Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand

ArticleinThe Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 43(5):1087-93 · September 2012with11 Reads
Source: PubMed
Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p < 0.001) in prevalences, indicating the cattle tested had a greater exposure to T. gondii than N. caninum, and they should be regarded as a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. The low prevalence of neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.
    • "A number of studies of seroprevalence in domestic and wild animals were conducted and results varied from 3.4-71.43%, which are close to the prevalence in this study (Jittapalapong et al., 2005; Buddhirongawatr et al., 2006; Sukthana, 2006; Thiangtum et al., 2006; Jittapalapong et al., 2007; Inpankaew et al., 2010; Jittapalapong et al., 2010; Jittapalapong et al., 2011; Sukhumavasi et al., 2012; Wiengcharoen et al., 2012). The conventional technique for the diagnosis of T. gondii infection mainly relies on serological methods such as ELISA, latex agglutination test (LAT), Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as well as the isolation of T. gondii by animal biological assays. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligated zoonotic apicomplexan parasite. The infection varies according to geographical areas. This work aimed to study the seroprevalence and genotype of T. gondii infection in domestic, captive and free-range wild felids, and in their small mammal prey, rats (Rattus spp). Two hundred and ninety three sera, received from the 4 individual animal groups in Thailand, were tested using the indirect latex agglutination test (ILAT) for specific antibody detection. The nested-PCR for glycerol-3-phosphate (B1) and bradyzoite surface antigen (SAG4) gene detection was used to detect seropositive animals and PCR product was submitted for DNA sequencing. Out of the 293 sera, ILAT showed 11.68% positive results. T. gondii were found 3.48% seropositive in the domestic cats (n=86), 18.84% seropositive in the captive wild felids (n=138), 14.28% seropositive in the free-range wild felids (n=7), and 6.67% seropositive in the murine prey (n=60). Tissues from the seropositive animals such as liver, heart, brain and skeletal muscle were collected, and then DNA was extracted to perform nested-PCR and sequence analysis. By the nested-PCR, the brain and muscle tissues received from 3 black rats and a clouded leopard (1.37%) were found positive for T. gondii. SAG4 and B1 might serve as novel genetic markers for population genetic studies of T. gondii isolates. Based on the ML phylogenetic tree analysis of SAG4 and B1 coding sequences, T. gondii found in 3 murine prey and a clouded leopard was close to T. gondii RH type I strain with approximately 99-100% similarity. This is the first report on the relation of T. gondii infection with strain identification in domestic cats, captive and free-range felids, and murine in Thailand. Better understanding of the genetic diversity will lead to better management, prevention and treatment of this disease in the valuable species of wild felids
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016
    • "Prior surveys for anti-N. caninum antibodies among cattle and water buffalo in Thailand reported seroprevalence values ranging from 2.4 to 73.3% with a median of 24.65% (Chanlun et al., 2007; Dubey et al., 2007; Jittapalapong et al., 2008; Nam et al., 2012; Wiengcharoen et al., 2012 Wiengcharoen et al., , 2010). Using this average to estimate the prevalence (p) of N. caninum among water buffalo in Thailand, a 95% confidence level (t) and 5% margin of error (m), the minimal sample size (n) of 67 was calculated based on the equation, n = t 2 × p(1 − p)/m 2 . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an enigmatic coccidian and an intracellular obligate protozoan parasite, causes high infection rate and disease burden in humans worldwide. Toxoplasmosis is an important food- and waterborne parasitic disease. The seroprevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is estimated to vary from <2 % up to 70 % among people living in Southeast Asia. Contact with cats and consumption of uncooked meat are the most common risk factors in the transmission of Toxoplasma infection. Interestingly, a similar prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis is also reported among infected animals. In view of this clinical scenario, toxoplasmosis is an etiological factor in pregnant women related to abortion, stillbirth, and bad obstetric history. It requires consideration in differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy. Moreover, toxoplasmosis is found to be a common cause in patients with posterior uveitis. With the concurrent HIV/AIDS pandemic, toxoplasmosis is shown to be highly prevalent in HIV-infected patients with substantial incidence of AIDS-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) being reported mainly from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Majority of active TE patients presented with typical neurological manifestations with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/cumm. Diagnosis of TE is based on positive Toxoplasma serostatus and typical ring-enhancing lesions in the brain on CT scan finding. Despite an effective anti-Toxoplasma therapy, cases of relapsing TE are still reported. So far, there is no outbreak of toxoplasmosis related to animals or humans documented in Southeast Asia.
    Chapter · Dec 2013 · Veterinary Parasitology
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