Article

The actual impact of comprehensive land-use plans: Insights from high resolution observations

Article

The actual impact of comprehensive land-use plans: Insights from high resolution observations

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Abstract

Like most EU and US planning systems, planning in Israel aims to promote certainty regarding future development by employing statutory land-use plans for stabilizing and binding the development of land use. In Israel, district planning from the 1980s onwards took place in the form of long-term land-use plans. However, in practice, Israeli planning witnessed a movement toward discretionary-oriented decision-making, providing for revisions of the land-use plans and subsequently diminishing its efficacy. A pending reform suggests eliminating district land-use plans and absorbing them into national and local plans. Concerning the debate on the future of the Israeli planning system, this research aims to assess the gap between certainty-oriented regulation and actual development, often occurring on a case-by-case basis. Our aim is to evaluate the actual performance of a district land-use plan, focusing particularly on aspects of land-use. Remote Sensing and GIS-based Plan Implementation Evaluation (PIE) analysis was used to test the impact of a comprehensive outline plan for Israel's Central District on the actual development of the built environment. The results show fundamental gaps between the original land-use assignments of the district plan and actual development. The limited effectiveness of regulatory land-use planning for complex, densely populated districts is then discussed in line with the certainty-flexibility dilemma in land-use planning and the structure of planning decision-making in Israel.

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... In addition, spatial planning also has regulatory characteristics. It defines the quantity and uses rules for various types of land through planning maps and zoning control maps [35]. The degree to which the planning implementation results conform to the planning expectation, that is, the implementation degree of the planning scheme, is an important reflection of the effectiveness of the planning implementation [36]. ...
... First, the basic contents of spatial planning include the zoning of planned use and the corresponding control rules [35]. Therefore, the evaluation based on the consistency of implementation results needs to focus on two benchmarks: (1) the degree of coincidence between actual land use and planning expectations [8,[49][50][51][52]; (2) to what extent planningrelated supporting policies and institutional tools have contributed to the realization of planning objectives [36,53,54]. ...
... In contrast to the mechanistic and one-sided nature of the consistency criterion, Alexander and Faludi (1989) believed that the judgment of the effectiveness of planning implementation should be based on accurate results, that is, whether the actual effect of planning implementation is ideal [6]. Realism-based benchmarks for evaluating the effectiveness of planning are based on whether the planning is actually working [35]. ...
Article
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The question of how to implement spatial planning more effective is a fundamental but very difficult one and one that has been of great interest to both the academic and practical community. However, a comprehensive review of the conceptual models and methodological systems for evaluating spatial planning implementation, and the existing practical research results of various types of spatial planning implementation evaluation, are yet to be presented. The study systematically reviews the main research findings in the field of spatial planning implementation from four aspects: conceptual analysis, measurement methods, evaluation frameworks and evaluation methods. This study found three distinct evolutionary features of research in this field: (1) The evaluation concept changes from complete rationality to limited rationality; (2) research methodology changes from a simple closed system to a complex open system; (3) the research perspective shifts from the map to the main body of planning implementation behavior. It is suggested that an important part of future research lies in establishing a system for evaluating the effectiveness based on a single subject who is an actor in the planning implementation process. On this basis, the micro-influencing mechanisms of planning implementation effects will then be explored. Deepening the research to the individual level will help improve planning implementation’s effectiveness.
... Indeed, the evaluation of the quality and effectiveness of spatial plans plays an important role in the planning process . There is an increasing number of studies evaluating planning outcomes, traditionally conducted based on conformance and performance evaluation of plan implementation (Alfasi et al., 2012;Grȃdinaru et al., 2017;Lyles et al., 2016) or based on comparative research (Cortinovis et al., 2019;Jehling and Hecht, 2021). The quantitative comparison of planning goals and outcomes in terms of an effective land-use change remains a challenge, although advances have been made to evaluate plans outcomes, systematic methods for operationalizing information from planning documents into spatial data are still underdeveloped . ...
... There is still a great need for robust instruments to evaluate the causal relationship between planning goals and outcomes in terms of land change, nature conservation and socioeconomic transformation (Cortinovis et al., 2019;Dembski et al., 2019;Jehling and Hecht, 2021;Menzori et al., 2021;Rodrigues and Cazalis, 2020;World Bank, 2006). Specifically regarding urban compact development, quantitative research has shown that urban planning instruments did not effectively control urban sprawl in China (Wu et al., 2017), Brazil (Menzori et al., 2021;Pierri-Daunt et al., 2021) and Israel (Alfasi et al., 2012), with a particular concern regarding the role of these policies in managing urban growth in the south globe (Horn, 2020). Environmental policies and protected areas have been extensively discussed as important mechanisms for nature conservation (Rodrigues and Cazalis, 2020;Steiner, 2008), and quantitative research has shown that these policies can be successfully in promoting forest persistence and afforestation in Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Pierri-Daunt et al., 2021;Silva et al., 2016), and in enhancing biodiversity (Topor et al., 2019). ...
... Our finding is in agreement with the literature about the weak role of the national urban agenda and spatial planning in driving urban development in Brazil (Cohen et al., 2019;De Souza, 2001) and the lack of efficient administration and spatial planning in the sprawling urban areas outside the city core (Fernandes, 2007). Worldwide, the inefficiency in regulating urban expansion, specifically regarding urban sprawling, has been documented as a result of multiple factors (Wu et al., 2017), such as territorial governance and political decision during the implementation process (Alfasi et al., 2012;Menzori et al., 2021;Horn, 2020), economic interests, such as neoliberal urban agenda and real estate market influences (Wu et al., 2017;Horn, 2020;Pierri-Daunt et al., 2021), and top-down approaches without the involvement of stakeholders (Steinberg, 2005). Steinberg (2005) summarized the relationship between spatial planning and urban growth in Latin America as two approaches: a top-down approach, which focuses on the strategic demand of a city, and a bottom-up approach, which represents the social articulation of the citizens. ...
Article
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Urban expansion is expected to continue at a fast rate, precisely in peri-urban areas of developing countries surrounded by biodiversity hotspots. The need to assess and potentially restructure urban and environmental planning instruments becomes apparent in scenarios where urban expansion is difficult to manage. Indicators based on spatially explicit datasets have been suggested as effective tools to evaluate spatial planning outcomes because they can shed light on the efficiency of planning measures and the fulfilment of claimed goals. In this work, we evaluated the conformance of stated spatial planning goals and the outcomes in terms of urban compactness, basic services and housing provision, and nature conservation for different land-use strategies. We evaluate the 2005 Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ) and two municipal master plans from 2006 in a coastal region in São Paulo State, Brazil. We used Partial Least Squares Path Modelling (PLS-PM) to explain the relationship between the plan strategies and land-use change ten years after implementation in terms of urban compactness, basic services and housing increase, and nature conservation. Our findings suggest that the evaluated plans were influenced by the land-use pattern at the time when the plan was approved (2005). For all evaluated plans, the Urban Use strategy was important to explain the Urban Compactness, but most of the new urban isolated areas occurred outside of the zones where the Urban Use strategy was applied. Two out of three of the evaluated plans were considered efficient in terms of nature conservation. In general, the Urban Use strategy can be considered successful in promoting more compact patterns of new build-up areas (axial and infill growth), but not in containing the emergence of new isolated areas outside the zones with Urban Use strategy. Our findings are in line with those from similar studies showing that areas outside of urban cores are often deprived of efficient spatial planning. The increase in Basic Services and Housing was not sufficient to attend the regional demand, and the inadequacy of these services remains a problem in the region. Future policies for land-use management in NCSP need to address the increasing demand for basic services and housing and to enable urban development inside urban core areas.
... They can also be studied as a function of local parameters, such as neighborhood interactions and land-use change (LUC). Therefore, decision-makers need appropriate tools and methods to overcome these complexities and to be aware of the consequences of decisions and interferences in urban policy (Aarthi and Gnanappazham, 2019;Geertman and Stillwell, 2009;Koomen and Stillwell, 2007;Alfasi et al., 2012). ...
... Municipalities are responsible for managing ULUD process directly or indirectly, and often cannot dictate to land developers how to develop cities. Municipalities' tools for managing cities include enacting urban laws and restrictive regulations and monitoring the proper implementation of these laws (Jana et al., 2019). It should be regarded that although some of the regulations are quite restrictive (such as protected areas), a significant portion of the regulations has some degree of flexibility (Liu et al., 2014;Alfasi et al., 2012). While the zoning regulations emphasize the development of primary and authorized LUTs, they allow the development of some other LUTs as well, subject to certain conditions defined in the master plan. ...
... Considering the importance of studying the results of implementing various laws and policies in ULUD process (Alfasi et al., 2012), in this article, ULUD scenarios are defined based on the socio-economic studies of the master plan, density criteria, and by including the stochastic perturbation parameter. In this regard, we define two scenarios: First, continuation of the existing trend, second, the trend of population increase according to the expected socio-economic indicators on the project horizon. ...
Article
Urban growth is a dynamic and evolutionary spatial and social process. Urban development can be considered as a function of strategic behavior of the involved agents, which is affected by various factors such as land use interactions, density of population, economic situation, etc. This study presents an integrated model of cellular automata, multi-criteria analysis, game-theory and agent-based methods for land-use planning and simulation of urban development scenarios based on growth and distribution of the population. This model quantifies and simulates the land-use interactions concerning regulations and guidelines of the master plan. In the proposed approach, the suitability of developed land-use types is evaluated by using the multi-criteria analysis. Land-use changes are defined as an outcome of the interaction between two types of decision-makers (agents): Land Developer and Municipality. Game theory is used to simulate and quantify the strategic behavior of these two agents. The optimal decision between the agents is obtained using the backward induction process. The proposed model was implemented in the region of Roozieh in the city of Semnan. Six scenarios were simulated based on the Semnan’s approved master plan and considering the stochastic perturbation. The outcome of each scenario was evaluated based on the spatial equity factors. The results demonstrated the ability of the model to simulate the consequence of urban land-use development plans based on the regulations and guidelines of the master plan, especially for the balanced distribution of services concerning existing demand in their undersupply regions.
... Even when the regulations are respected (Alfasi et al., 2012;Loh, 2011), these distinctions are not always clear. Although natural ar Thériault et al. ...
... These malfunctions can even lead to the bypassing of regulations (Burak et al., 2004). Finally, considering the fast and largely spontaneous dynamics of coastal urbanization, the slow or late implementation of regulations (Abrantes et al., 2016;Gonzalo Malvarez et al., 2000;Renard, 1984) produces obsolescent and inefficient planning systems and objectives (Alfasi et al., 2012;Loh, 2011). ...
... Therefore, the impact of regulation on land consumption and changes therein seems limited and difficult to establish (Alfasi et al., 2012;Colantoni et al., 2016). In fact, whatever the policy pursued, the role of regulation is more to structure urban development than to limit it. ...
Article
This work provides a long-term study of housing development in the Brest region (France). Its main objective is to test the efficiency of the French laws and of urban planning bylaws to control housing development in the coastal zone. Based on the yearly status of available plots, a panel longitudinal analysis (1968-2009) is developed. It combines survival analyses with spatial-temporal diffusion indices, to assess their joint effects on the urban form evolution considering accessibility, proximity, spatial contiguity, temporal continuity, edge waves versus leapfrog growth, etc. That allows testing hypotheses about the diffusion processes, and the achievement of sustainable urbanism to increase density, promote adjacency and avoid urban sprawl and its detrimental effects on the environment and climate. The main finding is that national laws need land planning to deploy locally and that municipalities and stakeholders still prefer economic development over environmental conservation. That is putting emphasis on a restricted (short term) view of sustainable development.
... The literature reports many implementation challenges for planning on the urban fringe : too-frequent zoning revisions (Alfasi et al., 2012), non-compliance of municipal master plans (Abrantes et al., 2016) and a lack of adequate enforcement (in the US: Kline et al., 2014, France, or Italy: Falco, 2017Perrin et al., 2018). ...
