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How Societies Remember

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... Por otra parte, en Cervera del Río Alhama (La Rioja) optaron por la exhumación de los cuerpos y su reinhumación en un panteón colectivo, como también ocurrió en otros municipios de La Rioja y Navarra así como en otros lugares como Valdeñelas (Ciudad Real), Oiartzun (Gipuzkoa), Espinardo (Murcia), Casas de Don Pedro (Badajoz) o La Carolina (Jaén) (Aguilar, 2018;de Kerangat, 2019). Representando estas solamente algunas de las múltiples posibles iniciativas, comparten todas ellas una lógica de crear un espacio específico que hace posible la conmemoración, ya que, como plantea Paul Connerton, a la hora de pensar en un lugar se recuerda una marca y un espacio concreto (Connerton, 1989). Si bien estos comenzaron siendo más difusos en el caso de las flores y las piedras, comparten con estas intervenciones desarrolladas durante la Transición el hecho de que hacen explícito el lugar concreto de los cuerpos asesinados bajo los mismos al construirse sobre las fosas o en el interior de las estructuras construidas en el caso de que se hubiese producido una exhumación. ...
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Desde el año 2000 las fosas comunes han sido uno de los componentes centrales de los discursos generados en torno a la «Memoria Histórica». A través de una metodología interdisciplinar se plantea el análisis del significado de estas. Se atenderá a la fosa común en tanto que signo represivo, a cómo en los años setenta comenzaron a ser resignificadas a través de acciones de homenaje sobre las propias fosas comunes y eventualmente a su exhumación, a las acciones sobre las mismas acometidas desde el año 2000 ante el surgimiento de la noción de la «Memoria Histórica». Finalmente se pone en evidencia el carácter conflictivo de esas resignificaciones de la fosa común ante el rechazo a las mismas por diversos medios. Se concluye así que las acciones sobre las fosas comunes se han convertido en un campo para la disputa por el sentido del pasado.
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To highlight if, and how, The Emperor in August differs from other war films, this chapter outlines some twenty‐first century developments in this genre, aiming to work out how the collective memory of the war in Japan continues to be forged and how the resulting narratives affect each other. It provides some background on war memory in Japan during the summer of 2015, in order to underscore the political atmosphere at that time. The fact that the Emperor was not tried as a war criminal by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, Douglas MacArthur, splits Japan neatly along the lines of “progressives” and “conservatives”. The Emperor in August allows its audiences to look at the story behind the ever present voice. The chapter discusses The Emperor in August , particularly referencing the role of Emperor Hirohito, as his potential involvement in the war has sparked so much controversy in the postwar period.
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As humanity struggles with the onslaught of climate change and our uncertain future, we find ourselves facing the same kinds of resource challenges that island populations have known for centuries. In the case of postsettler societies, responsible environmental stewardship must engage with Indigenous understandings of knowledge and the world. I make this argument by critiquing Bourdieu's theory of habitus and engaging with colonization's long history of influencing, though not quite obliterating, precolonial ontologies and epistemologies. In the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia, these understandings take the form of an Indigenous habitus that blends precolonial and colonial spaces, forming the basis of resistance to power inequalities. There and across the globe, recognizing and working with this kind of practice‐based habitus is essential to protecting threatened natural and cultural resources. [habitus, resources, land use, colonialism, ontology, mana, resistance, Indigenous peoples, Oceania]
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In the future, the past will be as accessible as the present. This statement is becoming as true with respect of the near past, as it is true for ancient history, following the previous two decades of digital transformation of archaeological research. Institutions have a tendency to favour recording large historical events over smaller, less significant happenstance. The same institutions endorse more distant material cultures over contemporary artefacts, trivialising that which is in abundance over rare historical objects. Yet, the memory of every individual has value, at least to that person and their family, whilst each individual has a moral responsibility to remember their own pasts. In this context, the chapter presented here discusses the notion of memory anchors and how immersive virtual environments can facilitate the process of remembering, reliving, sharing, and retention of individual memory. It examines what virtual reality can offer to remembrance, and the resilience of memory anchors within such environments. The chapter argues that physical objects and spaces associated with each individual must be captured as a moral obligation, and that the responsibility of such activities should rest at the level of family units where these memories reside.
