Garlic intake and cancer risk: an analysis using the Food and Drug Administration’s evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims. Am J Clin Nutr

Division of Nutrition and Functional Food Standards, Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul, Korea.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 01/2009; 89(1):257-64. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26142
Source: PubMed


Numerous animal and in vitro studies provided evidence for a relation between garlic intake and cancer risk reduction. Several studies also reported an inverse association in humans. However, no claims have been made about garlic intake and cancer risk reduction with respect to food labeling.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for garlic intake with respect to the risk of different types of cancer using the US Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims.
Literature searches were conducted by using the Medline and EMBASE databases for the period 1955-2007 with search terms Allium sativum, vegetables, diet, and nutrition in combination with cancer, neoplasm, and individual cancers. The search was limited to human studies published in English and Korean.
With the use of the US Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims, 19 human studies were identified and reviewed to evaluate the strength of the evidence that supports a relation between garlic intake and reduced risk of different cancers with respect to food labeling.
There was no credible evidence to support a relation between garlic intake and a reduced risk of gastric, breast, lung, or endometrial cancer. Very limited evidence supported a relation between garlic consumption and reduced risk of colon, prostate, esophageal, larynx, oral, ovary, or renal cell cancers.

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    • "Proliferation of lymphocytes; macrophage phagocytosis; infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes; and stimulating release of IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-γ are some possible routes of garlic for its immunomodulatory properties. In addition, it can enhances NK cell and lymphokine-activated killer cell activities that represent effective stimulation of the immune responses (Iciek et al., 2009; Kim and Kwon, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the domain of nutrition, exploring the diet-health linkages is major area of research. The outcomes of such interventions led to widespread acceptance of functional and nutraceutical foods; however, augmenting immunity is a major concern of dietary regimens. Indeed, the immune system is incredible arrangement of specific organs and cells that enabled humans to carry out defense against undesired responses. Its proper functionality is essential to maintain the body homeostasis. Array of plants and their components hold immunomodulating properties. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhanced immunity against diseases. The review intended to highlight the importance of garlic (Allium sativum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), purple coneflower (Echinacea), black cumin (Nigella sativa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Astragalus and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as natural immune boosters. These plants are bestowed with functional ingredients that may provide protection against various menaces. Modes of their actions include boosting and functioning of immune system, activation and suppression of immune specialized cells, interfering in several pathways that eventually led to improvement in immune responses and defense system. In addition, some of these plants carry free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities that are helpful against cancer insurgence. Nevertheless, interaction between drugs and herbs/botanicals should be well investigated before recommended for their safe use, and such information must be disseminated to the allied stakeholders.
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    • "Allium products have the potential to reduce the risk of developing cancer or the potential to decrease the risk factors associated with cancers [17]. Research has been done on this and some evidence has been found that it has beneficial effects but there are also studies that show no effect at all [18]. "

    Full-text · Chapter · Feb 2014
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    • "Garlic (Allium sativum) has been known to have protective effects on cardiovascular disease, microbial and fungal infection, immune suppression, and carcinogenesis [1]. During the last few decades, both population-based and clinical investigations as well as laboratory studies have demonstrated anti-carcinogenic activities of garlic and some of its ingredients [2]. Several organosulfur compounds (OSCs) derived from garlic, especially diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), have been considered to contribute to its chemopreventive and cytoprotective activities [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), one of the volatile constituents of garlic oil, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. In this study, DATS (10 μmol) given orally for 7 days before and for another 7 days after starting administration of 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water protected against colitis induced by DSS in male ICR mice. DATS significantly inhibited the DSS-induced DNA binding of NF-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα and the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which are major target proteins of NF-κB. The DSS-induced DNA binding and phosphorylation at the Tyr 705 residue of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and expression of its major target protein cyclin D1 in mouse colonic mucosa were also attenuated by DATS administration. Likewise, DSS-induced phosphorylation of extracelluar signal-regulated kinase 1/2 was suppressed by DATS treatment. In conclusion, DATS ameliorates the DSS-induced mouse colitis presumably by blocking inflammatory signaling mediated by NF-κB and STAT3.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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