... He thus gives large-lot agricultural zoning an excellent rating on process equity because "there is nothing about the structure of the program that prohibits an open process of participation." However, the literature documents many implementation issues in regulatory land-use planning (Alfasi et al.,;Kline et al., 2014;Abrantes et al., 2016;Falco, 2017;Perrin et al., 2018). We therefore believe that such criteria can only be adequately assessed through the examination of concrete case studies. ...
... We believe that our framework can be applied to other geographic contexts to help reveal similar forms of power, exclusion, injustice and inequality embedded in the elaboration and implementation of FP policies. In most countries, the scientific literature shows that FP policies face many implementation challenges on the urban fringe (Alfasi et al., 2012;Kline et al., 2014;Abrantes et al., 2016) and trigger local conflicts (von der Dunk et al., 2011;Darly and Torre, 2013;Pacione, 2013). Some authors also explicitly evoke issues of distributive and procedural justice concerning rural planning (Kerselaers et al., 2013). ...
Article
Preserving farmland on the urban fringe is challenging. We hypothesise that the inefficiency of some farmland protection policies may partly arise from a lack of consideration of their social impacts. This paper hence provides a 7-criterion analytical framework to examine the social justice issues raised by the implementation of planning policies. Applying it to three French policies reveals multi-dimensional inequalities arising from farmland preservation on the urban fringe. Regarding distributive justice, all three policies generate unequal access to resources (farmland, building rights) for different types of farmers. They also show spatial variations in regulations and disregard for the special needs of new farmers. Regarding procedural justice, on two of the criteria, ‘recognition of difference’ and ‘perception of injustices’, we find evidence of exclusion, domination and lack of recognition that some minority farmers or residents are inconvenienced by agricultural activities. All three farmland preservation policies allow established farmers to capture resources such as land and rights to build farm structures, hindering the renewal and diversification needed for multifunctional agriculture and local food systems. Our 7 justice criteria could help researchers in other contexts uncover similar forms of power, exclusion, injustice and inequality embedded in the elaboration and implementation of farmland preservation or other planning policies. The insights from three French farmland protection policies may help local authorities anticipate potential justice issues, develop capacities, and provide more inclusive and transparent procedures for expressing or preventing feelings of injustice.
... Assessment of implementation of land use plan measures the likelihood of achieving the goals, objectives and policies which reflect the quality of the plan [22,23]. The quality of the plan is however, not a guarantee to the achievement of the intended goals, rather it is a theoretical presentation of expected outcomes [24,25]. Practically, the implementation of the plan as a means to an end may not result to the expected end due to several influential factors such as age, income, education level, security of land tenure and residential status at household level [9,15,[26][27][28]. ...
... A plan has to be flexible in order to accommodate changes and therefore it requires short term and long term reviews to adjust accordingly [24]. Sufficient allocation was highly recommended towards improved agriculture production and conservation instead of land sparing and sharing [48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems. Effectiveness of implementation of land use plan relies on a number of factors including strategies that are used to enhance adherence to the land use plan. For the study area, current and potential strategies to enhance adherence to land use plans had previously not been assessed. Thus this study assessed current and potential strategies used to enhance adherence to participatory village land use plans in Ulanga District, Tanzania. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants interviews, focus group discussions, field observation, review of guidelines for land use planning, village and use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information from household survey and village records were descriptively analysed to obtain frequencies and percentages. Information from key informants and focus groups was analysed by content analysis. Current strategies used included by-laws, boundary demarcation, Original Research Article Naiposha and Nzunda; AJEE, 15(2): 1-14, 2021; Article no.AJEE.68958 2 zoning, community action plan, and conflict resolution. The current strategies were ineffectively implemented and enforced due to inadequate awareness, inadequate fines and penalties, funding limitations, weak governance and inefficient coordination and monitoring. Potential strategies that should be implemented include education, awareness raising, capacity building and benefit sharing.
... Urban sprawl is related, among other factors, to local planning policies that aim to drive economic growth through spatial planning but fail to regulate urban expansion (Wei and Zhao, 2009). Even land use plans originally designed to restrict urban sprawl appear to be ineffective when approached by local authorities (Alfasi et al., 2012), frequently due to extrapolation or even alteration of these plans for additional land expansion (Jia et al., 2020). In these circumstances, policy changes related to land use regulations, rural-urban transformation, among other aspects, generally result in the physical expansion of urban areas (Liu et al., 2014(Liu et al., , 2016(Liu et al., , 2018. ...
... However, its implementation was affected by external influences like the market-oriented national housing policy instituted by the MCMV, initially intended as a response to the 2008 financial crisis that ended up stimulating isolated peripheral social housing projects in large scales, without adequate infrastructure and urban accessibilityespecially in smaller cities outside metropolitan regions (Klink and Denaldi, 2014), like Araraquara. This model emerged as a national macroeconomic pillar with the potential to be a major revenue generator for local governments, overheating housing markets (Ye and Wu, 2014;Jia et al., 2020) and often contradicting the local planning framework (Alfasi et al., 2012). As a consequence, "economic policy has been the major driver of urban expansion, starting from its articulation with urban and housing policy" (Santoro, 2014, p. 170). ...
Article
Urban sprawl is related, among other factors, to local planning policies that aim to drive economic growth through spatial planning but fail to regulate urban expansion. Even land use plans originally designed to restrict urban sprawl appear to be ineffective when approached by local authorities. Withal, little attention has been given into analysing local master plans implementations and their relation with territorial governance. In this paper, we focus on the role of territorial governance arrangements in master plans implementation practices. Also, we explore the spatial outcomes of urban growth in a medium-sized Brazilian city, conformance wise to its Master Plans, under different administrations from contrasting political parties. The purpose is to identify discrepancies in urban growth spatial outcomes, according to territorial governance, quantitatively assessing whether the observed growth complied with zoning strategies or comprised nonconforming development. It is arguable that governance capacity affects the spatial distribution of urban growth and, consequently, the regulation of urban sprawl. The results show disparate patterns of urban growth corresponding to different administrations, even under the same plan implementation, suggesting that the spatial outcomes could have been shaped either by the enforcement or the abstention of planning regulations, characterizing contrasting approaches on territorial governance.
... Yet whether a plan is effective is not a simple question. The key challenge lies in the deficient theoretical foundation for planning effectiveness (PE) evaluation (Seasons, 2003;Alfasi et al., 2012). One major controversy is whether the evaluation should assess the conformance of the outcome with the plan or instead focus on performance, namely, the extent to which the plan is used (Chapin et al., 2008;Feitelson et al., 2017;Lyles et al., 2016). ...
... Specifically, PGs provides direction for decision-making-clarify what decisions are for, and PCs are expected to provide options and regulations for decision-making (Faludi, 2000;Oliveira and Pinho, 2009). Therefore, the performance criterion focuses on the usage of PGs and PCs during decision-making (Waldner, 2008), while the conformance criterion centers on the consistency between outcomes and PCs (Alfasi et al., 2012;Gennaio et al., 2009). ...
Article
Knowledge of the actual usage and impact of spatial plans remains deficient due to defective evaluation methods and scarce empirical studies. By integrating and widening the conformance and performance criteria, this study builds a framework for assessing the effectiveness of land use plans (LUPs), which provides a comprehensive overview allowing the different roles played by LUPs and the corresponding degrees of planning effectiveness to be distinguished. We examine the effectiveness of a Chinese county-level LUP in governing urban sprawl in the context of rapid urbanization with the devised framework. The results show that the plan failed to control the scale and spatial distribution of urban development, and stimulated fragmented urban expansion and large-scale farmland conversion inside the zone for urban area. While non-conforming urban development decisions tended to minimize possible damage to planning effectiveness. The findings indicate that conforming decisions/outcomes do not necessarily imply the achievement of planning goals, while non-conforming decisions may be guided by planning goals and hence contribute to realizing them.
... The conformance criterion is widely used for evaluating plan implementation (Alterman & Hill, 1978;Feitelson, Felsenstein, Razin, & Stern, 2017;Lyles, Berke, & Smith, 2016). Whether urban expansion is mainly located inside the planned urban area is usually taken to indicate planning effectiveness (Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson, 2012;Laurian et al., 2004). However, absolute consistency between outcomes and plans is considered impossible (Faludi, 2000). ...
... Alterman and Hill (1978) argued that non-conforming urban expansion correlates with car ownership rates and populations. Alfasi et al. (2012) suggested that non-conforming urban growth in rural Israel is caused by tourism development and population increase. Focusing on southern Florida, Brody, Highfield, and Thornton (2006) statistically demonstrated the influence of socioeconomic, demographic, locational, and land-price variables on non-conforming wetland development. ...
... In triangular planning models that do oppose agriculture, nature and urban development [29], "nature and agriculture often stand in opposition in the quest for land" [30]. FP may also be conceived as an interim stage before projected urban development, as mentioned in Japan [31] or Israel [32]. ...
... Some authors further claim government failure. In Israel, Alfasi et al. [32] denounce case-by-case "discretionary-oriented decision-making, providing for revisions of the land-use plans and subsequently diminishing its efficacy", with FP being traded for economic growth. In Portugal, municipal master plans show high levels of non-compliance around Lisbon, mostly at the expense of peri-urban farmland [82]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the recent literature dealing with farmland protection (FP) policies in developed countries from a planning perspective, with a specific focus on the Mediterranean region. It provides coverage of French language papers that may have been omitted in previous reviews. While the Mediterranean is often pointed out as a region with acute challenges related to food security and a lack of effective planning policies, the literature underlines that issues related to FP policies are similar across the world. Hence, this review may bring valuable insights for more sustainable management of farmland on the urban fringe. It maps several interesting areas of research concerning the often implicit and disparate rationales of FP policies as well as the barriers and potential avenues for improvement for FP. It highlights that FP cannot rely merely on transferring policy tools that have proven successful elsewhere. It also reveals that land policies do not always take into account the specific needs of farming systems, as they often focus on land rather than on agriculture. Further research is thus needed to reveal the interaction over time between the use of certain FP tools and the unique local features of urban fringe agriculture. This review may be of interest to students and scholars, but also to practitioners, policy makers and local groups looking for innovative, more flexible or locally suited farmland protection programs.
... Some studies assess the effectiveness of distinct policies, such as Green Belts (Bengston and Youn, 2006;Siedentop et al., 2016) or Urban Growth Boundaries (Gennaio et al., 2009). Others are conducted to identify if and where there are discrepancies between planned and actual land use and to discuss these discrepancies to better understand the flaws in the planning and implementation process (Chapin et al., 2008;Tian and Shen, 2011;Long et al., 2012;Abrantes et al., 2016;Alfasi et al., 2012;Padeiro, 2016;Grădinaru et al., 2017). Researchers also use interviews to identify factors that can determine planning outcomes (Waldner, 2009 in Atlanta, USA) and document-analysis to explain the role of planning and policies in narratives of land change (Gallardo and Martínez-Vega, 2016). ...
... Other studies found a large discrepancy between plans and actual development (e.g. Waldner 2009;Alfasi et al., 2012;Ali, 2008). Factors identified for such implementation divergence were property rights issues, political support (or lack of it), departmental structure and decision processes, highly dynamic socio-economic processes straining the capacity of government, strong local and national powers for economic development and the emergence of entrepreneurial opportunities. ...
Article
To date land-change science has devoted little attention to spatial policy and planning in urban landscapes despite the widely accepted premise that planning affects urban land change. This is primarily due to lack of relevant data and an underdeveloped theoretical understanding regarding the impact of spatial planning on urban land change. To be able to better analyse the role of spatial planning in urban development we need to distinguish: 1) the intentions expressed in the plans; 2) the means of implementation of the plans through governance processes and 3) the role of external conditions influencing implementation. Based on a synthesis of the current literature on how spatial planning is implemented in land-change models, and drawing from the literature on planning evaluation, we sketch a research agenda to further develop the understanding of these three components and their interconnections as well as their application in quantitative land-change modelling approaches for urban regions.
