Article

Anaerobic performance testing of professional soccer players 1995–2010

Norwegian Olympic Federation, Oslo, Norway.
International journal of sports physiology and performance (Impact Factor: 2.66). 03/2013; 8(2):148-56.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose:
To compare sprint and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance among competitive soccer players as a function of performance level, field position, and age. In addition, the authors wanted to quantify the evolution of these physical characteristics among professional players over a 15-y period.

Methods:
939 athletes (22.1 ± 4.3 y), including national-team players, tested 40-m sprint with electronic timing and CMJ on a force platform at the Norwegian Olympic Training Center between 1995 and 2010.

Results:
National-team and 1st-division players were faster (P < .05) than 2nd-division (1.0-1.4%), 3rd- to 5th-division (3.0-3.8%), junior national-team (1.7-2.2%), and junior players (2.8-3.7%). Forwards were faster than defenders (1.4%), midfielders (2.5%), and goalkeepers (3.2%) over 0-20 m (P < .001). Midfielders jumped ~2.0 cm lower than the other playing positions (P < .05). Sprinting velocity peaked in the age range 20-28 y and declined significantly thereafter (P < .05). Players from 2006-2010 had 1-2% faster 0-20 m and peak velocity than players from the 1995-1999 and 2000-2005 epochs, whereas no differences in CMJ performance were observed.

Conclusions:
This study provides effect-magnitude estimates for the influence of performance level, position, and age on sprint and CMJ performance in soccer. While CMJ performance has remained stable over the time, there has been a small but positive development in sprinting velocity among professional players.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Espen Tønnessen
  • Source
    • "). According to previously reported maximal running speed results (Haugen et al., 2013; Rampinini et al., 2007a; Rampinini et al., 2007b) this value is only 53 – 55% of soccer player' Smax and 57% of Smax presented in this study. In our research, the lowest speed value considered a sprint (80% Smax) for the player with the lowest speed potential was 5.5 m@BULLETs "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to present a new time-motion analysis approach in soccer small-sided games by incorporating the physical potential of individual players and to evaluate the physiological response applied to 4 vs. 4 and 5 vs. 5 small-sided games. Thirteen professional soccer players participated in small-sided game training sessions. The physical demands (GPS) and physiological responses (Heart Rate – HR) of the 4 vs. 4 and 5 vs. 5 small-sided games were compared. In contrast to previous studies, speed zones were divided individually for each player according to his maximal running speed (Smax) and running velocity at the lactate threshold (V/LT). The analyses confirmed that the mean V/LT of the player was 3.8 ± 0.16 m·s-1 and the Smax speed was 8.26 ± 0.65 m·s-1. The total distance covered during the 4 vs. 4 games was significantly longer than that covered during the 5 vs. 5 games. The application of obligatory limits for speed zones could result in an inappropriate assessment of the players' commitment during training. Utilizing an individual assessment of player motion during small-sided games can improve the optimization of training load application.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport
  • Source
    • "In contrast, up to 20 % showed 4 to 7 strength asymmetries. Previous investigators have shown significant differences in muscle strength, vertical jump, sprint and endurance performance between soccer teams of different competition levels (Brewer & Davis, 1991; Cometti et al., 2001; Gissis, Papadopoulos, Kalapotharakos, Komsis, & Manolopoulos, 2006; Haugen, Tonnessen, & Seiler, 2013; Teplan et al., 2012) or their mutual determinants (Malý, Zahálka, Malá, & Teplan, 2014). Some studies declare higher strength in professional players in comparison to players of lower performance level (Cometti et al., 2001; Gissis et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of research was to compare strength parameters of lower limbs (knee extensors and flexors) and their asymmetries (bilateral and unilateral) in elite and sub-elite professional soccer players. Material and method: The screened sample was composed of two professional soccer teams. The first team (Team 1 - elite professional players, n = 28, age = 24.31 ± 4.79 years) was a leader of the first Czech league the second team (Team 2 - sub-elite professional players, n = 24, age = 26.19 ± 3.67 years) was a leader of the second Czech league. Maximum peak torque (PT) and derived parameters (bilateral ratio [Q:Q and H:H] and unilateral ratio [H:Q]) were evaluated using Cybex isokinetic dynamometer at three angular velocities (60, 180, 300 °•s-1) for the dominant (DL) and non-dominant leg (NL) during the knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) in concentric contraction. The four-way mixed-design ANOVA, Student's t-test and Cohen "d" index of effect size were used for statistical analyses. Results: The factor of P (performance) revealed a significant effect on the level of isokinetic strength of lower limbs in soccer players (F(1.596)= 91.74, p < 0.01, η2= 0.14). The factors of L (laterality) did not significantly influence the level of thigh muscular strength of lower extremities in soccer players (F(1.596)= 2.47, p > 0.05, η2= 0.01). The factor of the tested muscle group (KE, KF) showed a significant effect on the compared bilateral differences (F(1.288)= 11.13, p < 0.01, η2= 0.04). Post-hoc tests also showed significantly higher (p < 0.01) values of the bilateral deficit in KF compared to KE. A significant effect was also found in the unilateral ratio of the lower limbs (H:Q) on the basis of comparison of the performance criterion (F(1.288)= 15.51, p < 0.01, η2= 0.05) and angular velocity of movement (F(2.288)= 5.56, p < 0.01, η2= 0.04). The unilateral ratio (H:Q) was significantly higher in both the dominant and non-dominant limbs in favour of the higher performance Team 1 in comparison to Team 2 (H:Q ratio dominant limb: F(1.144)= 5.87, p < 0.05, η2= 0.04; non-dominant limb: F(1.144)= 11.21, p < 0.01, η2= 0.07). Discussions and conclusions: The results of the study suggest that more than 50 % of players have at least one strength asymmetry regardless of their performance level. Elite professional players have greater muscular strength of KE and KF, especially at higher angular velocity. Concerning sub-elite players, we found a lower unilateral H:Q ratio. The results of the study point to worse preparedness of KF (performance and prevention perspective) in the sub-elite players. Maladaptive effects in terms of different kinds of body strength asymmetries represent a potential risk of a player's injury; therefore the detected asymmetries should be systematically monitored and compensated using specific exercises.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT To compare the effects of repeated agility training along with repeated sprint training on elite female soccer players' linear single sprint speed, vertical jump, agility, repeated sprint ability and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Seventeen elite female soccer players aged 21.2 ± 2.6 years from the upper Norwegian league were randomised into one of two groups: a repeated agility group and a repeated sprint group. During the intervention period, both groups performed one extra weekly training session in addition to their regular soccer training. The study took place in the pre-season period and lasted for 8 weeks. The participants were tested before and after the intervention period. The results from the within-group analysis showed significant improvements in 10 × 40 m RSA, agility, and Yo-Yo IR1 performances for the agility group. The repeated sprint group showed significant improvements in 10 × 40 m RSA, 20 m top speed, 40 m linear sprint, CMJ vertical jump, and Yo-Yo IR1. The between-groups comparison revealed no significant differences between groups in any of the measured variables. Further, the results indicate that the both training programmes had a similar effect on both groups. The present study adds further support to the notion that common principles of training such as specificity, progression and periodisation are clearly present in the sprint training of soccer players.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Kinesiology
Show more