Why Thailand should consider promoting Neonatal circumcision?
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health (Impact Factor: 0.72). 09/2012; 43(5):1218-26.
Male circumcision (MC) has been proven to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The WHO and UNAIDS jointly recommend the international community consider MC as an HIV prevention measure. MC reduces the risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men, urinary tract infections among children and penile cancer. Lowering the prevalence of STIs in men may reduce the incidence of STIs among women. High levels of adult MC are difficult to achieve in cultures where it has not been customary. Adult MC is associated with a high prevalence of post-operative complications. Neonatal male circumcision (NC) is simpler, safer, and cheaper. Higher coverage with MC can be achieved through NC. Thailand is a good country to promoting NC for the following reasons: most HIV infections are contracted through heterosexual transmission, there is a low MC rate, most newborn deliveries occur in hospitals, there is a relatively strong health care infrastructure and Thailand has well developed HIV care services. Issues of concern regarding promoting NC include length of time before seeing benefits, cost effectiveness of the intervention, the burden to the health care delivery system and concerns about children's rights. NC is an efficacious HIV prevention strategy that should be considered by those involved in HIV/AIDS prevention planning in Thailand. Further studies are needed to determine whether NC should be promoted in Thailand.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This study was designed to gain baseline information on the capability of the hospitals of Thailand to provide newborn male circumcision (NC) and on the opinions of health-care personnel towards NC. Two questionnaires were sent to every hospital in Thailand that might have obstetrical services. One questionnaire requested information about the degree to which NC was provided by the hospital. The second questionnaire targeted health-care providers' opinions about NC. The response rate was 55.1% (747/1355). Of the 562 hospitals that had deliveries in 2010, 8.2% (46) provided at least one NC. Thirty-eight percent (35/92) of private hospitals and 2.3% (11/470) of government hospitals provided the service. The primary reason for performing NC was parental request (82.6%). Some providers (31.3%) said that NC was easy to perform and 39.1% thought NC was safe. Most respondents (91.8%) stated that physicians should perform the procedure instead of nurses, and choices about undergoing NC should be left to parents (55.0%). NC was rarely performed in government hospitals, and its staffs seemed to not recognize the health benefits of NC. A massive education program for health-care providers would be necessary before implementing a national program for NC. More information on the opinions of health authorities, health-care personnel and parents as well as cost-effectiveness studies are needed before a proper policy can be implemented.
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ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to provide a theoretical basis for prevention interventions. Between December 2011 and August 2012, a case-control study was conducted among MSM who underwent voluntary counselling and testing for HIV. Confirmed HIV-positive MSM were included in the case group, and HIV-negative MSM were included in the control group. Information on possible risk factors was collected by a survey questionnaire and a qualitative interview. The results of a conditional logistic regression showed that the following were influencing factors for HIV infection: average monthly income between 2001 and 3000 Yuan (odds ratio (OR)=6.341, 95% CI: 1.714-12.544), only sometimes using condoms when having anal sex with men in the last 6 months (OR=7.601, 95% CI: 1.359-23.083), having HIV-positive sex partners (OR=5.273, 95% CI: 1.572-17.691), rectal trauma with bleeding in the last 6 months (OR=2.947, 95% CI: 1.308-6.638), not using condoms at last sexual encounter (OR=1.278, 95% CI: 1.012-5.595), engaging in commercial sex (OR=5.925, 95% CI: 1.923-13.890) and having more than 16 sex partners in the last 6 months (OR=1.175, 95% CI: 1.021-1.353). These seven factors were the risk factors of HIV infection (OR>1). However, having anal sex less than 10 times in the previous 1 month (OR=0.002, 95% CI: 0.000-0.287) was a protective factor against HIV infection among MSM (OR<1), and insertive (OR=0.116, 95% CI: 0.000-0.236) (OR<1) anal intercourse influenced HIV infection. Interventions should be targeted at MSM whose average monthly income is between 2001 and 3000 Yuan, and who engage in commercial sex. In addition, the importance of using condoms at every sexual encounter should be emphasised in health education, as should the treatment of rectal trauma with bleeding. Finally, MSM should decrease the number of sex partners and frequency of anal sex to decrease the rate of HIV infection.