists' subjective well-being. The paper also demonstrates the moderating effects of positive emotions and gender in the proposed model, which offers valuable practical insights for governments in tourist destinations.
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The well-known mediation-moderation model of subjective well-being has been criticized because it oversimplified the concept of culture. This study aimed to explore whether the family culture, as supplement of social culture, has significant impacts on subjective well-being. The intellectual-cultural orientation subscale (ICO) of family environment scale-CV (FES-CV), Eysenck personality questionnaire for adult (EPQA), and index of well-being (IWB) were used to test 340 college students from China. Results showed that the extraversion and neuroticism of personality traits have great influences on subjective well-being, and intellectual-cultural orientation as family culture, to represent characteristic of family culture, serves as a moderating variable for the 2 components of subjective well-being. And all these findings revealed that the trait of family culture should be considered as a supplement of the social culture and a critical complementary moderating influenced factor for subjective well-being. Together with personality traits, it can explain the variance of subjective well-being to some extent. The family cultural has an important influence on college students’ personality and subjective well-being. It is important to provide a high quality family cultural environment for college students.
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Purpose Achieving financial well-being is essential for individuals, families and countries as it leads to life satisfaction and happiness. This study synthesizes and identifies financial well-being’s key areas and dimensions using a blended systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis approach. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically study a sample of 467 articles from the Scopus database to identify the research trend regarding financial well-being during the last 25 years (1997–2021). Various graphs and networks are presented to understand the publication trends, influential papers, conceptual and intellectual structures and research collaboration status. Findings Four clusters in the field of financial well-being were found: conceptualization and antecedents of financial well-being, financial well-being of young adults, the relationship between financial literacy and financial well-being and consequences of financial well-being. Further, emerging themes in financial well-being were identified with a content analysis of the papers published during the last five years. Practical implications This study will help financial planners, regulatory bodies and academic researchers in getting a better understanding of financial well-being and in identifying potential areas for future research. Originality/value Prior to this study, no such comprehensive bibliometric analysis on financial well-being has been carried out to the best of the authors' knowledge. This gap motivated the authors to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to review the published research and do a content analysis, to identify prominent authors and publications.
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The present research aims to determine the relationship between the construct of autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and tourist experience, as well as loyalty in the context of wellness and spa tourism. The exploratory–descriptive design was adopted in the present research. A research instrument was developed based on previous literature and was tested for a pilot study to check validity and reliability. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data from tourists who have gained spa experience. A total of 264 usable responses were received after distributing 400 questionnaires. The data were screened, processed, and analyzed using the SPSS 22.0 and Smart-PLS 2.0. The investigation showed that intrinsic motivation, autonomy, and experience positively impact positive emotions and life satisfaction. Besides, it also supported that positive emotions, experience, and life Satisfaction lead to loyalty. Furthermore, the present study tested the mediating role of experience, positive emotions, and life satisfaction; it was also found that experience mediates the relationship between autonomy, positive emotions, and life satisfaction. Positive emotions and life satisfaction were mediators in the relationship between experience and loyalty. Finally, the findings showed that destination images moderated the relationship between experience, positive emotions, and life satisfaction. The results of this investigation can be helpful for both the research community and marketers interested in investigating the well-being of tourists and destination loyalty.
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As baby boomers contemplate retirement, it is important to understand what, how, and where they plan to maximize their well-being. The senior living industry is especially interested as it considers how to apply hospitality strategies to increase its attractiveness to the boomer market about where they will spend their post-retirement years. Surprisingly, there is little research on what these prospective customers want in post-retirement living accommodations that maximizes their well-being. This study aims to fill this knowledge gap by assessing whether the elements of well-being influence baby boomers’ pre-retirement plan to age-in-place after retirement. Since technology is increasingly being used to provide the elements of well-being, this cohort’s affinity for technology was also measured to assess its influence as a moderator on the plan to age-in-place. Findings revealed a relationship between baby boomers’ perception of their well-being needs and their decision to age-in-place while technology did not moderate these assessments.
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Purpose Drawing upon theories of conservation of resources (COR), broaden-and-build (BnB), self-determination, and the job demands- resources (JD-R) model, this study uniquely tries to understand the mechanisms that contribute to happiness at work by proposing a model of the effects of emotional culture of joy on happiness at work, where psychological safety and relational attachments serve as intervening mechanisms among the aforesaid relationship. Design/methodology/approach A three-wave time-lagged study with 340 employees from Pakistani organizations was conducted. Data were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings The results indicate that emotional culture of joy significantly predicts happiness at work. Furthermore, emotional culture of joy significantly and positively influences both psychological safety and relational attachment. Finally, the relationship between emotional culture of joy and happiness at work is found to be mediated by both relational attachment and psychological safety. Practical implications The results are of utmost importance as they provide insights to policy makers and organizations administrators on the value of emotional culture of joy and its contribution to employees’ wellbeing, and indeed its role in fostering important psychological and emotional resources such as psychological safety and relational attachment. Originality/value This study is unique for the following reasons. First, it addresses and bridges a gap pertaining to the drivers of happiness at work. Second, this is the first study that considers emotional culture of joy as an antecedent to happiness at work. Third, the employment of both psychological safety and relational attachment as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between emotional culture of joy and happiness at work has not been previously addressed in the management and wellbeing literature. Finally, the study shifts direction from studying organizational drivers (i.e. HR, organization support, etc.) of happiness at work to the examination of psychological and emotional resources that may influence happiness at work.
