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If it Tastes Bad it Must Be Good: Consumer Naïve Theories and the Marketing Placebo Effect

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Abstract

The original marketing placebo effect study shows that high price increases consumers’ expectations and enhances behavioral performance (Shiv et al., 2005). We find that several nonprice variables (set size, scarcity, packaging, and taste) conceptually replicate this effect. Consumers hold naïve theories about the possible influence of many marketing variables, and these theories influence subjective beliefs and objective behavior.

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... Placebo effects have also been documented in other fields such as marketing. Actions such as pricing and branding have been shown to influence the actual benefit individuals gain as a result of consuming a productotherwise known as MPEs (Irmak et al., 2005;Plassmann & Weber, 2015;Shiv et al., 2005;Wright et al., 2013). A flourishing stream of research on marketing placebo effects have shown that branding can be used as a tool to induce placebo effects (e.g. ...
... Adie et al., 2018;Alves et al., 2017;Hsiao et al., 2014;Park & John, 2014). Other variables such as set size, scarcity, packaging, and taste also create MPEs (Wright et al., 2013). ...
... Evidence suggests that marketing placebo may extend beyond product preferences and affect the actual efficacy of products (e.g. Wright et al., 2013). Park and John (2014) demonstrate that the use of a brand can enhance feelings of self-efficacy, which can result in better task performance. ...
Article
This research examines the effect of branding in higher education on students’ learning outcomes. In three experiments, we show that identical educational material associated with strong (vs. weak or unknown) brand names can boost students’ performance on various educational assessments. We find that this effect occurs via an expectancy mechanism. Study 1 demonstrates that playing an educational game framed as being developed by an institution with a strong brand improves students’ concentration on a subsequent task. In Study 2, studying an educational course supposedly published by a strong brand is shown to improve performance on a memorization task. Study 3 finds that students value educational content more when they are told it is associated with a strong educational brand. This leads to improvements in students’ performance on a numerical reasoning test. Together, these results document an important benefit of applying branding to higher education institutions.
... First, our work expands research examining positive placebo effects beyond subjective outcomes (e.g., perceived pain reduction) to explain how actual objective outcomes are systematically improved or harmed by performance brand consumption. Whereas recent research has documented a placebo that undermines performance due to marketing actions (e.g., Shiv et al. 2005;Wright et al. 2013), little consumer research exists on placebos that enhance objective performance. This lack of understanding exists despite the multibillion dollar global industries around branddriven performance products. ...
... This work established a performance-diminishing placebo (driven by price discounts), and it identified product expectancies as important to the emergence of the performance placebo. Wright et al. (2013) replicated Shiv et al.'s (2005) price discount-driven performance placebo effect, and Amar et al. (2011) observed a relationship between brand reputation and product effectiveness. Neither work expanded on underlying processes for performance diminishment, whereas Irmak, Block, and Fitzsimons (2005) point to the role of motivation in placebo effects. ...
... First, prior research on marketing-driven placebos has focused primarily on subjective consumer effects and not objective performance outcomes of the type we examine here (Branthwaite and Cooper 1981;Kerr et al. 2008;Plassmann et al. 2008;Waber et al. 2008). Recent research has begun to examine placebo effects on objective performance (Shiv et al. 2005;Wright et al. 2013) and has primarily documented performance-diminishing placebo effects (e.g., driven by price discounts) in cognitive performance contexts. Our research builds on this work to demonstrate that marketing actions can lead to superior (i.e., enhanced) performance on target outcomes in both cognitive and athletic contexts. ...
Article
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This research examines how consumption of a performance branded product systematically improves objective outcomes in a variety of contexts. Five field and laboratory studies demonstrate that this performance brand effect emerges through psychological mechanisms unrelated to functional product differences, consistent with a placebo. Furthermore, whereas this effect emerges only when there is an expectation that the performance branded product affects outcomes, consumers attribute gains to themselves. The performance brand placebo is due to a lowering of task induced anxiety, driven by heightened state self-esteem. Several theoretically relevant boundaries are revealed. Stress mindset moderates the effect, strengthening with the belief that stress is debilitating and weakening (to the point of reversal) with the belief that stress is enhancing. Moreover, those consumers lower in pre-existing domain self-efficacy beliefs exhibit more substantial performance gains, whereas for those particularly high in domain self-efficacy the placebo is mitigated.
