Preoperative indicators affecting postoperative mortality in elderly patients with hip fractures
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the factors which affect postoperative mortality in elderly patients with hip fractures and the reliability of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification.
The study included 107 patients (70 females, 37 males) of 65 years of age or older who were operated due to hip fracture. Preoperative laboratory and clinical data were collected from hospital files. Follow-up was conducted over the phone. The number of the patients who died in the first postoperative 12 months was compared with the official Turkish Statistical Institute mortality data. Preoperative clinical and laboratory findings and ASA scores were compared between surviving and deceased patients.
Twenty-eight patients died in the postoperative first year. The first year mortality rate was significantly higher than the normal population (p<0.05). Of these 28 patients, 16 died within the first 3 months; the majority due to respiratory insufficiency. The death ratio was significantly higher in patients with abnormal creatinine values (p=0.001) in the preoperative laboratory results and classified as ASA 4 (p<0.0001). Postoperative mobilization was slower and mortality was higher in patients with cognitive dysfunction, such as senile dementia.
The mortality rate in patients operated for hip fractures is higher when compared to the mortality rate in patients of the same age group. Because most deaths caused by pulmonary insufficiency occurred in the first 3 months in which patients were not adequately mobilized, the main cause of death might be pulmonary embolism. Abnormal creatinine values might indicate insufficient kidney function as another reason of death. ASA classification is useful for determination of preoperative risk in the elderly patients with hip fractures.
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ABSTRACT: Most surgeons do not fix the lesser trochanter when managing femoral intertrochanteric fractures with intramedullary nails. We have not found any published clinical studies on the relationship between the integrity of the lesser trochanter and surgical outcomes of intertrochanteric fractures treated with intramedullary nails. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the integrity of the lesser trochanter on the surgical outcome of intertrochanteric fractures.
A retrospective review of 85 patients aged more than 60 years with femoral intertrochanteric fractures from January 2010 to July 2012 was performed. The patients were allocated to two groups: those with (n = 37) and without (n = 48) preoperative integrity of the lesser trochanter. Relevant patient variables and medical comorbidities were collected. Medical comorbidities were evaluated according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification and medical records were also reviewed for age, sex, time from injury to operation, intraoperative blood loss, volume of transfusion, operative time, length of stay, time to fracture union, Harris Hip Score 1 year postoperatively, and incidence of postoperative complications. Postoperative complications included deep infection (beneath the fascia lata), congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolus, cerebrovascular accident, pneumonia, cardiac arrhythmia, urinary tract infection, wound hematoma, pressure sores, delirium, and deep venous thrombosis. Variables were statistically compared between the two groups, with statistical significance at P<0.05.
Patients with and without preoperative integrity of the lesser trochanter were comparable for all assessed clinical variables except fracture type (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in time from injury to operation, volume of transfusion, length of stay, time to fracture union, Harris Hip Score at 1 year postoperatively, and incidence of postoperative complication (P > 0.05). The group with preoperative integrity of the lesser trochanter had significantly less blood loss (107.03 ± 49.21 mL) than those without it (133.96 ± 58.08 mL) (P < 0.05) and the operative time was significantly shorter in the former (0.77 ± 0.07 hours) than the latter (0.84 ± 0.11 hours) group (P < 0.05).
The integrity of the lesser trochanter has no significant influence on the surgical outcome of intramedullary nail internal fixation of femoral intertrochanteric fractures.
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