... While the ineffectiveness of spatial planning on containing built-up land expansion is common around the world (Abrantes, Fontes, Gomes, & Rocha, 2016;Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson, 2012;Guo et al., 2020;Kleemann et al., 2017;Sharifi, Chiba, Okamoto, Yokoyama, & Murayama, 2014;Wang, Han, & Lai, 2014), most previous research did not answer the question of how built-up land expansion would have differed in the absence of spatial planning. In our study, we used a PSM-DID approach to test the causal effect of zoning in containing built-up land expansion in Zhangzhou City, China between 2010 and 2020. ...
... The causal evidence from our case study can enhance the credibility of land-use planning in other Chinese cities. In addition, there are many similar spatial plans in other countries that regulate the amount and location of built-up land via command-and-control mechanisms, such as urban growth boundaries (Gennaio, Hersperger, & Bürgi, 2009), green belts (Macdonald, Monstadt, & Friendly, 2020;Siedentop, Fina, & Krehl, 2016), and land-use zoning (Alfasi et al., 2012;Sharifi et al., 2014). Our study has implications for the causal evaluation of these plans, especially for developing countries that face severe conflicts between built-up land expansion and natural land protection. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing impacts of built-up land expansion on sustainable development have heightened the use of spatial planning as a policy tool to contain built-up land expansion. However, causal evidence for the effect of spatial planning on built-up land expansion has largely remained unexplored. In this study, we used a difference-indifference model with propensity score matching to estimate the average and annual effect of built-up land zoning (subsequently called zoning) on built-up land expansion in Zhangzhou City, China between 2010 and 2020. Results on the average effect show that zoning was effective in containing built-up land expansion. Specifically , zoning prevented 27.02 km 2 of built-up land expansion outside the development-permitted zones between 2010 and 2020, which accounts for 32.46% of the observed built-up land expansion outside the development-permitted zones. We found a time-lag effect, with zoning starting to have an effect after 2013. Furthermore, zoning became ineffective in containing built-up land expansion at the end of plan implementation. Based on our findings, we recommend that future evaluations of the effect of spatial planning on land-use change use causal inference and that they explore the influence of time on the effect of plans in greater detail.
... These opposing effects reveal the need for governing the development of built-up land. In response, governments around the world have deployed a range of policy measures, such as urban growth boundary policies (Gennaio et al., 2009;Long et al., 2013), greenbelt planning (Macdonald et al., 2020;Siedentop et al., 2016), urban planning (Sharifi et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2017), and land-use planning (Alfasi et al., 2012;Zhong et al., 2014). ...
... The conventional conformance evaluation is a straightforward comparison of a region's built-up land expansions before and after spatial planning or of the different regions with and without spatial planning. Many researchers found a lack of conformance by overlaying planned land-use with actual built-up land expansion, and concluded that there was a failure of spatial planning (Abrantes et al., 2016;Alfasi et al., 2012;Guo et al., 2020;Kleemann et al., 2017;Sharifi et al., 2014;Wang et al., 2014). Other research using a similar overlay method suggested the success of spatial planning in containing built-up land expansion (Gennaio et al., 2009;Siedentop et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial planning has been globally developed as a policy tool to govern built-up land expansion. However, causal evidence of the effect of spatial planning on built-up land expansion is limited, which raises doubts on the credibility of spatial planning and hinders theoretical developments in land-system science. We evaluated the effect of the Major Function Oriented Zone (MFOZ), the first strategic spatial plan in China, on built-up land expansion in Fujian Province over three time intervals (2013–2015, 2013–2018 and 2013–2020). Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied to overcome selection bias and obtain causal evidence. We implemented a conventional conformance evaluation as a reference for the PSM-based conformance evaluation, to demonstrate the problem of selection bias. The conventional conformance evaluation showed that the MFOZ effectively governed built-up land expansion in the three time intervals. The PSM-based conformance evaluation showed the smaller effect of the MFOZ and the effect was significant only in the time period 2013–2018 and 2013–2020. That is, the conventional conformance evaluation results in an initially ineffective effect of the MFOZ being estimated as effective in 2013–2015 and exaggerates the effect of the MFOZ on built-up land expansion in 2013–2018 and 2013–2020. In aggregate, Fujian’s MFOZ prevented a total of 79.31 km² of built-up land within the development-restricted zone between 2013 and 2020. To conclude, we recommend a wider application of the PSM-based conformance evaluation in evaluating the effect of spatial planning on land-use change, since this method accounts for selection bias and provides more accurate results regarding causality than conventional conformance evaluations.
... In general, comparing plans with their physical outcomes on the basis of spatial concordance is an important basis for judging the effectiveness of planning implementation. This simple and intuitive evaluation method has been widely applied under the support of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology [25][26][27]. Therefore, the effect of planning implementation depends on the degree of spatial coincidence between the planning implementation results and the planning space control zone. ...
... Although factors influencing the actual land use, especially built-up land development, are diverse and complex [13,23,25,31,43,54]. The existing studies have analyzed the factors that influence the result of planning implementation [22,23,54]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A land-use plan is a core policy tool to curb excessive non-agriculturalization of agricultural land. The effect of plan implementation can affect sustainable land use and regional development. Empirical studies have shown that land development commonly and frequently fails to conform to land-use plans. However, neither qualitative nor quantitative studies are conducted to comprehensively explore the reasons for zoning–land use mismatch. To help bridge this gap, this study explored to what extent a plan has been implemented and what factors have affected zoning–land use mismatch. A new deviation discriminant framework of planning implementation was presented. Moreover, the logistics model was applied to discuss which factors substantially affect the zoning–land use mismatch. The plan implementation results were divided into the conformed, exceeded and unused areas. The general land-use plan failed in its spatial control over rural settlements and other built-up lands, with both more than 90% of the newly added construction land beyond zoning. In addition, the newly added construction land of rural settlements, other built-up lands, and transportation lands all exceeded the quota control. Furthermore, the physical factors of distance from the river, the elevation, the slope and the level, and the social-economic factors of the gross domestic product, the fiscal revenue, the fixed assets investments, and the rank of town have prominent effects on zoning–land use mismatch. Enhancing the flexibility of the land-use plan and strengthening the relationship between planning quotas and spatial zoning in the future are necessary to promote the effect of plan implementation.
... This situation is not specific to France and Italy. In Israel, Alfasi et al. (2012) denounce a case-by-case "discretionary-oriented decision-making, providing for revisions of the land use plans and subsequently diminishing its efficacy" (p.862). Since the 1980s, farmland preservation has often been analysed as a matter of local politics Table 5 Qualitative assessment of the effectiveness and social acceptability of alternative local initiatives around Rome. Alternative local initiatives (Renard, 1980;Schiffman, 1983), occasioning pressure on local officials by developmental and conservative interests. ...
Article
Many countries have implemented laws and planning instruments to preserve farmland on the urban fringe. This paper aims at a better understanding of the governance changes in peri-urban farmland protection following decentralisation processes in France and Italy. We compare the implementation of farmland protection instruments in the two city regions of Montpellier and Rome. From a governance perspective, we highlight the practical issues of effectiveness and social acceptability arising from power devolution, different forms of governance, and the potential conflicts when planning control shifts to lower-than-regional bodies. Our analysis is based on qualitative methods Primary data were collected through document analysis, participant observation and in-depth interviews aimed at understanding local stakeholders’ practices and points of view on access to farmland, housing and building rights. We find that around Rome and Montpellier, decentralisation has produced multiple decision-making authorities and increased the complexity of procedures. Despite more regulatory constraints in agricultural areas, farmland conversion has persisted. However, decentralisation processes have also changed ways of governing and favoured local alternative initiatives for farmland protection and farming development on the urban fringe. New modes of governance involve public local authorities, farmers’ representative bodies (Montpellier) and civil society organisations (Rome). In both cities, they have a positive but limited impact on the effectiveness of farmland protection instruments. Their social acceptability varies, depending on who is really included in the participation process.
... In addition, conformance-based analysis of plan implementation is a powerful tool for stimulating and informing the public debate on plans and their implementation (Padeiro, 2016). These studies usually tend to focus on the conformance of development to the plans, utilizing technological progress in GIS and remote sensing to achieve this goal (Abrantes et al., 2016;Alfasi et al., 2012;Feitelson et al., 2017;Frenkel and Orenstein, 2012;Laurian et al., 2004b). ...
Article
The evaluation of the extent to which urban and land use planning have achieved their objectives is crucial to better management of urban land development. China’s urban and land use plans have the common purpose of controlling urban sprawl. This research aimed at comparatively assessing the consistency and implementation of these plans, considering the Changping District in suburban Beijing as a case study. Three main findings were obtained: (1) each plan used different strategies to control new developments, and there were several quantitative and spatial conflicts between the two plans; (2) neither plan has been well implemented or effective in controlling urban sprawl, despite the slightly better performance of the land use plan; (3) core-periphery decreasing trends were revealed in land quota allocation and effectiveness of planning implementation. Remote regular towns received the least land resources from the top-down planning system but also developed fast, mainly through informal and illegal approaches. Further investigation into the double failure of China’s current spatial planning system in quantitative and spatial control over urban land development requires a deeper integration of various spatial management systems, a fundamental transformation of planning philosophy, and a higher respect for peripheral areas in urban-rural integration. The planning assessment approach and reform recommendations developed on the basis of the Chinese practice are probably referable for other developing countries facing similar processes of rapid urbanization and imperfect spatial management.
... In practice this only provides one version of legal certainty: procedural certainty. A deviation from the land-use plan is necessary and must await the formal procedure of this permit (For Example, Buitelaar and Sorel, 2010;Alfasi et al., 2012). On the other hand, a land-use plan can allow multiple kinds of activities, such as working, living, or trading in the same location. ...
Article
The trade-off between flexibility and legal certainty is inherent in every planning system. This trade-off is especially apparent within a land-use plan. Flexibility and legal certainty are often seen as communicating vessels: the demise of one leads to an increase in the other. Within land-use plans, however, the connection between the two is more subtle. For a land-use plan, the choice between being specific or open, and rigid or adaptable, determine the amount of flexibility. With these choices a land-use plan can increase its flexibility without decreasing legal certainty. Within reason the legal certainty can even benefit from more flexibility. However, current academic literature lacks a structured way to analyse flexibility contained within a land-use plan. Such a method is necessary for analysing and comparing different land-use plans. This paper will provide such a method and analyse thirteen different land-use plans in the Netherlands on their flexibility. It will show that a structured method can prove to be useful for analysing and comparing different land-use plans. The research provides insight into the complex balance between flexibility and legal certainty and presents an assessment tool which can be used for further academic research.
... Also, many evaluation studies looking at plan implementation are usually limited geographically and/or limited in planning information (e.g. zoning categories) (Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson, 2012;Oliveira & Pinho, 2009;Padeiro, 2016). This makes such studies very sensitive for special local factors, and it makes it difficult to identify general outcomes of planning or systematic changes in planning practice. ...
Article
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Profound digitalization of public administration is gaining momentum and spatial planning is no exception. To increase the transparency of planning and its usefulness for public and private actors, planning authorities have integrated production and online distribution of digital plan data within existing planning practices and workflows. Many European countries have established public spatial planning databases. Denmark is one of the forerunners in that digitalization. Since 2006, all legal plans are registered in an open geodatabase including over 34,000 currently effective local development plans. Despite the obvious potential of such data to inform about planning practice and associated outcomes, research using these new data is rare, mainly focusing on technical or judicial aspects. Questions related to planning practice, efficiency, evaluation and design have hardly been looked into. In this paper, we provide a short overview of digital plan data in the Danish database as well as similar data in Nordic countries. We then discuss research perspectives regarding plan evaluation and planning practice and we argue that digital plans represent a new transdisciplinary type of intentionally explicit data source for analysis of land change processes.
... The demand for commercial and social space raise concerns on the impact on changes in the existing land use. Inadequate knowledge in the implementation and content of comprehensive land use plan is a short fall in physical planning [23]. Flood control and management are crucial issue that needs the cooperation of their scientist in relevant fields [24]. ...