... In many cases, such conditions can be deployed by firms to maximise a product's market performance (Deval et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2013). Examples include limited edition products, time-limited discounts, and partially stocked shelves in supermarkets. ...
... The identified literature referred product scarcity to message (Aggarwal et al., 2011), appeal (Eisend, 2008), effect (Jung et al., 2004), variable (Wright et al., 2013), driver of consumer utility (Franke et al., 2008), and strategy (Stock et al., 2005). In fact, many studies simply treated it as a de facto factor to sales, without clearly explaining product scarcity and the logic behind it. ...
... However, for products that are not ingested (e.g., fabric softeners), purchasing likelihood increases when the product appears to be disorganized and product quantity is limited. brand familiarity moderates these effects Wright et al. (2013) consumers' expectation American energy drinks Experimental method Scarcity can replicate the marketing placebo effect; i.e., scarcity increases consumer expectation and enhances behavioural performance. ...
Article
Purpose As a frequently observed business phenomenon, the use of product scarcity to improve a product’s market performance has received increasing attention from both academics and practitioners. The resulting literature has covered a wide variety of issues based on various theories, using different research methods, in a diverse range of settings. However, this diversity also makes it difficult to grasp the core themes and findings, and to see the outstanding knowledge gaps. This paper aims to review previous studies on the use of product scarcity in marketing and identifies new directions for future research. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was conducted to identify and analyse 66 research papers published in business and management journals between 1970 and 2017. Findings The authors examined the underlying theories of scarcity-based marketing, and developed a conceptual framework that describes the key factors of product scarcity and how they influence both consumers and the market. They also highlighted some key achievements in modelling the processes involved in using product scarcity in marketing. Originality/value This analysis of the identified papers suggests that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of this field, which opens up new paths for future research. For future research, the authors identified three directions aimed at: addressing the practical needs of firms in understanding product scarcity; guiding the implementation of scarcity-based strategies; and measuring, monitoring and predicting the level of product scarcity and its impacts during implementation.
... For instance, in a recent study, Garvey, Germann, and Bolton (2016) found that participants' golf performance improved-i.e., in terms of needing fewer strokes to sink a putt-when the golf putter they used was labelled with a brand associated with strong athletic performance expectations instead of a weak brand. In a similar vein, several studies have demonstrated that attributes that are not inherent to a product's physical properties per se, such as its price (e.g., Plassmann, O'Doherty, Shiv, & Rangel, 2008;Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely, 2005;Waber, Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely, 2008;Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013), brand (Amar, Ariely, Bar-Hillel, Carmon, & Ofir, 2011;Branthwaite & Cooper, 1981), as well as scarcity and packaging (Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013), can crucially affect consumption outcomes. Although extant research offers rich insights into the mechanisms of how marketing-induced expectations about a product can improve or harm its efficacy, potential contextual effects that other products may have on the construction of consumers' efficacy beliefs and actual product efficacy remain unexplored. ...
... For instance, in a recent study, Garvey, Germann, and Bolton (2016) found that participants' golf performance improved-i.e., in terms of needing fewer strokes to sink a putt-when the golf putter they used was labelled with a brand associated with strong athletic performance expectations instead of a weak brand. In a similar vein, several studies have demonstrated that attributes that are not inherent to a product's physical properties per se, such as its price (e.g., Plassmann, O'Doherty, Shiv, & Rangel, 2008;Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely, 2005;Waber, Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely, 2008;Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013), brand (Amar, Ariely, Bar-Hillel, Carmon, & Ofir, 2011;Branthwaite & Cooper, 1981), as well as scarcity and packaging (Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013), can crucially affect consumption outcomes. Although extant research offers rich insights into the mechanisms of how marketing-induced expectations about a product can improve or harm its efficacy, potential contextual effects that other products may have on the construction of consumers' efficacy beliefs and actual product efficacy remain unexplored. ...