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Scholars have suggested that individual change recipients affectively respond to change events but have yet to examine how change recipients’ memories influence those affective responses. Drawing from prior scholarship on memory, we propose that two theoretically distinct forms of memory – explicit and schematic – produce different forms of affective and behavioral responses when recipients process change events consciously or non-consciously. Given this proposed importance of memory to affective and behavioral responses, we then develop a stage model of memory-based change management, which we define as the managing of change recipients’ responses to change events through memory work. We theorize four discrete strategies – guided consolidating, schematic re-framing, contextual delimiting, and selective re-instating – that, based on recipients’ memory-based actions during particular stages of a change, would be likely to enhance positive affective responses and support for change. Plain Language Summary This paper explains how memories of organizational change influence affective and behavioral responses to ongoing change initiatives. We identify two types of memories related to change contexts: 1) abstracted, comprehensive schematic memory (i.e., “change is chaotic”) and 2) anecdotal, specific explicit memory (i.e., “I was demoted in a restructuring process last year”). We suggest that, when change events are highly ambiguous, schematic memories non-consciously influence employees’ general moods and a broad range of work behaviors which may or may not relate to the change (i.e., feeling unpleasant for an unknown reason and becoming less cooperative with coworkers than usual). When change events are less ambiguous, explicit memories play a larger role by eliciting discrete emotions triggering change-targeted behaviors (i.e., feeling angry at a change agent and confronting them about it). Since these responses are rooted in memory, we further suggest how change agents can manage affective and behavioral responses through four types of memory-based change management. We explain how during four stages of change – gestation, preparation, implementation, and aftermath – change agents can engage in guided consolidating (i.e., having recipients behaviorally engage in sharing positive experiences of change), schematic re-framing (i.e., framing a change as a continuation of past precedent), contextual delimiting (i.e., generalizing positive memories of change while isolating negative ones) and selective reinstating (i.e., having recipients selectively recall positive experiences in the recent change initiative), respectively. Our model complements existing studies focusing on the conscious, future-oriented processing of change events to provide an alternative view of change management.
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Collective memory researchers predominantly in the cultural and social sciences have commonly understood the concept of collective memory as a mere metaphor, as something not existing in itself as memory but useful only as a tool for referring to the way groups construct shared representations of their past. Few have however addressed the question of whether it is a metaphor or literal in its own right. This paper looks at the plausibility of the claim that collective memory is a mere metaphor by probing its presuppositions, where the representationalist theory of mind emerges as the ground for such a claim. Then appealing to the externalist model of the mind championed in recent studies of mind in disciplines as varied as philosophy, cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and collective intentionality studies, we try to expose the presuppositions of that claim, opening up possibilities for conceiving collective memory as not merely metaphorical but literal and naturally existing as memory.
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Lighting up darkness is a material practice shared across many cultures. Lighting up winter darkness is a particular concern in urban areas in order to make urban spaces feel safer and more welcoming. Temporary lights, often characterised as ‘Christmas’ or ‘Winter’ lights, are installed over the darkest period of the year (December in the northern hemisphere) in town and city centres to attract shoppers and tourists. This paper examines the lights displays installed over the Christmas/ New Year period in two British towns. In each case the lights are installed by volunteers, who also arrange a ‘switch on’ community celebration. The research argues that the architecture of the lights signifies and reinforces the identities of the communities involved. In particular, the paper examines: the importance of infrastructure for the ongoing creation of community; the creative potential of these temporary structures for community identity; and the essential materiality of community.
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En este trabajo se explora la organización de un taller de cerámica indígena ubicado en el interior de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Este taller fue impulsado por una familia que incursionó sobre técnicas de alfarería indígenas a partir del hallazgo fortuito de fragmentos de cerámica arqueológica. Desde un enfoque biográfico, analizamos las prácticas desplegadas en torno a la cerámica arqueológica que dieron lugar a procesos de memoria indígena. Luego, reflexionamos sobre la dimensión política de los procesos movilizados y el modo en que los mismos interpelan la gestión del patrimonio arqueológico local. A partir de ello se abordan las tensiones que configuran el saber científico académico respecto del patrimonio y la cerámica arqueológica. Con la presentación de este caso se busca aportar al debate sobre los múltiples procesos sociales que los objetos arqueológicos pueden movilizar a nivel local, involucrando una trama compleja de actores e instituciones.
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The assassination of Talat Pasha by Soghomon Tehlirian on 15 March 1921 in Berlin, as well as Tehlirian’s trial and acquittal on 2–3 June 1921, have contributed to the formation of conflicting legacies of the Armenian Genocide. Though minuscule in terms of violence and legal ramifications, these events and their reimagination in contentious narratives have shaped a dominant prism of sensemaking in Turkish-Armenian relations. In the imagination of rival groups, Talat and Tehlirian compete for the very same normative categories of hero and victim at once and each are demonized as a villain and perpetrator. Moreover, it is each figure’s embodiment of martyrdom and revenge that explains why their heroizations have proved so enduring and effective across time and space. This mutual framework of sensemaking, which I call the Talat-Tehlirian complex, ultimately denies the chances of historical reconciliation. In terms of its theoretical implications, this case study explains how a martyr-avenger complex can continuously demand solidarity, sustain grievances, and sacralize violence in post-conflict societies. Based on a thick description of what happened in Berlin in 1921 and its contentious narratives across different generations, this paper calls for a transition to a post-heroic age in Turkish-Armenian relations.
