Article

The gut microbiota—Masters of host development and physiology

1] Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden. [2] Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Nature Reviews Microbiology (Impact Factor: 23.57). 02/2013; 11(4). DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2974
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and its associated microbiota are key requirements for host health. Although the gut microbiota has previously been studied in the context of inflammatory diseases, it has recently become clear that this microbial community has a beneficial role during normal homeostasis, modulating the host's immune system as well as influencing host development and physiology, including organ development and morphogenesis, and host metabolism. The underlying molecular mechanisms of host-microorganism interactions remain largely unknown, but recent studies have begun to identify the key signalling pathways of the cross-species homeostatic regulation between the gut microbiota and its host.

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Available from: Felix Sommer, Mar 11, 2015
    • "The characterization of GIT microbiota using culture-free molecular methodologies, in particular high-throughput sequencing approaches, has been extensively reported in humans and rodents (Sommer and Backhed 2013). Within birds, only chicken microbiota has been studied in detail with other species investigated in only a few published studies, for example in the kakapo, emu, and turkey (Waite and Taylor 2014). "
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    • "Given the importance of normal vagal function is it conceivable that disorders of the gut-brain axis may be rooted in early-life developmental abnormalities of enteric vagal innervation potentially due to inappropriate microbial colonization (Ratcliffe et al., 2011). Moreover, the microbiota influences the maturation of many aspects of the GI tract (Lomasney et al., 2014) which are innervated by the vagal nerve and may provide migratory signals for the developing axons (Sommer and Backhed, 2013). "
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