... Finally, consumer researchers also provide evidence for marketing placebo effects on objective response measures, such as performances in athletic and cognitive tasks (e.g., Amar, Ariely, Bar-Hillel, Carmon, & Ofir, 2011;Garvey et al., 2016;Irmak, Block, & Fitzsimons, 2005;Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely, 2005). For instance, Shiv, Carmon, and Ariely (2005) demonstrated that individuals who consumed a discounted energy drink solved fewer word puzzles than those who received the same, but regular-priced drink (see also Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013). ...
Article
Recent research on the placebo effect of marketing actions has demonstrated that characteristics that are not inherent to a product's physical properties per se, such as its price, brand, or packaging can considerably shape consumers' expectations about and actual efficacy of a marketed product. However, potential contextual effects that other products may have on the construction of consumers' efficacy beliefs and objective consumption outcomes remain unexplored. Across two experimental studies, we show that people's response expectations regarding a focal product are inversely related to the alleged superiority of context options and that such context‐induced expectations can carry over to behavioural performance metrics; a phenomenon we refer to as context‐induced placebo effects.
... Y un caso similar ocurre con el nombre de las marcas: las evaluaciones del consumidor dependerán de las expectativas sobre las marcas en función de su valor percibido, en lugar de la calidad objetiva de los productos. Las investigaciones de Allison y Uhl (1964), Ariely (2010), Irmak et al. (2005), McClure et al. (2004), Shiv et al. (2005, Wright et al. (2013) ofrecen evidencias al respecto. ...
... De este modo, parece que el efecto placebo se produce en productos de naturaleza muy heterogénea, confirmando así la idea de que son las expectativas creadas las que principalmente producen variación en ese efecto, independientemente del tipo de producto evaluado. Y esas expectativas pueden modificarse en función de diversas variables de marketing, como Wright et al. (2013) muestran. ...
Article
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This research finds unambiguous evidence about the existence of the placebo effect in the evaluation of an artistic product, such as a poem. After applying different methods and under disparate test situations, results indicate that the name of the author who signs the poem significantly influence the subjective valuation people achieve. Therefore, this study provides an answer to the question: may a literary work be judged in a different manner depending on the person who signs that artistic piece? Results derived from this research clearly show the prevalence of this effect, so that a poem is evaluated more favorably when the reader believes that it has been written by a well-known poet than when the reader thinks the poem is anonymous. Consequently, the brand name influences the product perception. However, the placebo effect decreases when highly experienced people evaluate the product. The implications for the marketing literature and for the editorial industry are finally discussed.
... The high number of citations that the paper has received within the following few years underlines the importance of the topic. Still, the study is unique and has just recently been replicated for the first time (Wright et al. 2012). Further replication and extensions of these findings are mandatory to ensure the confidence of the results (Easley/Madden/Dunn 2000;Evanschitzky et al. 2007;Hunter 2001). ...
... In a recent study, Wright et al. (2012) have provided a first replication of the placebo effect study by Shiv/Carmon/Ariely (2005a), supporting the placebo effect of the price. Furthermore, they tested other non-price related marketing variables that can affect consumers' expectations about a product and thus lead to placebo effects. ...
... Price was the only variable that was manipulated. Recently, this effect was replicated using non-price-related marketing variables that enhance expectations about product performance (Wright, Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013). The current research suggests that these expectation effects should be moderated by perceived variability and by the health halo effect. ...
Presentation
The health halo effect occurs when a consumer is presented with food with just one healthy attribute and assumes that the presented food offers healthy benefits on other unmentioned attributes. When information about an attribute is missing, consumers form nutritional inferences based on the variability of attribute values across brands. As predicted, more favorable nutritional inferences were formed in low perceived variability than in high perceived variability conditions. However, this effect was eliminated in halo conditions (Study 1). Further, when variability is high, consumers who believe that a strong positive relationship exists between a halo label and a missing attribute are likely to be particularly susceptible to the health halo effect (Study 2). Finally, the health halo effect is shown to influence actual taste perceptions and consumption (Study 3).