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Using the case-study of the Marš Mira, a peace march to commemorate the Srebrenica genocide of July 1995, this article explores how practices of memorialization of genocide and resistance against denial of genocide intersect, in order to gain more insight into the challenges post-conflict societies face. The march retraces the steps that the Bosniak men and boys took while fleeing the Serb army after the fall of the Srebrenica enclave. It is a powerful means of commemorating the genocide and, as such, highlights the importance of space within memorialization. Simultaneously, walking the march serves as an act of resistance to Serb narratives of denial. We argue that resistance against genocide denial and memorialization of the genocide are intricately interwoven in the incentives of Bosniaks participating in the annual Marš Mira, and that they manifest themselves in the use of the landscape in which the march takes place. Through an analysis of four incentives for walking the Marš Mira, we shed light on the challenges that Serb denialism poses to the ability of the Bosniak community to deal with the past of the Srebrenica genocide.
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This essay examines the ceremonies surrounding the 1877 alleged finding of Christopher Columbus's remains in the cathedral of Santo Domingo. The act of exhuming a body believed to be in Spain's possession posed a challenge for the former colonial power, which was in the process of turning Columbus into a national symbol. The Spanish government forcefully denied the legitimacy of the Dominican claim, calling it a “spectacle” contrived by the nation's religious and civil authorities. Building on Diana Taylor's theoretical framework, the essay looks at the 1877 ceremonies as social performances that facilitated the transmission of deeply rooted cultural memories. Whereas the procession of the remains from the cathedral to the church repeated the ritualized gestures prescribed for the discovery and transfer of relics, the performance enacted in the cathedral upended a different “scenario of discovery”—the one enacted by Spanish conquerors when they took possession of a new territory.
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The book’s core argument is that an artificial intelligence that could equal or exceed human intelligence—sometimes called artificial general intelligence (AGI)—is for mathematical reasons impossible. It offers two specific reasons for this claim: Human intelligence is a capability of a complex dynamic system—the human brain and central nervous system. Systems of this sort cannot be modelled mathematically in a way that allows them to operate inside a computer. In supporting their claim, the authors, Jobst Landgrebe and Barry Smith, marshal evidence from mathematics, physics, computer science, philosophy, linguistics, and biology, setting up their book around three central questions: What are the essential marks of human intelligence? What is it that researchers try to do when they attempt to achieve "artificial intelligence" (AI)? And why, after more than 50 years, are our most common interactions with AI, for example with our bank’s computers, still so unsatisfactory?
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The Millars Plantation on Eleuthera, Bahamas was first established in 1803 as a cotton plantation and remained in operation through the 1830s. After emancipation, the formerly enslaved community continued to live on and work the plantation acreage and surrounding areas, until 1871 when Ann Millar formally left the 2000 acre‐property to the descendants of her former slaves and servants. That descendant community still upholds their right to this land today, despite a series of legal challenges by Bahamian and foreign investors who seek to develop new tourism‐based economies in the area. In the process of documenting the historical landscape of the Millars Plantation through oral histories, ethnographic interviews, and landscape survey, the research revealed ways that residents today have materialized memory—piecing together object, story, and space—on a living landscape that has too often been framed as empty or relegated to the past. This chapter investigates the ways in which memory becomes rooted in the materiality of the South Eleuthera landscape. When read side‐by‐side, the archaeological and contemporary social stratigraphy of South Eleuthera illustrate this historical landscape's ongoing site formation and the ways in which community members use the memoryscape as a tool for community building and local advocacy.
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In the Guyanese Amazon, Waiwai memory is made through the substances and associated sentiments that accrue in the body. Remembering and forgetting are morally weighted actions that transform the dispositions of others, enabling desired feelings of contentment or anger and ill will. Waiwai perspectives on the stakes of being or not being in the thoughts of others matter for their relations with the state: Waiwai people say that, in the past, their households were split between Guyana and Brazil because the Guyanese government forgot about them, while in the present, Waiwai people work to make Guyanese officials remember them, and this constitutes a form of political practice. Whereas anthropological accounts of the politics of memory emphasize how the past is operationalized in the present, Waiwai discussions of being forgotten and being remembered demonstrate the significance of affective, rather than representational, forms of memory for the political practices of indigenous‐state relations. [memory, morality, politics, affect, Waiwai, Guyana, Amazonia]
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In recent years, political leaders from around the world have been provided with a tour of Argentina’s Parque de la Memoria. What explains their detour from the affairs of state to a park that commemorates the victims of Argentina’s military dictatorship? How do these visits sit alongside other, everyday uses of the space? Borrowing from de Certeau, I interpret these practices as practices of memory. I analyse the ‘pedestrian speech acts’ through which key stakeholders attempt to divert these practices towards a particular construction of the memory space. The invitation to a global political elite can be read as a strategy to protect the symbolic order of the memory of the desaparecidos by performatively enacting a transnational community of memory in mourning. This leaves the park vulnerable to those who would mobilise these mourning rituals as a tactic to dismantle any politics that might take place at the park.