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International students constitute an important sojourner group. The current research aimed to test the psychometric characteristics of the Satisfaction with Migration Life Scale (SWMLS) for international students, and the role of different psycho-social variables in predicting SWMLS. The sample included 189 Brazilian college students who attended Portuguese institutions of higher education. Sixty-three percent were females and 37% males, aged between 18 and 38 years. The average length of sojourn in Portugal was 14 months. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the one-dimensional model of the SWMLS is adequate and possesses good internal consistency. The study found that international students are generally satisfied about their migration life. Subsequent analysis indicated that the SWMLS scores were significantly associated with other measures of financial status, perceived discrimination, cultural intelligence, sociocultural adaptation, and subjective well-being. Suggestions for future research with international students are proposed.
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The Impact of Worklife on Executives’ Psychological Health Purpose: This is the first scientific research studying the impact of worklife factors on executives’ psychological health by gender. The study has a particular focus on the factors of ‘Community’ and ‘Work-life balance’. Design: Survey data were collected from N=481 senior executives to measure seven worklife factors and psychological health. Standardized regression analysis was performed for each worklife in a regression model predicting psychological health by gender. Findings: Results showed significant differences between female and male senior executives in the profiles of seven worklife factors in terms of their relationship with psychological health. ‘Work-life balance’ was the strongest predictor of female executives’ psychological health, ‘Values’ for male executives’ psychological health. ‘Community’ showed similar levels of association for both women and men. Originality/value: This research addresses the literature gap of large-scale, quantitative investigations into the psychology of senior executives. The results can be applied as a guide for organizational design, executive training and development programs accounting for differences by gender.
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Education has been conceptualized as a causal factor leading to emotional well-being. However, it is also possible that some of the effect of education may be due to selection factors. Analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 10,908), we asked: to what extent does educational attainment increase emotional well-being once stable observed and unobserved individual characteristics are accounted for? Findings from fixed effects models showed that attaining a college degree was associated with greater emotional well-being. However, interactions with gender indicate that the positive association with emotional well-being is primarily for women, although a small negative association between completing college and depressive affect was found for men. These findings point to unmeasured confounding factors as motivating some of the association between educational attainment and emotional well-being among adolescents and adults.
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This article is the third in a series that celebrates the work of positive psychologists and how their work has the power and potential to influence mental health nursing practice. Focusing on the contribution of Professor Ed Diener (1946–2021), and his work on subjective wellbeing, will help bring interest and understanding to this exciting and developing area of mental health nursing practice.
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Subjective vitality describes the positive feeling of experiencing physical and mental energy, which can lead to purposive actions, but no German instruments exist with action-oriented verbiage: This work supports the development and modification of already existing German Subjective Vitality Scales and provides further evidence for its psychometric properties. In a first step (N = 56) two modified (action-oriented) short-forms were developed. An extension of time perspectives (past, present, future) should also enrich the scale by enhancing the accuracy of self-reports. Study 1 (N = 183) then examined the psychometric properties for each time perspective. Study 2 (N = 27) was a 6-day diary study to identify the reliability of within- and between-person differences in vitality over time and working days with responses recorded three times per day. The exploratory factor analysis from study 1 revealed a three-factor solution with three items each. Test-retest reliability was moderate for the past and future time perspective and less stable for state subjective vitality. The modified German Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS-GM) showed divergent validity with fatigue, negative affect, and optimism, and convergent but distinguishable validity with life satisfaction, positive affect, and perceived self-efficacy. High reliability for daily vitality measures (with lower vitality rates in the morning) was found in study 2, but no substantial variation was found between working days and days off. The SVS-GM shows good psychometric properties in different settings and provides researchers with a 3-item (for cross-sectional or longitudinal studies) and 1-item (for short screenings) version to measure subjective vitality in German-speaking populations.
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The aim of the present study was to identify profiles of elite athlete mental well- and ill-being and study how the profiles (i.e., subgroups of athletes) differed in sport-related demands and resources. A total of 259 Finnish elite athletes ( n = 170 active and n = 89 retired) completed quantitative self-report inventories. Through cluster analysis, four profiles of mental well- and ill-being were identified. Profile 1 was overrepresented by retired, older, and male athletes, and characterized by good mental well-being. Profile 2 consisted mainly of active athletes who reported mild risk for alcohol abuse. Profile 3 consisted mainly of women who displayed possible presence of an eating disorder. Profile 4 was typical of young athletes with mental ill-being. The balance between sport-related demands and resources appeared to be the healthiest in Profile 1 and worst in Profile 4. The present findings are beneficial for those who work with and/or provide psychological support to athletes.