... A product with both a monetary and nonmonetary price will be perceived as being less novel than a product with only a nonmonetary price Supported 5 Money esteem will moderate the effect of price (monetary/ nonmonetary) on perceived novelty Supported 6 Perceived novelty will mediate the effect of combination pricing on purchase intent, such that higher perceived novelty will increase purchase intent Supported Consistent with economic signaling theory, previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of price in conveying meaning. For example, consumers infer quality and performance from price information (Rao & Monroe, 1989;Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013). Extant research has predominately focused on inferences drawn from the numerical aspects of monetary prices. ...
Article
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Despite the rapid proliferation of nonmonetary pricing models in the marketplace, no existing research examines consumer inferences derived from these prices. In two studies, we find that consumers perceive products (mobile applications) with monetary prices as being less novel than products featuring a nonmonetary price (banner advertisements). Additionally, the combination of a nonmonetary and a monetary price produces negative novelty inferences similar to those of a single monetary price. Negative inferences derived from a combination of a monetary and nonmonetary price are moderated by a belief in money as a symbol of success, such that those high in this belief form stronger negative inferences regarding product novelty. These inferences regarding product novelty are positively associated with, and fully mediate, the effects of these prices on customer purchase intent.
... Authors assessed the impact of different satisfaction and loyalty metrics as well as the Net Promoter Score on sales revenue growth, gross margins and net operating cash flows using a Dutch sample. Wright et al. (2013) If it tastes bad it must be good: Consumer naïve theories and the marketing placebo effect Shiv et al. (2005), J. Marketing Research Replicated original price placebo effect using unique stimuli, subject types, and dependent variables. Showed that effect extends to other cues: Set size, product typicality, product taste, and shelf availability. ...
Article
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We contrast the philosophy guiding the Replication Corner at IJRM with replication efforts in psychology. Psychology has promoted "exact" or "direct" replications, reflecting an interest in statistical conclusion validity of the original findings. Implicitly, this philosophy treats non-replication as evidence that the original finding is not "real" - a conclusion that we believe is unwarranted. In contrast, we have encouraged "conceptual replications" (replicating at the construct level but with different operationalization) and "replications with extensions", reflecting our interest in providing evidence on the external validity and generalizability of published findings. In particular, our belief is that this replication philosophy allows for both replication and the creation of new knowledge. We express our views about why we believe our approach is more constructive, and describe lessons learned in the three years we have been involved in editing the IJRM Replication Corner. Of our thirty published conceptual replications, most found results replicating the original findings, sometimes identifying moderators.
... Ao analisar as associações das variáveis em estudo em função dos cenários experimentais, curiosamente, consumo por estatuto correlacionou-se positivamente com a TCI no cenário em que havia um vinho do Porto único com 80% de desconto. No entanto, os consumidores normalmente associam essa unicidade do produto com luxo e preços altos (Wright et al., 2013), ou seja, grandes promoções devem ser incompatíveis com sinais de unicidade, prejudicando a sua credibilidade (Wu & Lee, 2016). ...
Preprint
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Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar os significados atribuídos pelos portugueses ao vinho do Porto; além disso, investigar, através de um estudo experimental, como a unicidade e o desconto influenciam a tendência para comprar por impulso o vinho do Porto, e perceber como as variáveis em estudo influenciam cada um dos contextos experimentais. Participaram no estudo 538 portugueses (382 mulheres e 156 homens, idade média = 33,35 anos). Os resultados indicaram que, quando os portugueses pensam no vinho do Porto, eles pensam no processo, no armazenamento e nos locais associados à produção do vinho; pensam nas suas características, nas ocasiões sociais especiais onde é usualmente consumido e no seu valor cultural. Com o estudo experimental, verificou-se que, aquando da exposição a um produto único, os portugueses tendem a comprar mais por impulso, independentemente do preço. Enquanto, no caso de um vinho mais popular, o desconto é um fator determinante na tendência para comprar por impulso. Adicionalmente, os resultados também mostraram que o desconto, as emoções positivas, a unicidade do vinho e a impulsividade do consumidor também foram fatores que influenciaram a tendência para comprar vinho do Porto por impulso.