... It is tempting to lay the responsibility for this change in the form of cities over the 20th century on the impact of urban planning doctrines or on street engineering standards ( Hebbert 2005 ), but the reality is more complicated, as planning is often less influential than what planners would like it to be ( Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson 2012 ). Issues relating to accessibility and land availability, and the economics of land development, are, in the long run, much stronger forces in shaping city form. ...
... Firstly, it can be that public-private negotiations and partnerships for the realization of public facilities generate more uncertain and unclear institutional framework. Secondly, such an approach often subordinates the investment of private developers to specific requests of the municipalities (in search for new private investments for the public city), compromising the principle of the rule of law (Alfasi, Almagor, & Benson, 2012;Moroni, 2007). Thirdly, what happens in reality is that, in order to implement relevant strategic public works, municipalities are inclined to welcome large scale urban developments that can be realized only by a small percentage of (big) developers and not by small ones (McGreevy, 2018). ...
Article
Spatial planning affects the way in which cities are created and developed, as well as their economics and welfare. It does so by constructing institutional frameworks that frequently undergo states of contradiction and demands for adjustment and revision. This situation is particularly evident by looking at the way in which urban facilities have been planned during the twentieth century. The article explores the issue of urban facility planning in Italy by taking into account the adaptations of the institutional framework governing and regulating their supply. In particular, it explores the central contradictions which guided reforms and revisions of urban facility planning in Italy, starting from the post-war period until now, and the main problems left unsolved after years of attempts at innovation aiming at a more flexible and quality-oriented approach. In order to contribute to this debate, specific policy implications and devices are presented.
... On the other hand, the implementation of comprehensive land use plans also confront notable difficulties. For instance, the conformance evaluation of the Israel's Central District land use plan of Alfasi et al. [35] found fundamental gaps between the original land use assignments and the actual development, mainly attributed to a succession of local amendments to the plan performed gradually on a case-by-case basis. Similar conclusions were attained by Abrantes et al. [36] in an implementation evaluation of the land use plans of Lisbon's metropolitan region, where most noncompliant urban development occurred at the expense of reducing and fragmenting agricultural land. ...
Article
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Urban sprawl is nowadays a pervasive topic that is subject of a contentious debate among planners and researchers, who still fail to reach consensual solutions. This paper reviews controversies of the sprawl debate and argues that they owe to a failure of the employed methods to appraise its complexity, especially the notion that urban form emerges from multiple overlapping interactions between households, firms and governmental bodies. To address such issues, this review focuses on recent approaches to study urban spatial dynamics from the perspective of the complexity sciences. Firstly, spatial metrics from landscape ecology provide means of quantifying urban sprawl in terms of increasing fragmentation and diversity of land use patches. Secondly, cellular automata and agent-based models suggest that the prevalence of urban sprawl and fragmentation at the urban fringe emerge from negative spatial interaction between residential agents, which seem accentuated as the agent’s preferences become more heterogeneous. Then, the review turns to practical applications that employ such models to spatially inform urban planning and assess future scenarios. A concluding discussion summarizes potential contributions to the debate on urban sprawl as well as some epistemological implications.
... It is tempting to lay the responsibility for this change in the form of cities over the 20 th century on the impact of urban planning doctrines , or street engineering standards (Hebbert, 2005), but the reality is more complicated, as planning is often less influential than what planners would like it to be (Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson, 2012). ...
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Urban settlements are characterized by an organization of space around a street network, which enables mobility and accessibility, and increases the probability of fruitful human contact among strangers. In the 19 th century, cities around the world expanded drastically. However during the 20 th and 21 st centuries, many cities became increasingly dependent on the automobile for mobility and accessibility, to the detriment of the urban environment and the residents' health. Over the last 50 years, a new paradigm of urban design has evolved to answer current challenges of urbanization. This paradigm looks back to the historic elements of urbanism and reinterprets them at a larger regional scale.
... 4. To simplify, here the attention is mainly on, so to speak, 'direct' effects of plans, but it can be widened to consider certain 'indirect' effects as well. 5. The issue of 'outcome effectiveness' is considered for example by Porter, Ten Siethoff, and Smith (2005), Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson (2012), Millard-Ball (2012), Wang, Han, and Lai (2014), and Long, Han, Tu, and Shu (2015). 6. ...
Article
In order to improve contemporary planning theory and practice, this article critically discusses two orthodox ideas of planning that held considerable sway during the twentieth century: planning as a specific form of intervention and planning as a particular method of rational decision making. Attention and critical debate in the field of planning theory have largely concentrated on the latter, seeking above all to construct alternatives to it. Much less critical attention has been paid to the former, with the consequence that the possible alternatives have been less explored. The article suggests how to develop the debate and research in this direction.
... Local and central governments are unable to decide on a planning policy or a goal and see it through. A research regarding the fate of the comprehensive plan of Israel's Central District, DOP#3 from 1982 and the subsequent DOP#3/21 from 2002, found fundamental gaps between the original land-use assignments of the district plan and actual development (Alfasi et al., 2012). Thus, declared policies regarding the consolidation of compact urban kernels and safeguarding open spaces and agricultural land were actually ignored as development gradually encroached to peri-urban locations. ...
Article
Israeli planning is at a crossroad, and not for the first time. As the housing crisis is coupled with a traffic and transportation catastrophe, the planning system is desperate to create new tools and invent new procedures for speeding up plan- and decision-making. A deep look at the performance of planning in Israel reveals that the abundance of short-cuts, circumventions and detours are actually a reflection of the loss of faith in the essence of planning. Particularly, when taking into account two major setbacks: the complete lack of agreeable (spatial) planning principles at all levels of planning, and the congruence between planning institutions and other governmental bodies. These flaws, stemming from the modernist origins of Israeli Planning, continuously erode the practice of planning. Planning institutions are therefore the first to ignore, cancel and evade approved plans and declared policies, which affects other governmental authorities. The result is the practical abandonment of the belief in planning's ability to bring about positive change and a dangerously weakened planning system.
... The multi-dimensional nature of the built environment makes it difficult to control the details of urban expansion through statutory land-use planning, specifically in densely populated and continuously developing regions. Even when land-use is designated for specific areas, in many cases, a nonconforming development takes place (Alfasi, Almagor, & Benenson, 2012;Tian & Shen, 2011). There are several possible reasons for failure in applying statutory plans and for the necessity to introduce frequent local amendments to authorized plans. ...
Article
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Urbanization dynamics are commonly subjected to powerful market forces, only partly managed by land-use plans. The density, location and pattern of urbanized areas affect rainfall-runoff relations. Consequently, it is essential to understand future impacts of urbanization on runoff and produce focused regulation. The goal was to analyze land-cover scenarios and their impact on runoff in an urbanized watershed in Israel. Present and predicted land-cover scenarios in a densely populated watershed were produced. The runoff response to rainfall was then simulated using a hydrological model. The impact of implementing afforestation and quarrying national outline plans was considered. By the year 2050, 50% of the watershed will be urbanized with a linear increase in runoff response. Afforestation and quarrying plans show little effect on runoff, although quarries may decrease runoff through percolation. As urbanization is expected to continue spreading in adjacent watersheds, statutory measures should be applied to mitigating runoff.
... Most studies done to physically examine adherence to land use plans have been based on cities and urban areas while limited studies have been done at village level and rural areas [4,5,7,9,11]. Adherence to VLUPs may be influenced by factors operating on more than one spatial and temporal level [10]. These factors may be internal, external, political, institutional, demographic, social-economic or ecological in nature [10,12,13]. ...
Article
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Proper implementation of land use planning may contribute to solving land use problems, including land use conflicts. Adherence to land plans depends on many factors which vary according to circumstances of a study area. The present study aims to contribute to knowledge needed to enhance adherence to zones in land use planning. Specifically, the study had two objectives, namely: (1) to examine extent of adherence to village land use plans and, (2) to assess factors that influence adherence to the village land use plans. Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants, focus group discussions, field observation, review of guidelines for land use planning, village land use plans (VLUPs), district land use framework, books and journal articles. GPS points to examine adherence to VLUPs were analyzed using Kappa statistic. Factors influencing adherence to VLUPs were analysed using binary logistical regression and pair-wise ranking. There was moderate adherence with kappa coefficient of 0.47 and 0.49 for Iragua and Kichangani villages. Larger families with higher incomes were more likely not to adhere to land use plans. Immigrants were also more likely not to adhere to plans than residents. Corruption of village leaders, lack of follow up by village leaders on implementation, lack of awareness on land use plans and underestimated population growth were the key prioritised factors that resulted in non-adherence of land use plans. The study recommends a review of the zoning standards to enhance sufficiency of allocated zones; privatization of grazing land; establishment of communal grazing management plans; and involvement of communities in developing complete plans. The study also recommends close monitoring; reviewing of VLUPs; enforcement of good governance; establishing incentive schemes; offering continuous education and developing participatory implementation framework.
... The rules guiding the relationships and characteristics of urban elements, building types, and their uses, have often emerged autonomously during the building of cities over time, in a process taking decades, centuries, or even millennia. While these traditional processes have been disrupted and are no longer prevalent in late modern societies in the West, resilient economic geographical patterns and spatial trends in e.g., retail, housing, and the clustering of industries can be recognized, often yielding master plans(Alfasi et al. 2012) (Kuusela & Partanen 2021. ...
Chapter
Ubiquitous digitalization in our technology-mediated cities has recently pushed the computation from virtual worlds into the cybernetic sensor-guided cites. AI-driven architecture and planning assumedly make cities efficient, sustainable, and “smart” in a linear, mechanical manner. However, cities are complex adaptive, self-organizing systems evolving through transitions. They are hard to control using any planning tool founded on a rational comprehensive model. Computational, generative methods are established tools in the urban design and planning providing novel perspective for smart city planning. Moreover, the paradigm of complex systems and (universal) self-organization enable crossing of ideas in biological systems, cities, and digital systems. This generates intellectual progress in both philosophical and methods development for e-planning tools. Here, the author introduces an e-planning method applying self-organization of information, capable of reflecting the complex urban dynamics. She concludes by illustrating possible futures in self-organizing technology and planners' roles in it.
... In a more critical vein, there are numerous studies on urban sprawl (Jaeger et al., 2010). Alfasi et al. (2012) evaluate the current performance of municipal land-use plans, whereas Inostroza et al. (2013) and Madlener and Sunak (2011) monitor growth patterns, effects of urbanization, and identify spatial metrics to characterize urban development without integrating urban mobility infrastructure. Several attempts have been made to contextualize the relationship between urban vulnerability and climate change. ...
Article
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The constant modification of land use, economic instability, environmental factors, and social behaviour changes among the inhabitants of big cities characterize current urbanism. In Colombia, land-use planning processes supported by geographical information systems are a recent phenomenon and the legal instruments of spatial planning are inadequate in most municipalities. Moreover, socio-spatial equity represents a challenge for Latin American cities in which there is increasing awareness of the role that spatial planning plays. Consequently, the question arises as to how the urban spatial structure and organization contribute to an inclusive and equitable socio-spatial evolution, considering climate change impacts. The case study analysed in this article focuses upon the northern limits of the city of Bogotá. Therefore, this research aims to define the ideal balance of urban land-use distribution between social stratum classification and the vulnerability of the communities seeking to better adapt to climate change. We propose a methodological approach of analysing spatial syntax and the (social) intensity of activities and infrastructure, which enables us to characterize the urban structure itself and identify vulnerable urban instances. As a result, we find that the urban network with low values presents spatial unpredictability in its pattern, constraining equitable development based on the urban morphology of the city. This research allows us to conclude that the degree of vulnerability encountered by the social urban spatial structure is higher in expansion areas than in central areas of the city.
... The key tools at the local level are land use plans, and they vary in scope and formulation across countries [48]. One of the vital ongoing debates in the literature on this issue concerns their legal formulation: whether they should be generally binding acts or rather a set of guidelines [49][50][51] and whether they should be more general or specific acts [52][53][54]. ...