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Background This research aimed to examine the relationship of quiet ego and perceived social support with the subjective well-being of mothers having children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and to find out the predictors of subjective well-being among these mothers. Where multiple resource factors beneficial for the well-being of these mothers are studied worldwide, this study investigates and highlights importance of the scarcely studied concept of quiet ego in a precisely defined study sample. Method Correlational research design was used and mothers (N = 70; Mage = 36.20, SD = 5.70) were selected using purposive sampling strategy from different special schools and centres of Lahore, Pakistan. The questionnaires used in the study were, Quiet Ego Scale (Wayment et al., 2015), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (Diener et al., 2009) Results Results showed a significant positive relationship of quiet ego, and all the aspects of social support, with subjective well-being. After controlling for the effect of control variables, social support from the significant other emerged as significant unique predictor of both cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being while friends’ support significantly predicted affect balance only Conclusions The importance of internal and external protective factors highlighted in this study can be employed by professionals as a part of their counselling or therapeutic interventions while dealing with such mothers, as well as for the awareness of their families and society, at large.
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The structural equation model was used to empirically analyze the influence of the use of age-appropriate APP on the subjective well-being of the younger elderly. The results show that the attitudes of the younger elderly towards the use of age-appropriate apps are significantly affected by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness has a significant effect on perceived ease of use. The willingness of the younger elderly to use apps for aging is significantly affected by behavioral attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The behavior of using age-appropriate APP has a significant impact on the subjective well-being of the young elderly. The use of age-appropriate apps by the younger elderly is a positive and selective behavior, which is conducive to the younger elderly to actively adapt to and accept new technologies and improve the life satisfaction of the younger elderly.
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This research advances our understanding of the nuanced relationship between smartphone use and wellbeing. Two studies reveal new ways in which smartphone use can be positively related to wellbeing and they also explain why those same smartphone functions can be harmful for other users. We juxtapose two different forms of smartphone use – social media applications ‘apps’ and productivity-related apps (e.g. email, notes). Our results demonstrate that both forms of smartphone use can be positively related to wellbeing, but it depends on the age of the user. Time spent on productivity apps was positively related to wellbeing amongst Generation Z (<24 years old) but had a non-linear, cubic relationship for older participants, becoming negative after a moderate amount of use. The opposite was the case for time spent on social media; it had a negative relationship with wellbeing amongst Generation Z, but a positive one amongst older users. Our research reveals that flow is the underlying mechanism driving the nuanced relationship between smartphone use and wellbeing. In particular, the determining factor was whether screen time elicited or thwarted the fluency aspect of flow, which is an effortless feeling of full control as one demonstrates mastery.
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Rapid urban development is inseparable from technological advances, and the application of artificial intelligence in community life is becoming widespread, affecting residents’ lifestyles and psychological well-being. This study investigated a variety of factors that affect the well-being of urban community residents. Environmental and emotional perceptions and overall well-being were assessed based on the responses of 179 respondents from six small communities in Shenzhen, China. Property management was strongly correlated with satisfaction with the physical environment and least correlated with neighborhood form. Pleasure, comfort, and the sense of belonging were correlated. In addition, interviews and questionnaires revealed a strong influence of AI facilities on people’s well-being. Factor analysis revealed two-component matrices that explained more than 60% of the factors, which were described as “external” and “internal” factors. Finally, the study analyzes the relationship between intelligent devices and impact factors and their effects on residential well-being.
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OBJECTIVES The current review aims to help develop a comprehensive health toolkit to better capture an individual’s health status from the holistic perspective.METHODS This study examined previous health tools measuring an individual’s health status. A review of literature was conducted to identify limitations of prior measures.RESULTS The concept of health consciousness was introduced and proposed to be in a basket of health toolkit. As it refers to an individual’s psychological tendency toward one’s health and inner state of paying attention to one’s health, the health consciousness concept shows a potency of predicting a variety of health-related perceptions, attitudes and behaviors.CONCLUSIONS During the COVID-19 era and hereafter, avoiding health risks and maintaining a good health condition have become recognized as an important personal and social agenda. Responding to this previously unknown disease, people in the globe had a chance to contemplate the meaning and value of health and to monitor one’s health condition continuously. Therefore, it will be necessary and useful to include the health consciousness concept and its underlying dimensions (i.e., health awareness, health responsibility, and health motivation) in developing a future health toolkit.
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173 undergraduates completed an event-outcome appraisal questionnaire designed to make salient positive and negative thoughts about the outcomes of recent stressful events. Ss' well-being was assessed both immediately after the salience manipulation and again 8 wks later. Results show that positive thinking increased the well-being that Ss reported immediately after their thoughts were assessed but was unrelated to the well-being they reported after the 8-wk delay. It is suggested that although thinking positively about past event outcomes may temporarily lead to perceptions of increased well-being while the thoughts are salient, it has no enduring influence. In contrast, negative thinking was associated with lower reported well-being not only when the thoughts were salient but after a delay as well. Psychological effects associated with both types of thinking were due mostly to self-relevant thoughts rather than to externally relevant ones. Negative thinking about prior stressor outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability to the impact of later ones on several aspects of well-being. It is concluded that the absence of negative thinking, rather than the presence of positive thinking, is beneficial. (47 ref)