... Supplementary analysis shows further support for H |. We examined how perceptions of taste varied across the CSR conditions. One of the common consumer perceptions within food categories is that unhealthier products tend to taste better than products that have healthier properties (Raghunathan, Naylor, and Hoyer 2006;Wright et al. 2013). Therefore, if consumers perceive products from companies with strong reputations for CSR as relatively healthy, they should also perceive superior taste in products without strong reputations for CSR. ...
Article
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Research has demonstrated that consumers frequently engage in inference making when evaluating food products. These inferences can be highly inaccurate, leading to unintended, unhealthy consumer choices. Previous research has examined the role of inference making in consumption settings from either an inter- or intra-attribute perspective. The current research highlights extra-attribute inferences, in which consumers use corporate-level information to make inferences about product-level attributes. Across four studies, the authors demonstrate the existence of a health halo resulting from corporate social responsibility activities. When consumers evaluate food products marketed by firms with strong corporate social responsibility reputations, they underestimate the calorie content. Furthermore, the authors show that this calorie underestimation can lead to overconsumption by consumers.
... A sweet taste may be only one way of enhancing the placebo effect of a cough medicine as the placebo effect may also be related to the organoleptic sensory impact of the medicine, and for some patients, an unpleasant taste of a medicine indicates a powerful medicine [27]. Capsicum flavor provides a powerful taste to some cough medicines and may also act as a gustatory stimulus to increase mucus secretions in the airway [28,29]. ...
Article
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Interest in the placebo effect of medicines has developed from the use of placebo treatments as controls in clinical trials into a whole new area of research around how placebos fit into a psychosocial model of therapeutics. The large placebo effect associated with cough medicines is both a problem and an opportunity for researchers: a problem for clinical trials on new actives as the active must beat the large placebo effect, and an opportunity for harnessing the placebo effect to produce effective cough medicines without any pharmacologically active ingredient. This review discusses the mechanisms associated with the placebo effect of cough medicines and distinguishes between a ‘perceived placebo effect’ and a true ‘placebo effect’. The efficacy of sweeteners in cough syrups is discussed as well as viscosity, mucoadhesion, and flavoring. The complexity of modern cough medicines is demonstrated by an example of a medicine which contains one active ingredient, and eighteen excipients which provide a complex and intense sensory experience to enhance the placebo effect and complement the pharmacological activity of the medicine.
... For instance, exposure to Apple logos increases consumer creativity (Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008), writing with an MIT-branded pen leads people to see themselves as more intelligent and perform better on math tests (Park & John, 2010, 2014, and using a Nikebranded putter can improve a user's golf score (Garvey et al., 2016). Akin to a medical placebo, marketing actions that make superficial changes to the branding, the pricing (Shiv et al., 2005;Waber, Shiv, Carmon, & Ariely, 2008), or even the packaging of a product (Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013) without making any functional modifications have been shown to improve consumer performance in what has been described as the marketing placebo effect. ...
Article
Products bearing premium brand labels are known to increase perceptions of efficacy and improve objective consumer performance relative to lesser‐branded equivalents, in what is traditionally described as a marketing placebo effect. In this paper, we suggest that experiences bearing these highly‐regarded brand labels can lead to a reverse effect, such that consumer performance actually declines with their use. Our findings demonstrate across domains of improving mental acuity, learning a new language, and developing financial analysis skills that completing performance‐branded training experiences impairs objective performance in related tasks, relative to lower‐performance branded or unbranded counterparts. We posit that branded training experiences can evoke a brand‐as‐master relationship in which consumers take on a subservient role relative to the brand. As a consequence, higher‐performance brands may impose greater demands upon consumers, increasing performance‐anxiety and interfering with an individual's ability to perform effectively. These results document an important ramification of applying branding to learning experiences and identify contexts in which traditionally positive marketing actions can backfire for consumers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... We argue that consumers will interpret such narratives differently depending on their implicit theories of creativity. Implicit theories are beliefs held by individuals, which affect their expectations and behaviors (Sternberg, 1985;Vanhouche & Alba, 2009;Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013). Implicit theories of creativity (e.g., O'Connor, Nemeth, & Akutsu, 2013;Runco & Bahleda, 1986) concern lay beliefs on the genesis of creative products and can influence product evaluations due to reliance on stereotypical knowledge and heuristics (Levy, Stroessner, & Dweck, 1998;Sternberg, 1985). ...