Article
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Abstract: The paper aims to determine the role and formula of investments in renewable energy sources in Poland's concepts of local spatial policies. It analyses 12,777 planning documents of local spatial policy (these are resolutions adopted by municipalities-in Poland there are two types of these instruments: studies of spatial development conditions and directions and local spatial development plans) in Poland enacted in 2005-2020. On this basis, local concepts were classified and related to the geographical and functional characteristics of municipalities. Poland is an interesting case study in this respect, providing a good reference point for broader international considerations. It was found that only 58.4% of Polish municipalities include renewable energy sources in their spatial policy concept. These are definitely more often urbanised municipalities. The degree of approach to renewable energy sources is also determined by the location of the municipality in the given province. The authors diagnose serious weaknesses in the Polish spatial planning system, consisting in the lack of skilful implementation of renewable energy sources into it. This is one of the reasons for the weaker development of renewable energy sources in the country. The authors consider as an innovative element of the research the analysis of the content of all spatial policy instruments in a given country, from the perspective of renewable energy sources, including proposing a way to verify these instruments.
... New and spatially more flexible conformance analysis has been developed to alleviate the oversimplification and rigidity of traditional conformance analysis (Shen et al., 2020). Moreover, the need for detailed zoning regulations have been challenged and rule-based urban codes have been suggested as replacement for traditional statutory land use plans (Alfasi et al., 2012). ...
Article
Comprehensive or general plans are long-range documents intended to guide future urban or regional land use, growth, and development. Structured and periodic monitoring and evaluation of plan implementation is important to identifying when plans should be revised or updated based on changed planning assumptions or conditions, but such monitoring is uncommon. In this study we present and illustrate a research-based method to evaluate general plan implementation for a case-study community located in central California. A community survey was combined with participatory mapping to assess continued public approval of key elements of the general plan: 1) residential growth, 2) community development needs, 3) preferred locations for development (spatial), 4) consistency of resident land use preferences with general plan categories (spatial), and 5) areas with the greatest potential for land use conflict (spatial). Over the five-year period following plan adoption, there was relatively little change in general resident preferences for residential growth or the perceived need for new types of urban development, with the exception of affordable housing; however, city approval of three large, mixed-use development projects, while nominally conforming to the plan, generated community conflict based on development scale and location. As a novel plan monitoring and evaluation method, a community survey combined with participatory mapping provides a means to assess consistency with plan assumptions, desired conditions, and goals and can proactively identify the potential for place-based conflicts among various interests to identify optimized community land use outcomes.
... Long-standing institutional connections between port and city actors in Hamburg have led to a more balanced portcity development than in Rotterdam, where the port has traditionally taken precedence, or in London, where private actors left the historic city to pursue maritime activities. Alfasi et al. [36] compared the long-term land use plans established in 1982, with the actual land use extracted from aerial photos for the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2006, and found that the plans were inefficient. Benzerzour et al. [37] processed different plans, drawings, and meteorological observations from the past, to analyze the decisions made by the sanitation authorities of the city of Nantes in the 19th century, and the effect on the urban climate. ...
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This article addresses the integration of cultural perspectives in the smart city discourse and in the implementation of the UN Agenda 2030; it does so specifically with respect to land patterns and land use. We hope to increase the ability of relevant stakeholders, including scientific communities working in that field, to handle the complexity of the current urban challenges. Culture is understood here in the broadest sense of the word, including the values and conceptualizations of the world, and the modes of technological creation and control of the environment. This concept of culture varies among stakeholders, depending, in particular, on their activities, on the place they live in, and also depending on their scientific background. We propose to complement existing targets that are explicitly related to culture in the UN and UNESCO agendas for 2030, and introduce a target of culture awareness for city information infrastructures. We show that, in the specific case of land patterns and land use, these new targets can be approached with historical data. Our analysis of the related core functionalities is based on interviews with practitioners, draws on insights from the humanities, and takes into account the readiness of the existing technologies.
... Land use planning is the basic form of external regulation of the transformation of land use types by humans. Compared with land use of non-resource city (Gao et al., 2021a;Kivinen et al., 2019), the land use of CBCs has two important characteristics: First, the overall goal of land use planning must serve resource development and correctly handle the relationship between economic development and environment conservation; Second, the adjustment of land use structure is constrained by resource exploitation (Alfasi et al., 2012). Therefore, the future supply and spatial distribution of land resources in CBCs enhance the functional competitiveness of land use. ...
Article
With the rapid development changes and the special land-use patterns, coal-based cities (CBCs) have faced many critical sustainability issues such as the effective use of land resources, the mitigation of land supply-demand contradictions. How does the development of CBCs in China affected local land-use changes and what status does each land type occupy? The relevant mechanisms are not clear. Shuozhou City, a typical growth CBC in China, was therefore selected as the research area to investigate the land use evolution by introducing the theory of land use ecological niche (LUEN). The dynamic changes of land use from 1990 to 2018 were analyzed, and cultivated land played a significant role in the process of land transformation with the highest utilization degree, followed by grassland and construction land. The cultivated land and mining land occupied the economic niche, construction land occupied the social niche, and forest land, grassland, and water area occupied the natural niche. From 2010 to 2015, construction land and mining land occupied the prevailing position of the land-use system. The substantial expansion and compression of the land use ecological niche in Shuozhou City were in the early stage of city development, and there was not a major change in the later stage. In general, the spatial distribution of land use ecological niche was in the east-west direction. Therefore, the production function zone, living function zone, and ecological function zone were delineated. The status, role, and function of land use type should be prioritized when developing land-use planning, considering the mechanisms of land-use change. Governments should actively break through the restrictions of coal resources mining on land use change while giving full play to the role of land resource assets in promoting sustainable development.
... Parcel is the smallest unit of land ownership, which is the base for property taxes to governments and development decisions by property owners in the U.S. Land cover is used in this study to represent various land surface features including pavements, roofs and urban vegetation (Akbari et al., 2003). Land uses refer to planning regulatory categories in local zoning to secure public safety and welfare (Alfasi et al., 2012). This study concentrates on urban land uses of residence, commerce and industry. ...
Article
Extensive studies have shown that stormwater yield and quality in a city are heavily influenced by its land uses and land covers (LULC). However, the majority of these studies have been done at the major watershed levels using remote sensing data with only a few urban LULC types and at lower resolutions. This empirical study uses the City of Corvallis, Oregon in the U.S. as a case to establish robust regression relations between existing urban LULC and stormwater yield or quality at the land parcel level by environmental models and high-resolution spatial data. The environmental models are based on parcel-level hydrological conditions and spatial analysis to assess the watersheds and land parcels suitable for minimal stormwater yield and highest quality for single and mixed-use urban development scenarios containing buildings, roads & driveways, sidewalks & paths, parking lots and open spaces. This study not only can provide a novel approach for local jurisdictions to evaluate the impacts of public urban development plans on a built environment but can assist private property owners to estimate the impacts of their private development projects. In addition to analysing hydrological conditions and conducting green infrastructure design upon the completed urban land use plan in previous studies, the present work indicates the necessity and possibility to apply parcel-level hydrological spatial analysis to assist local land use planners and watershed managers in making informed decisions with regard to land development scenarios at the initial stage.
... A zone is a piece of land designated uniformly to maximise use of one particular use though this is sometimes not exclusive to a single use [30][31][32]. Zones are established in land use plans in order to institute governmental planning policies as well as to enable land users such as land owners and stakeholders to acquire specific rights and interests [33]. Sufficiency of allocated land should consider the current land use needs of the society without jeopardising the future land use needs [14,34]. ...
Article
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Context and background Land use plans have been considered as a solution to land use problems and hence enhance ecological, economic and social sustainability of land use. Appropriateness of land use plans and hence its potential for adherence may rely on sufficiency of zones allocated for different land uses. Goal and Objectives: This study was designed to empirically identify land use implementation problems and suggest solutions relevant to the land users, the government, planners and other stakeholders. Specifically, the study assesses: (1) The extent to which the land use zones cover all zones needed by the stakeholders and; (2) Reasons for levels of sufficiency of the allocated land use zones. Methodology: Data were collected through household survey of 120 respondents from two villages, key informants, focus group discussions and field observation survey while secondary data were collected through review of guidelines for land use planning, village land use plans, district land use framework, books and journals. Information used to assess sufficiency of land use zones used in Village Land Use Plans (VLUP) from household survey and village records were descriptively analyzed. Results: The implementation of village land use plans was not done as expected. Land use zones were insufficient in terms of the allocated size and needs within the zones for current and future situation because of increasing population, overstocking, and lack of infrastructure necessary within specific zones. Other factors included inadequate consideration for uncertainties in population projection standard, unclear zoning regulation and discrepancy in population data. Based on the findings and conclusions, this study makes the following recommendations. First, the National Land Use Planning Commission should devise mechanisms to ensure that all the six steps of land use planning are completed towards implementable land use plans. Secondly, the national land use planning commission should review zoning standards to sufficiently allocate the land use zones. The population projections used for future allocation of land had influence on the sufficiency of the zones where the rate of population increase is assumed to be fixed throughout the ten years implementation period without consideration of uncertainties. It is worth incorporating GIS to establish trend of land use and forecast future land use to sufficiently allocate land during the 10 years lifespan of the VLUP. Thirdly, the national land use planning commission need to validate spatial data and population data at village level to avoid discrepancies which affect implementation of the village land use plans.
... Therefore, we connected the detected LULC dynamics in the study period with the existing LUP. Previous studies on LULC by Alfasi et al., Loh., and Enoguanbhor et al. [44][45][46] have noted similar findings. ...
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Evaluation of river basins requires land-use and land-cover (LULC) change detection to determine hydrological and ecological conditions for sustainable use of their resources. This study assessed LULC changes over 28 years (1990–2018) in the Wami–Ruvu Basin, located in Tanzania, Africa. Six pairs of images acquired using Landsat 5 TM and 8 OLI sensors in 1990 and 2018, respectively, were mosaicked into a single composite image of the basin. A supervised classification using the Neural Network classifier and training data was used to create LULC maps for 1990 and 2018, and targeted the following eight classes of agriculture, forest, grassland, bushland, built-up, bare soil, water, and wetland. The results show that over the past three decades, water and wetland areas have decreased by 0.3%, forest areas by 15.4%, and grassland by 6.7%, while agricultural, bushland, bare soil, and the built-up areas have increased by 11.6%, 8.2%, 1.6%, and 0.8%, respectively. LULC transformations were assessed with water discharge, precipitation, and temperature, and the population from 1990 to 2018. The results revealed decreases in precipitation, water discharge by 4130 m3 , temperature rise by 1 ◦C, and an increase in population from 5.4 to 10 million. For proper management of water-resources, we propose three strategies for water-use efficiency-techniques, a review legal frameworks, and time-based LULC monitoring. This study provides a reference for water resources sustainability for other countries with basins threatened by LULC changes
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Land use change constitutes important and useful area of inquiry for planners especially those involved in land use studies. This is so much so that every planning activity is directly or indirectly linked to land. This study examined the land use dynamics of Orominieke layout, Port-Harcourt with a view to x-raying, if the present land use pattern complies with the provisions of prepared development plan of the area. The study utilized the 1975 Master plan; landsat and Google Earth imageries of the study for 2000 and 2018 at 30m spatial resolution and were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.2. The result of our analysis shows that there are serious distortions and deviation in the land use budgeting in the area. Overall, Orominieke is characterized by constant changes in landuse and conversion of areas reserved as open space to industrial, residential and commercial use due mainly to the increase in the tempo of socioeconomic and political activities in the area. In aggregate terms, about 71.88 hectares of land in the area have been taken over by commerce in 2018 compared to 15.62 hectares proposed for same use in the 1975 development plan. Also important here is the rapid increase in land devoted to government and institutional use which at 2018 stands at 57.48hactares compared to15.62 hectares in the 1975. The constant changes in land use pattern of the area may be connected to the rapid population growth that characterizes this area of Port Harcourt and also a response to rapid economic growth and market forces. Increase in land value in the area is also a contributory factor that precipitates illegal conversion of land from one use to the other with attendant negative consequences. Activating and enforcing relevant development control legislation and regulations is a desideratum in ensuring a coordinated urban growth in the area. Regular field visits or site inspections are necessary to ensure that development complies with stipulated guidelines for urban development planning in the area. Key words: development control; land use, planning; land use change; urban growth
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Spatial planning defines objectives for spatial ordering of a region, together with instruments required to realize them. However, since the future is uncertain, many factors involved in spatial planning are unknown in advance. Scenario-based forecasting is a common way to deal with this fundamental uncertainty. This prospective approach offers guidance to decision makers regarding problems that are likely to appear in the future, and possible ways to manage them in advance. The performance of the forecasting can be assessed in retrospect once the future arrives. However, a method for assessing past management of uncertainty is lacking. This is important because learning from past performance under uncertainty can provide useful insights for the future. These insights can help to design future scenario-based forecasts that are more accurate, and more robust to uncertainty. This paper develops a methodology to combine retrospective analyses focused on past performance with prospective scenario-based forecasting. We use info-gap decision theory to model and manage uncertainty in scenario-based forecasting assessing efforts to contain residential sprawl in the Netherlands. The suggested approach informs prospective scenario-based forecasting, learning from previous experiences regarding their performance and their management of uncertainty and robustness.