Article
Studies of the creative process identify two relevant sources of new ideas and products: Insight, a sudden, dreamlike, illuminating experience; and effort, deliberate, structured, hard work. With the aim of investigating the communication of the creative process, this research proposes that consumers hold associations between insight and arts, and between effort and sciences. These lay theories induce differential evaluations of new products: consumers evaluate more favorably artistic and scientific products presented as the outcome of insight or effort, respectively. The strength of the proposed effects, however, depends on the level of consumer expertise in the relevant product domain. We maintain that, as audience expertise increases, lay theories become less relevant and the effects of creative process narratives are attenuated. Five studies support the proposed conceptual framework.
... Shiv, Camron, and Ariely (2005) found that consumers who purchased energy drinks (thought to increase mental acuity) at a discount solved fewer puzzles than those who purchased the same drinks at full price. Wright et al. (2012) replicated the first study and also found that the placebo effect occurred when a beverage had limited availability. Another study used two placebo pills. ...
Article
Variations in the pricing approaches firms employ may partially explain why observed industry prices appear inconsistent with economic theory. Some firms may use principles developed from psychology that do not fit traditional economic models to enhance their profits beyond the basic solutions from economic theory. This paper describes more than fifty of these principles, dividing them into four categories: framing, congruency, context, and signaling. By studying these principles from psychology, researchers and policy makers can better understand the prices they observe in the marketplace. By following more of these principles, firms may be able to enhance their performance. Journal of Applied Business and Economics http://www.na-businesspress.com/JABE/LarsonRB_Web16_1_.pdf
... In addition, bigger capsules are perceived to have more strength than do smaller ones, and capsules are perceived to be more efficacious than are tablets (Buckalew & Coffield, 1982;Buckalew & Ross, 2010); and a warm package color, such as red, is associated with higher medication potency than is a cold color, such as blue (Roullet & Droulers, 2005). In regard to a related product, research finds that size, scarcity, packaging, and taste can affect an energy drink's expected efficacy (Wright, da Costa Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013). Finally, side effects can affect expected efficacy: Medications described as having common (vs. ...
Article
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Despite increasing research attention to healthcare marketing in academia and the concerted effort of the pharmaceutical industry to market its latest products, limited research has explored the effect of launch time on individuals' drug choices. Building upon findings in medical literature that many newly launched drugs are indeed no better than existing ones, this study found that the majority of consumers consistently prefer older drugs when both options are claimed equally safe and/or effective. The reason is that consumers disregard declarative information and, instead, make their own inferences. Although there is a small segment that chooses the newer option for what they infer to be its higher efficacy, most consumers believe that an older drug is both safer and more efficacious. Further, promotion‐focused consumers are more likely to choose newer drugs. The underlying mechanism for how promotion focus affects choice is identified. A sample of practicing doctors cross‐validated our findings, which have implications for practitioners in the pharmaceutical industry.
... Price was the only variable that was manipulated. Recently, this effect was replicated using non-price-related marketing variables that enhance expectations about product performance (Wright, Hernandez, Sundar, Dinsmore, & Kardes, 2013). The current research suggests that these expectation effects should be moderated by perceived variability and by the health halo effect. ...
Article
When information is missing or unknown, consumers often form nutritional inferences based on perceived attribute variability across brands. Four experiments show that less favorable nutritional inferences are formed when perceived attribute variability is high as opposed to low. This effect occurs when two attributes differing in perceived variability are presented or when the attribute is held constant and perceived variability is manipulated through priming. However, this effect is reduced when a health halo label is present as opposed to absent. Furthermore, the presence of a health halo label increases the amount of a product that is actually consumed when perceived attribute variability is high (vs. low) and when consumers learn from experience. Together, the results suggest that perceived attribute variability and the health halo effect jointly influence inference and behavior.
... This could have important theoretical and practical implications. For instance, because individuals higher in grit are focused on achievement, they may be more susceptible to marketing placebo effects (Wright et al., 2013). That is, consumers with higher grit may derive greater benefits (e.g., higher test scores) from the consumption of certain products (e.g., a drink marketed to increase focus). ...
Article
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Grit-or perseverance in striving for long-term goals despite adversity, failure, and challenge (Duckworth et al., 2007)-has remained a focus in education and psychology for over a decade. Existing research, however, has yet to explore how grit might affect and guide consumption. In this article, we identify grit as an influential factor. Through one field study and three experiments, we reveal that individuals higher (vs. lower) in grit are less likely to choose and purchase indulgent foods. This occurs because individuals higher in grit perceive avoiding indulgent foods as more goal-relevant. However, changing the descriptive properties of the food using just-below (e.g., 199 vs. 200) calorie information can entice gritty consumers toward indulgence. Overall, these results show that grit impacts consumers' product choices, and that businesses should consider grit when marketing and selling products that vary according to indulgence.
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Misuse of pharmacological products is a major public health concern. Seven studies provide evidence of a rapid wear-off bias in judgments of pharmacological products: consumers infer that duration of product efficacy is dependent on concurrent task difficulty, such that relatively more difficult tasks lead to faster product wear-off. This bias appears to be grounded in consumers’ incorrect application of a mental model about substance wear-off based on their experiences with, and beliefs about, various physical and biological phenomena. Results indicate that the rapid wear-off bias affects consumption frequency and may thus contribute to overdosing of widely available pharmacological products. Further, manufacturers’ intake instructions in an interval format (e.g., “Take one pill every 2-4 hours”) are shown to signal that efficacy is task dependent and reinforce the bias. Debiasing mechanisms—interventions to reduce the rapid wear-off bias and its impact—along with implications for consumers, marketers, and public health officials, are discussed.
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127 Öz Tüketici davranışları yazınında tat algısı ile ilgili yete-rince araştırma bulunmamaktadır. Gıda ve içecek işlet-meleri ürünlerine yönelik tüketici tepkilerini anlamaya ve kontrol etmeye çalışmaktadır. Bunun yanında işlet-meler yeni tatlar geliştirme veya mevcut ürünlerinin tatlarını değiştirme seçeneklerini kullanarak rekabet avantajı elde etmeye çalışmaktadırlar. Araştırmanın amacı kör testler ile denekler beğendikleri markayı ayırt edip edemedikleri tespit edilmeye çıkarılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırma 57 geçerli denekle ön ve son öl-çümlü olarak uygulanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular a) istatistiksel olarak denekler beğendiklerini ifade ettikleri markayı ön ve son ölçümde doğru olarak eşleştirememiştirler. b) daha önce kullandığını ifade ettiği markayı ön ve son testte eşleştiremeyen denekler kullandıklarını ifade ettikleri markayı kullanmayı ter-cih edeceklerini ifade etmişlerdir. Yapılan araştırmada hem teorik hem de uygulama yönünden tek bir duyu organının değerlendirme açısından yeterli olmadığını diğer duyu organlarının da tat algısına destek olması gerektiği ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Abstract Taste perception has not been sufficiently investigated in the consumer behavior literature. Food and beverage companies are trying to understand and control the consumer response for their products. Moreover, companies try to gain a competitive advantage by developing new flavors or modifying the taste of their products. Aım of this study, it was tried to be revealed whether the participants discriminate their favorite brand by using blind tests. This research was carried out on 57 eligible participants with pre and post tests experiment design. The findings from the study are a) The participants who expressed that they like the brand did not match it correctly in pre and post measures statistically ; b) The participants who could not match the brand in pre and post measures stated that they would prefer to consume the brand they previously used. In this study, it has been revealed that assessment with only a single sensory organ is not sufficient to support taste perception, other sensory organs should also support in terms of both theory and practice.