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Urban spatial structure is shaped by decisions of land developers that both react to and influence urban plans. The paper presents an agent-based model of the evolution of the land development industry in a city regulated by a land-use plan that is modified from time to time by the planner. At the heart of the model are investment decisions of developers that generate profits and accumulated assets, which in turn affect investment decisions. In the model, the economic state of the developers is initially equal. Over time, certain developers accumulate wealth that enables them to make larger investments and take higher risks by investing in low priced lands that are not zoned for urban development. These risky investments are motivated by the prospect of obtaining land-use variance. We demonstrate that when the land market favors large developers who are more likely to obtain construction permits from the planner, a positive feedback effect is created, which leads to an oligopolistic market, controlled by a few large developers. We also demonstrate that the interaction between risk-taking developers and a flexible planner who approves incremental amendments and periodic updates to the land-use plan may result in bifurcations of the city structure, which leads to a polycentric city.
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After Jacobs’ seminal works, one idea seems to be widely shared by planners: cities must be considered as complex self-organizing systems. In the planning field this idea has opened the door to concepts like spontaneity and flexibility which are now indicated as valuable alternatives to orthodox comprehensive planning practices. The article discusses the different ways in which spontaneity and flexibility work under different kinds of planning conditions (being material, like buildings, open spaces or infrastructures, or immaterial, like building codes or land-use plans). In particular, it recognizes the preeminent role played by the rules over the built-environment in defining the flexible space for the evolution of emergent sociospatial configurations.
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Watersheds are naturally prone to environmental disasters such as flooding. The purpose of the study was to analyze the potential impact of flooding on the Nabaoy River Watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS) remote sensing. Secondary data for flood factors such as slope, elevation, land cover, surface run-off, rainfall, and soil were used and reclassified using the critical scale of factors of flood vulnerability ratings and weighting overlay using the GIS environment to create geospatial data on the potential impact to flooding. Data revealed the following percentages of the susceptibility of the watershed to flooding: very low (8.06%), very highly (19.79%), moderate (22.15%), high (22.84%), and low (27.16%). The main result showed that the upstream area of the Nabaoy river watershed such as Nabaoy, Napaan, Pawa, and Tag-osip was within low to very low flood vulnerability. Meanwhile, the inundation vulnerability intimidation on the downstream side of the Nabaoy river watershed such Cubay Sur, Motag, and low-lying areas of Nabaoy, Napaan, and Tag-osip have moderate to very highly susceptibility to flooding. The results obtained can help the concerned agencies and stakeholders to craft policy and water management plans, adaptive capacity, conservation measures, and resilience programs in response to severe flooding.
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In the course of the nineteenth century, many countries attempted to simplify their regulatory systems; since then, however, the entire legal apparatus has become ever more complex, being based on the (debatable) notion that law must mirror the growing complexity of society. Owing to this presumption, complex land-use and building issues have rapidly generated a host of equally intricate rules. However, some critics have argued that complex systems require exactly the opposite treatment, that is, simple rather than complex legal rules. This article explores the concept of simple rules for urban development, investigating what they are, why they are superior, and how they can be achieved.
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China has implemented land use master plans to strictly control built-up land usage. The effective evaluation of land use master plan on controlling construction land is the premise of monitoring and early warning of planning implementation. It is also the basis for planning revision and further implementation of territorial spatial planning. In this study, we established a comprehensive index system based on three aspects: scale management, annual growth rhythm control, and spatial layout. We then analyzed the consistency between the actual situation for built-up land and the previous land use master plan of the Jinan Municipality in the Shandong Province of eastern China. The results showed that the master plan effectively controlled the scale of built-up land sprawl, such that the annual growth rhythm control level periodically increased over time. They also indicated the low efficiency of the built-up land spatial layout control. Overall, the previous land use master plan in Jinan had notable impacts. We recommend that land policy makers should adjust control standards and implementation intensity for spatial planning in the future to achieve scientific and effective planning for the management of construction land.
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Background Land use and land cover changes in urbanized watersheds of developing countries like Ethiopia are underpinned by the complex interaction of different actors, driving forces, and the land itself. Land conversion due to residential development, economic growth, and transportation is identified as the most serious environmental pressure on urbanized landscapes of the world. It results in the degradation of natural vegetation and significant increases in impervious surfaces. The purpose of the study was to analyze spatio-teporal changes in land use and land cover in the Huluka watershed with implications to sustainable development in the watershed. Results Forest land, cultivated land, urban built-up, bush/shrub land, bare land, grassland, and water body were identified as the seven types of land use and land cover in the Huluka watershed. Forest land decreased by 59.3% at an average rate of 164.52 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Bush/ shrub land decreased by 68.2% at an average rate of 318.71 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Grassland decreased by 32.7% at an average rate of 228.65 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Water body decreased by 5.1% at an average rate of 1.06 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Urban built-up area increased by 351% at an average rate of 16.20 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Cultivated land increased by 105.3% at an average rate of 692.76 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Bare land increased by 41.9% at an average rate of 4.00 ha/year between 1979 and 2017. Infrastructural and agricultural expansion, increased demand for wood, local environmental and biophysical drivers, rapid human population growth, economic drivers, technological drivers, policy and institutional drivers, and local socio-cultural drivers were perceived by residents as drivers of land use and land cover changes. Increased flooding risk, increased soil erosion, increased sedimentation into water resources like lakes and rivers, decrease in soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, loss of springs, decrease in annual rainfall, and increase in heat during the dry season were perceived by residents as negative local effects of land use and land cover changes. Conclusions Changes in land use and land cover in the study water shade imply the need for integrating sustainable watershed planning and management into natural resources management strategies. In other words, practices of appropriate land use planning and management, family planning, participatory planning and management, appropriate environmental impact assessment (EIA), and proper planning and management of development projects and programmes are of paramount importance to promote sustainable development in the Huluka watershed and beyond.
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The strategic land use plan is an effective tool to implement new ideas and strategic adjustments in land use policies in the context of the economic transformation of China. This study designs an index system for quantifying the success of the implementation of strategic land use plans. The proposed index system consists of two independent dimensions as quota implementation and task implementation. The indices for assessing quota implementation were directly obtained from planning quotas and quantified by conformance analysis. We determined the extent to which the output of the quotas had met expectations. The indices for assessing task implementation were obtained through questionnaires and quantified by performance analysis. We divided the indices into several scenarios for scoring. This framework was applied to a medium-term evaluation of China's Land and Resource Plan of 2016. The results reveal the advantages and defects of the planning implementation. Four provinces, mostly concentrated in the east, were praiseworthy in implementing the plan in the two dimensions but four others, mostly concentrated in the west, were failed. There was a positive correlation between the comprehensive conformance values and the performance scores and were weak correlations between the conformance of four quotas and the performance of seven tasks. This study has practical value for quantitatively monitoring the implementation of strategic land use plans. The results can provide suggestions for new ideas and strategies in land use policies during the economic transformation in China, including optimizing ecological protection, improving farmland quality and people's livelihood within rural land requisition, and strengthening law enforcement.
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The spatial dimension of property is underexamined in the planning literature. Above all, and surprisingly, this dimension is underestimated in the debate on complex self-organising cities. However, if we consider the importance of action in and for urban self-organisation, property cannot but be an aspect indispensable for understanding the propensity of cities to grow (more or less) spontaneously over time. This article first explores property patterns and their importance for self-organising cities. It then develops some ideas on how to increase the capacity of cities to rely on self-organisation. It shows that there is an urgent need to include the importance of property in the discourse, both from a descriptive/exploratory perspective and from a strategic/normative one.
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Systems (GIS)-based multicriteria perspective in Ambo town and its watershed and proposes strategic measures for sustainable flooding disaster risk management in urban watershed. Land use/land cover, elevation, slope, drainage density, soil, and rainfall were considered as important flooding hazard factors. Analysis of flooding risk was undertaken for Ambo town's watershed using flooding hazard layer and the two elements at risk, namely human population and land use. Weighted linear combination (WLC) method was used in the process of criteria map aggregation for both flooding hazard and flooding risk. The result of the flooding hazard in the watershed reveals that more proportion of the watershed is high and very high flooding hazard area (60.58%). Moreover, more proportion of the town is high and very high flooding hazard area (66.87%). The result of the flooding risk in the watershed reveals that more proportion of the watershed is high and very high flooding risk area (41.76%). Moreover, half of the town is high and very high flooding risk area (50.09%). An integrated basin wide approach to flood management should be practiced as it is essential to address multiple water related issues at watershed level. Moreover, environmental education should be emphasized to build civic responsibility among the citizens.
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The conformance approach is frequently used to evaluate the effectiveness of spatial plans in containing urban sprawl. However, non-conformances are widely considered inevitable. Prior conformance-based evaluations fail to answer the essential question of whether plans influence non-conforming situations. To address this gap, we built a framework for conformance measurement to reveal how plans affect non-conforming urban development. The multi-indicator framework includes quantitative indicators, the spatial distribution relationship between new non-conforming urban land and zoning maps, and the location and original land use of new non-conforming urban land. When applied to a case study, this framework reveals that most new non-conforming urban land was adjacent to conforming urban land and located in zones without strict restrictions on urban development. Moreover, the type of land use that the zoning map aimed to conserve was rarely converted, suggesting attempts by decision-makers to control the severity of conflicts between non-conforming development and the zoning map. A logistic regression also evidences the significant influence of zoning on non-conforming urban development. These findings, in turn, verify the operability and theoretical value of the proposed framework.
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Problem, research strategy, and findings: In 2005, Youngstown (OH) released a widely publicized comprehensive plan, the Youngstown 2010 Citywide Plan. This plan emphasized “smart shrinkage,” reflecting the city’s downsized built environment and reduced population. In 2013 the city released the Youngstown Redevelopment Code, which was zoning intended to implement the comprehensive plan. In this study we measure whether the comprehensive plan conformed with the Youngstown Redevelopment Code by comparing land use designations on a parcel-by-parcel basis between the comprehensive plan, the pre-2013 code, and the Youngstown Redevelopment Code. To better understand the causality of conformance, we conducted semistructured interviews with framers of the comprehensive plan and the Youngstown Redevelopment Code documents. We find weak conformance between the comprehensive plan and the Youngstown Redevelopment Code; most of the comprehensive plan’s downsizing recommendations were unimplemented. There was close conformance between the pre-2013 code and the Youngstown Redevelopment Code, and most of the differences between them reflected the comprehensive plan’s recommendations. Informants attribute the weak conformance between the comprehensive plan and the Youngstown Redevelopment Code to many of the former’s ideas not being legally defensible. Changing political regimes, shifts in public opinion, and the driving need for economic investment were also cited as contributors to this weak conformance. Takeaway for practice: Our findings indicate that implementing smart shrinkage land use recommendations in shrinking cities is likely to be challenging because legislators may resist codification of reduced populations and lessened economic capacity. Translating comprehensive plan ideas into zoning regulations may be subject to political, social, economic, and legal forces that limit plan enactment. These findings may apply to all cases where comprehensive plans require translation into zoning regulations for implementation. Local government officials and planners should consider these constraints on plan implementation through zoning when they are framing comprehensive plan strategies.
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Background: Land use/land cover change in urban watersheds of developing countries like Ethiopia is claimed to be a consequence of complex interaction of different actors, driving forces, and land itself. It is asserted to result in the degradation of natural vegetation and significant increases in impervious surfaces. The purpose of the study was to analyze spatio-teporal changes in land use/ land cover in Huluka watershed where Ambo town is situated and examine their drivers and effects with environmental implications. Results: The overall increase of urban built-up area, cultivated land, and bare land use/land cover type with 351%, 105%, and 41.9% respectively between the year 1979 and 2017 implies the increase in flooding disaster risk in the watershed as such land use/land cover types exacerbate the run-off conditions in the watershed. Infrastructural expansion, agricultural expansion, increased demand for fuel wood and wood for construction, local environmental factors, local biophysical drivers, and local Social events were identified as proximate drivers of land use/land cover changes in the study area. Demographic factors, economic factors, technological factors, policy and institutional factors and cultural factors were confirmed as the underlying drivers of land use/land cover change in the watershed. Increased flooding risk, increased soil erosion; increased sedimentation into the lake (Dendi lake) and rivers (Huluka, Awaro, Debis, Boji, Bolo, Aleltu, Karkaro, and Korke), decrease in soil fertility resulting from flooding risk, and change in climatic parameters (decrease in annual rainfall and increase in heat during dry season) were claimed as the negative effects of land use/land cover change in the study area. Conclusions: Practice of appropriate land use planning and management in the watershed, appropriate environmental impact assessment (EIA), and proper planning and management of socio-cultural, economic, and environmental development are of paramount importance to promote sustainable development in the watershed.
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National-level planning in democratic countries has been almost all but ignored by researchers in urban and regional planning since the reconstruction years following the Second World War. Having become identified in many people's eyes with communist regimes and coercive government practices, national-level planning fell into some disrepute. Yet, this book will show that planning is carried out on the national level to some degree in each and every one of the ten countries studied, even though the goals, degree of comprehensiveness, subjects, institutions, format, powers and effectiveness differ widely from country to country. There are even modest trends whereby, on the threshold of the twenty-first century, national-level planning is growing in importance in democratic, advanced-economy countries. These trends point to the need to revisit planning theory. Why study national-level planning? Little attention has been given to the study of national-level planning in Western countries for many decades. The attention of planning theorists in recent years, as expressed in the majority of topics for empirical research and the themes of normative debate, has tended to focus on decision-making modes relevant more to the local and individual levels than to the national one. The three compendiums of planning theory published in the 1990s (Campbell and Fainstein, 1996; Mandel-baum et al., 1996; Stein, 1995) do not include even a single chapter devoted to the types of issues, institutions and modes of decision-making typical of national-level planning. This book was born of necessity. It is not the result of a library search for lacunae in knowledge, but of a real-life need for knowledge about how different countries handle their land-use (or 'spatial') planning issues at the national level. The need was Israel's—a country that ostensibly already has a high degree of national-level planning, but where a group of planners and academics involved in the ambitious 'Israel 2020' planning team 1 was seeking to know more about alternative modes of national-level planning. I began to search the literature for ideas. Is national-level
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Planning laws are usually made with good intentions, but do not always lead to good results—at least not when measured against their own goals. Since July 2008 the Netherlands has had a new planning act which aims for a plan-led system and a stronger role of the land-use plan in providing a framework for building permits—instead of these being granted through exemptions from the land-use plan—and in guiding spatial development. On the basis of quantitative data, we found that the land-use plan has become more important: more land-use plans have been adopted, both in absolute terms and relative to alternative measures. But functionally, these land-use plans are used primarily to follow and facilitate development instead of guiding it. Development control is still (inevitably) driven by development proposals. Although the paper looks at the Dutch case, an analysis into the relationship between planning law and its institutionalisation (or the lack thereof) at the local level is worthwhile for a wider audience. In our quest to understand the effects of changes in the law on the practice of development control, we use theories that look at the process of institutionalisation, especially of centrally designed formal institutions, such as legislation, that seek application at the local level, with its own (potentially conflicting) formal and informal institutions. We conclude the paper by arguing that changes in planning law are unsuccessful if they are not congruent with informal and formal institutions at the ‘street-level’ and if there is a lack of sufficient incentives to change the behaviour of local actors.
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The lack of empirical studies measuring the efficacy of plans and degree of local plan implementation Subsequent to adoption represents one of the greatest gaps in planning research. This article addresses the need to test the effectiveness of environmental planning and plan implementation by examining the spatial pattern of wetland development permits over a 10-year period in Florida. Specifically, our study compares the original land use design of comprehensive plans with subsequent development activity. We identify significant clusters of permits granted for wetland development and evaluate those locations against the adopted future land use maps for all county and city jurisdictions across the state. Findings indicate that development patterns that significantly deviate from the original intent of the adopted plans tend to occur in specific locations and under certain conditions. In addition, plans containing specific environmental and plan implementation policies are correlated with a greater degree of plan implementation. Based on the results, we discuss policy implications for improving plan performance at the local level and establishing a stronger link between plan content and plan implementation.
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Planning theory, laws, and systems are essentially procedural in that they focus on the process of planning and decision-making but do not deal with the substance of the decisions nor their impact on cities. They emphasize the role of the many (f)actors that shape the built environment rather than the resultant properties of the built environment itself. This is true both for the rational comprehensive theory of the 1960s and the 1990s' post-modern theory of communicative planning theory. In this paper we claim that current planning weaknesses, on the one hand, and viewing cities as complex self-organizing systems, on the other, require re-linking planning theory, law, and administration to the substantive qualitative relations between the various urban elements. We then introduce, first, an example for theorizing such an Urban Code that turns the spatial relations into a planning rule and, second, a suggestion for a planning system that is responsive to these qualitative relations and is capable of updating them.
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This article addresses the discourse of Israeli academics, policy makers, and environmental activists regarding the environmental implications of population growth in Israel. While there are compelling reasons that population growth should be a prominent topic for local environmental research and discussion, it is rarely considered in environmental campaigns or in the academic literature. I attribute this to the embeddedness of the Israeli environmental community within wider Israeli society. National ideologies and religiosity, coupled with immediate security and social concerns, bound what is considered “sanctioned” discourse regarding population growth, prescribing the rules of academic engagement for this controversial topic.
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Barrie Maguire's image of a woman stitching together the Irish landscape reflects the central question behind this Longer View: What will recent strategic spatial planning efforts in Europe give us? In the case of Northern Ireland, the quilt sewn from separate pieces of the landscape might represent that state's desire to establish cohesion while respecting diversity. Albrechts, Healy, and Kunzmann show that there and elsewhere, spatial planning efforts are stitching together new regional patterns for many parts of Europe.
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Countries differ significantly in their laws and policies for farmland preservation and in the degree of success achieved. This paper compares the policies of the U.S.A. and Canada-two countries with a high rate of farmland per person-with four other democracies on the other side of the Atlantic-Britain, The Netherlands, France, and Israel. The policies of the European Community are also discussed. The paper develops a framework for cross-national comparison of institutional, policy, and contextual factors. The findings show that stringent legal controls are not enough,nor is there a strong correlation between degree of success in farmland preservation and any particular format for planning. The great successes of the Netherlands and Britain-among Europe's most densely inhabited countries-are attributable to other factors. Since farmland preservation is increasingly being challenged by a declining economic rationale and competing collective goals, and since the countries across the Atlantic have had to face these challenges earlier than North America has, unlocking the secrets of success and failure through cross-national comparisons can help American and Canadian planners prepare effectively to meet future challenges.
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This article reports on research in progress which empirically measures and examines the implementation of a land use plan. It is a case study of a statutory land use plan for the Krayot area in Israel. The analysis covers the relative influence on implementation of the plan from political factors, from the attributes of the plan, and from changes occurring in the urban system. Refs.
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This research examines land use change in Israel––an intriguing but understudied setting with regard to population–environment dynamics. While Israel is fairly unique with regard to its combined high levels of economic prosperity and high population growth, this case study has relevance for developed countries and regions (like the south and southwest regions of the USA) which must balance population growth and urban development with open space conservation for ecosystem services and biological diversity. The population–land development relationship is investigated during the period from 1961 to 1995 at three spatial scales: national, regional (six districts), and local (40 localities). There is a positive correlation between population growth and land development rates at the national scale, and while remaining positive, the strength of the relationship varies greatly at regional and local scales. The variation in population–land use dynamics across scales is used to garner insight as to the importance of geography, policy and historical settlement patterns. KeywordsLand use/land cover change-Urbanization-Open space preservation-Population growth-Land use policy-Israel
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There has been a recent proliferation of national land-use policies that emphasize protecting open space and ecosystem integrity. However, countries grappling with internal political conflict, or that are engaged in military conflicts with neighboring countries, have priorities that focus on control of land in areas where state sovereignty is perceived to be threatened. These two concerns, political-demographic control and environmental protection, create very different paradigms for how to think about open space policy. The objective of this paper is to consider the impact of competing paradigms in land-use policy formulation and implementation—one that encourages sprawl and the other that encourages compact development and the preservation of open space. We use Israel as a case study where both political demography and environmental land-use paradigms are currently influencing policy and planning. We explore the historical evolution of both land-use paradigms and consider how they are currently competing in the formulation and execution of land-use policy decisions. We consider how these distinct priorities are playing out in current discourse and policy implementation, and characterize the past, current and prospective future physical outcomes of policies on the landscape. Our goal is to alert policy makers and land-use scholars of the subtle and contradictory influence of political-demographic land-use priorities with regard to their potential impact on the successful implementation of environmental policies. The Israeli case study is indicative of a diversity of countries that have a history of political-demographic land-use policies, but have also begun to adopt environmentally motivated policies.
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Urban sprawl in Israel began two decades ago, but has yet to be empirically measured or characterized. Major processes that influenced sprawl in Israel were the rise in standard of living, consumer preference for low-density and single-family housing in the suburbs, and the arrival of nearly one million immigrants from the former USSR during the 1990s. All these processes led to a massive transformation of agricultural land into urban land-uses all over the country and provide some evidence that sprawl is taking place as a pattern of development. This study attempt to measure and analyze urban sprawl in Israel, based on a large sample of urban settlements. Higher sprawl rates were found to correlate significantly with higher population and land-consumption growth rates, which implies a higher consumer preference to reside in more sprawling patterns. Variables that are linked with sprawl in Western countries were usually found to be significant in Israel, as well; however, unlike other Western countries, urban sprawl in Israel is rather spatially dispersed, and not necessarily found on the edges of metropolitan areas.
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This paper presents the concepts of a planning monitor as a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of plans and the planning process. The concepts of the planning monitor present a struture for preparing an urban or regional plan. There are two separate components of the planning monitor: 1) a set of rational planning procedures, and 2) a supporting information system. The paper argues that planning, in its present form, does not use information effectively. It is not that information is ignored, but rather that planning has adapted to an environment where there is a lack of adequate information and has therefore developed procedures which allow it to function without information. It is even conceivable that these procedures may have evolved to the point where they not only do not require information but in fact cannot utlize the information even if it is provided. The discussion encompasses plan preparation and the information systems necessary to make a planning monitor work. A planning monitor would provide information that is needed for modification of a plan and for the evaluation of planning as an effective means of controlling development. When fully operational a planning monitor would introduce accountability into the planning process through the evaluation of plant implementation actions. This evaluation is based on a structure for relating goals and objectives to specific program and policy actions. Finally, a planning process is proposed which encompasses monitoring and plan evaluation.-Author
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What rights does the state have over privately owned land? Why should some landowners be favoured over others? How can the practice of land-use planning be improved? This book addresses these essential questions and shows that the interests people have in property rights over land and buildings are not just emotional but often financial too. It follows that the law, which affects who has property rights, what those rights are and how they may be used, can have great financial consequences for people and great economic consequences for society in general. For those reasons, looking at land-use planning as it affects and is affected by property rights illuminates some core aspects of land-use planning, including the law, economics, ethics and ideology. In this book, Needham examines those aspects from the clear perspective of property rights.