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A wealth of research has explored whether marketing-based expectancies such as price and brand quality beliefs influence the consumption experience and subsequent behavior, but almost no research has examined individual differences in "marketing placebo effects." In this article, the authors suggest three moderators of the effect of marketing-based expectancies on the behavioral and neural measures of the consumption experience, based on previous findings from neuroscientific literature investigating traditional clinical pain placebo effects. They use a novel automated structural brain imaging approach to determine individual differences and combine this approach with traditional behavioral experiments. The findings show that consumers high in reward seeking, low in somatosensory awareness, and high in need for cognition are more responsive to marketing placebo effects.
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This book provides a conceptual integration of this work. It proposes a general theoretical formulation of the way that the sort of information acquired in the course of daily life is comprehended and represented in memory, and how it is later used as a basis for judgments and behavioral decision. In doing so, it takes into account both the spontaneous comprehension of information about specific persons and events and the more deliberative, goal-directed interpretation of information that occurs when information is acquired in a social context. In addition, it considers not only the representation of this information in memory but also the way information is later used as a basis for judgments and decisions. A major emphasis throughout the volume is on the construction and use of narrative representations of knowledge and the way visual images influence the formation of these representations and the judgments that are based on them. The role of affective reactions in this cognitive activity is also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Human reasoning is accompanied by metacognitive experiences, most notably the ease or difficulty of recall and thought generation and the fluency with which new information can be processed. These experiences are informative in their own right. They can serve as a basis of judgment in addition to, or at the expense of, declarative information and can qualify the conclusions drawn from recalled content. What exactly people conclude from a given metacognitive experience depends on the naive theory of mental processes they bring to bear, rendering the outcomes highly variable. The obtained judgments cannot be predicted on the basis of accessible declarative information alone; we cannot understand human judgment without taking into account the interplay of declarative and experiential information.
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In the present study, subjects had to generate an evaluative judgment about a target person on the basis of his behaviour that had both positive and negative implications. In a previous phase of the study that was ostensibly unrelated to the judgment task, the relevant trait categories were primed. Subsequently, half of the subjects were reminded of the priming episode. Consistent with earlier research (e.g. Lombardi, Higgins and Bargh, 1987; Newman and Uleman, 1990) that used memory of the priming events as a correlational measure, a contrast effect was found under the ‘reminding’ condition and assimilation resulted when subjects were not reminded of the priming episode. This pattern of results is interpreted as the consequence of corrective influences.
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Although the placebo in a clinical trial is often considered simply a baseline against which to evaluate the efficacy of a clinical intervention, there is evidence that the magnitude of placebo effect may be a critical factor in determining the results of a trial. This article examines the question of whether devices have enhanced placebo effects and, if so, what the implications may be. While the evidence of an enhanced placebo effect remains rudimentary, it is provocative and therefore worthy of further study. Suggestions are made, therefore, for how such an effect can be investigated without violating the principles of informed consent.
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The review discusses the large placebo effect associated with cough medicines and speculates on the observation that most cough medicines are formulated as sweet syrups rather than capsules or tablets. The review proposes that the major benefit of cough medicines for treatment of cough associated with common cold is related to the placebo effect rather than the pharmacological effect of an active ingredient. The placebo effect is discussed in terms of physiological effects of cough syrups associated with the taste of the medicine and true placebo effects associated with belief in the therapy. The idea is developed that a sweet taste may modulate cough at the level of the nucleus tractus solitarius, possibly by influencing the production of endogenous opioids.
Mechanisms of the placebo effect of sweet cough syrups The structure of value: Accounting for taste Affect and cognition (pp. 1–41) When shelf-based scarcity impacts consumer preferences
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Eccles, R. (2006). Mechanisms of the placebo effect of sweet cough syrups. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 152(3), 340–348. Mandler, G. (1982). The structure of value: Accounting for taste. In S.C. Margaret, & S.T. Fiske (Eds.), Affect and cognition (pp. 1–41). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. Parker, J.R. & Lehmann, D.R. (2011). When shelf-based scarcity impacts consumer preferences
The structure of value: Accounting for taste Hillsdale NJ
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Mandler, G. (1982). The structure of value: Accounting for taste. In S. C. Margaret, & S. T. Fiske (Eds.), Affect and cognition (pp. 1-41). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.