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This paper analyzes the role of legitimization processes in the struggle over farmland protection policies in Israel. In the early sixties a centralized farmland protection program was institutionalized, curtailing private land owners& and leaseholders' property rights on farmlands. The legitimacy accorded to such measures is explained as a function of the congruence between social norms, power structure and dominant ideology at the time. Then, the paper follows the changes in power, ideology, social norms, sanctioned discourse and the role of agriculture in the economy. These changes undermined the basis of the farmland protection rationales, and led to a crisis of legitimacy in the early nineties. As a result of several institutional and policy shifts in the early nineties, a time of rapid growth, concern shifted to the implications of growth for the future of open spaces. This concern over the loss of positive externalities was shared by environmentalists, urban and exurban consumption interests, planners and several elements within the rural establishment. As a result a new set of plans was introduced. Focusing on the central district, where the most severe development pressures are felt, the paper compares the sanctioned discourse and use of rationales in the new plans and documents to those of previous plans. These plans focus on averting the loss of positive externalities, rather than productive capacity, and are couched in economic terms, rather than ideological terms, re#ecting the shift in language of the sanctioned discourse. It shows that the choice of rationales for legitimizing countryside conservation re#ects the struggle over rural landscapes, as the rationales are used to cobble a coalition of planners, environmentalists, farmers, urbanites and exurbanites, against a powerful development coalition. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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It is often held that planning theory has little influence on planning practice. Some speak of an evident ‘theory-practice gap’. In reality, the opposite seems to be the case. The so-called ‘theorypractice gap’ is not the main issue at all; the real question is ‘which theory for what kind of practice’? Assuming this view, the article presents two different theories of public regulation: the teleocratic approach and the nomocratic approach.They can be interpreted as general approaches regarding the role of the state, but the article focus particularly on the consequences of accepting them in the specific field of land-use regulation. For the teleocratic approach, planning must be the central and most important instrument of land-use regulation, while for the nomocratic approach planning has only a secondary role and different kind of regulative instruments are proposed.
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It is common knowledge that racial segregation is not restricted to the South. Every major industrial city in the North has a separate all-Negro community characterized by high population density, a very heavy percentage of slum dwellings, and steady expansion into whatever contiguous areas it can penetrate. The Northern pattern of segregation is much less severe than that of the South, but it has created serious problems in many areas—among them, housing. Rapid increase in the Negro population of Northern metropolitan centers, caused in large part by continuing migration from the South, accentuates these problems. In the past fifteen years, for example, Chicago's Negro population has grown from 275,000 to 625,000.
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This article advocates for a new, fundamentally different plan for how cities should be coded, the Smart Code. It links urbanism and environmentalism and is strongly aligned with smart growth and sustainability. The Smart Code is offered as an alternative to the current anti-urban, conventional codes which are rigid and focus on single-use zones that separate human living space from the natural environment, as illustrated by the sprawl.
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The article aims to demonstrate that neither the British planning system nor Continental planning systems adhere perfectly to the classical (liberal) ideal of the rule of law. It suggests a different approach to the regulation of land use more in line with this ideal, based on the assumption that it is not only relevant but also one that cannot be renounced. The objective is to show that the more complex an (urban) system becomes, the greater is the need for abstract, general and end-independent rules to favour a sort of beneficial, spontaneous order — self-coordinating and polycentric — of individual actions.
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The legitimization of planning has, in the period since the Second World War, rested on the proposition that the state’s intervention in land and property development is necessary to safeguard the public interest against private and sectional interests. What constitutes the public interest has always been contentious but its value as a legitimizing concept has increasingly been called into question in the recent past for the reason that it cannot be given operational meaning either by those who make policy or by those who evaluate it. The purpose of this article is to explore the ‘public interest’ justification of planning and whether it has outlived its usefulness in an increasingly fragmented society. Following an introduction, the argument is presented in three stages. First, we explore the concept of ‘interests’ in the modern period. Second, we consider the way in which the ‘public interest’ has been regarded in the planning literature. Third, an evaluative framework is established which distinguishes deontological as well as consequentialist conceptualizations of the public interest through which we seek to demonstrate that it remains the pivot around which debates concerning the role and purpose of planning must revolve.
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In Britain, as the nature of the state's involvement in the spatial planning process changed to reflect political concerns (such as the need for employment-generating development or concern for the environment), so have the methods employed by the government to secure consistency, certainty, and continuity in policy execution. A desire to create more certain conditions for developers, the public, and investors through greater use of plans has both decreased discretionary decision making and shifted it from some parts of the spatial planning process to others. Since certainty has formed the underlying tenet to statutory changes to the planning system after 1990 and has found policy expression through national planning guidance, British planning could now be at the juncture of an unhappy ideological conflict between the discretionary nature of British planning and the more certain, less pragmatic forms of spatial planning. In this paper, I suggest that the changing political context of planning in the 1980s and 1990s has led to an ideological conflict in the operation of spatial planning, which involves issues related to administrative law, professionalism, and flexibility and certainty.
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This article explores the interrelationship between planning and law from an institutional point of view. Interest in institutions and general norms in the social and behavioral sciences has led to interdisciplinary cross-pollination. Theories of planning and law occupy a special position because they are rooted in practice. In practice, the main concerns are how institutions are validated in daily policies and how the meaning of institutional norms may change in the course of action. This article addresses how institutions evolve in the practice of planning and law. General norms are evoked, and may be given new meanings, when problems and social conflicts arise. The author investigates how this process plays out in various systems of planning and law. He contrasts the induction of norms in Anglo-Saxon systems to the deductive reasoning behind the German system and discusses the pattern of political “self-limitation” in the Dutch system.
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In light of the continuing and ever-stronger attacks on the legitimacy of the planning profession, planning scholars have recently been calling for quantitative studies that support the notion that planning matters. What is needed are methodologies that can be used by planners to assess the degree of impact their plans have had on actual urban development and, perhaps more important, on the achievement of planning goals. Such methods would differ from existing evaluation research in that the focus would be on assessing what has in fact occurred in the built environment, rather than on evaluating various plan alternatives before implementation. In this paper, I outline various plan assessment methods that delineate how one particular aspect of plans-identifying where public facilities are to be located—can be evaluated.
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The planning doctrine that guided Israel's planning policy for the first forty years of its existence is being replaced by a new planning doctrine, prompted largely by the great wave of immigration from the Soviet Union starting in 1989. New approaches to housing, employment, and physical and social infrastructure were needed to meet the demands of the sudden influx of some 700,000 new immigrants. In addition to Soviet immigration, two other important factors influenced planning policy: the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, which changed the geostrategic importance of the peripheral regions of the country, and the development of the Israeli economy into an economy based on high-technology industry and producer services. The globalization of Israel's economy has reduced the capacity of public policy to influence the location of economic activity. The new planning doctrine is highly sensitive to the scarcity of land and is based on a view of the future map of Israel as an agglomeration of four metropolitan regions, strongly interconnected and sharply delineated by the open spaces and green areas between them.
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The planning profession lacks a robust methodology to evaluate the implementation of plans. This article proposes a conformance-based plan implementation evaluation (PIE) that relies on the analysis of plans and permits to provide a rigorous, quantitative, and systematic way of assessing the degree to which land use plans are implemented. We studied the implementation of stormwater and urban amenity management in six New Zealand plans by reviewing their land development permits. We found that the implementation of land use plans was generally low and varied greatly among plans and issues. Although it was tested in the context of local plans in New Zealand, the methodology can be used by city and county planning agencies in the U.S. and elsewhere.
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If monitoring and evaluation are recognized parts of the planning canon, why are they overlooked and underused? This article attempts to answer this question by exploring the state of monitoring and evaluation practice and the key factors that contribute to or impede monitoring and evaluation activities in municipal planning departments. The findings of a study of evaluation practice in regional planning departments in Ontario, Canada, are reported. The study examined how the realities of organizational culture and competing demands for limited resources, among many other factors, affect the potential for monitoring and evaluation practice. The article concludes that, in principle, monitoring and evaluation would enhance municipal planning activities. However, there are significant obstacles that must be addressed for them to be implemented effectively. The findings should interest planners who are considering introducing monitoring and evaluation processes in municipal planning departments.
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Many countries have a land use planning ''system'' in a sense in which the United States does not: a hierarchy of planning functions ranging From the locality to the central (provincial, state) government. In such systems, national policy and operational requirements and guidelines are the responsibility of the center; execution lies with the locality. As a contribution to the debate on this issue, this article summarizes some key elements in the British, French and Dutch approaches. It is suggested that Americans would not be prepared to support such systems, which deny them local control over development and the chance of making money from land transactions.
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Plans can be implemented by capital improvements, social programs, and land use controls. Local planning agencies focus on the last, but incorporate the other two in development regulations. For example, many communities require developers to provide infrastructure directly or cover project impacts through impact fees. This study of local planning agencies in California demonstrates the weaknesses of regulation as an approach to plan implementation. It shows that the process of administering regulations, including those that combine other objectives such as affordable housing, accommodates piecemeal change in plans, and that success depends upon demand for new development in the community.
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The planning community has shown a curious lack of interest in developing methods to evaluate how successfully plans are implemented. Evaluation in planning has centered primarily on methods of comparing the impacts of alternative proposed plans. The methodological problems with evaluating implementation success are many, but they are not insurmountable. A typology of planning evaluation is offered here. The need to establish a separate, distinctive form of planning evaluation focused exclusively on evaluating the implementation success of plans is discussed. This call to develop and refine methods to evaluate plan implementation success coincides with the call by many theorists to develop better theories of planning based on a keener understanding of the realities of planning practice.
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This paper analyzes the role of legitimization processes in the struggle over farmland protection policies in Israel. In the early sixties a centralized farmland protection program was institutionalized, curtailing private land owners` and leaseholders’ property rights on farmlands. The legitimacy accorded to such measures is explained as a function of the congruence between social norms, power structure and dominant ideology at the time. Then, the paper follows the changes in power, ideology, social norms, sanctioned discourse and the role of agriculture in the economy. These changes undermined the basis of the farmland protection rationales, and led to a crisis of legitimacy in the early nineties. As a result of several institutional and policy shifts in the early nineties, a time of rapid growth, concern shifted to the implications of growth for the future of open spaces. This concern over the loss of positive externalities was shared by environmentalists, urban and exurban consumption interests, planners and several elements within the rural establishment. As a result a new set of plans was introduced. Focusing on the central district, where the most severe development pressures are felt, the paper compares the sanctioned discourse and use of rationales in the new plans and documents to those of previous plans. These plans focus on averting the loss of positive externalities, rather than productive capacity, and are couched in economic terms, rather than ideological terms, reflecting the shift in language of the sanctioned discourse. It shows that the choice of rationales for legitimizing countryside conservation reflects the struggle over rural landscapes, as the rationales are used to cobble a coalition of planners, environmentalists, farmers, urbanites and exurbanites, against a powerful development coalition.
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The article considers the history of open space preservation in Israel from the inception of the state until the present. The primary modes for protecting open spaces are assessed: nature reserves, forests, and agriculturally designated lands. While present frameworks ensure that reserves and forests remain well-protected, there has been significant erosion in the normative protection of agricultural lands, reflected in their steady decline. Three encouraging recent developments are considered. The first is a new masterplan for Israel (number 35) that was approved by the government in 2005. While not without its flaws, the plan constitutes an important formal open space for Israel. Economic analysis, previously unexploited, is also increasingly quantifying the benefits of open spaces. Relentless activism across the country has produced a litany of achievements for open space preservation advocates. The article closes with a review of present challenges to open spaces including illegal construction in the agricultural and Bedouin sectors as well as the isolated settlement program. While Israeli public policy has made open space preservation a higher priority, as population density rises, the demand for land promises make open space preservation an ongoing national challenge.
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