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The British rave scene of the late 1980s and early 1990s is widely remembered as a moment of elation and bliss. Contemporary cultural representations position the Second Summer of Love of 1989 – when thousands of young people attended illegal parties, experienced the hypnotic beats of house music and had their first brush with the drug ecstasy – as an object of nostalgia. I argue that rave nostalgia is suspended between two dispositions: the afterglow and the hangover. Whereas the former involves happiness, reversibility and continuity, the latter is defined by melancholia, irreversibility and discontinuity. On this basis, I consider two texts that creatively combine these dispositions in their evocation of rave: the music video for The Streets’s ‘Weak Become Heroes’ and Jeremy Deller’s documentary Everybody in the Place. Finally, I assess how the euphoria associated with rave nostalgia helps to augment and advance the recent turn to joy in memory studies.
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Collective, plural or individual, memory is inherent to humans, enabling us to perceive our surrounding world. Biologically, memory provides mechanisms for survival by affording environmental awareness, and culturally it offers strategies for identity and social cohesion. Ethnographic studies have shown us that rock art can be an important vehicle for maintaining collective memories and cultural transmission. To a certain extent, this can be verified in archaeological contexts through diachronic studies of relationships between different types of rock art and the in-depth analysis of gestures involved in making processes. Although we no longer have access to the worldviews of past societies, archaeology is well-positioned to explore relationships between the materiality of rock art and memory since the former is essential to the emergence and establishment of the latter. This paper explores the reciprocal relationship between the past and the present embodied through rock art by looking at sites of different traditions and chronologies from Iberia to Britain and Ireland. It discusses the appropriation, adaptation and sometimes transformation of rock art’s materiality and its effects on their meanings and surrounding landscapes. The paper considers how the acculturation and transposition of prehistoric rock art sites to modern collective memories contributed to their physical integrity and preservation. The prevalence of practices involved in rock art’s production demonstrates a strong engagement between people, landscape and the significance of particular places—an assemblage that perpetuates acts of remembrance.
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This chapter looks at the social dynamics involved in the construction of social memory during the Late Pre-Hispanic Period (ca. 1500–450 BP) in Cerro Colorado, in the central region of Argentina. Within this context, rock art constituted one of the material and symbolic expressions from which both memory and history were constructed and redefined by the experiences lived at different levels of social interaction. The identification of motifs circulating in time and space is fundamental for this analysis since they negotiate and express a shared way of experiencing the social diversity of the surrounding world. During this study, the methodological tools deployed were based on the analysis of zoomorphic and anthropomorphic figures, canons, superimpositions, and colors. Their study provides clues for interpreting the materialization of the Cerro Colorado identity, and their repetition and circulation in time and space transformed them into a trace in the collective memory. The repetition of different regular or habitual social practices helped the Cerro Colorado communities to construct and negotiate social memory and identity. Residential sites, grinding areas, cultivation land, burial areas, and rock art sites are evidence of an intensely occupied and significant landscape during the Late Pre-Hispanic Period. Furthermore, rock art sites were frequently reused or revisited during this period, which made routine practices possible. Thus, both the changes and the continuities in the art repertoire helped to preserve and reinforce the links established with the local communities’ past and present.
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Certain moments remain an intimate part of one’s life through their constant remembrance. However, most of our memories are seared into the deepest corners of our minds and only resurface when we need to access them. Nonetheless, there is no straightforward mechanism through which we can selectively retrieve what we want; on the contrary, without planning it, sometimes a memory spontaneously emerges right in front of us like a vision, albeit fragmented. What triggered that memory to re-emerge: Listening to a piece of music? The touch of a soft fabric? Or perhaps the flavour and smell of a succulent platter? Regardless of the source, a memory of sound, touch, taste, or smell does not return to the present moment on its own. Recollections are activated by emotions, feelings and embodied actions, and are often accompanied by a series of images of a particular event in which we recognise the faces of people present at the time. How are these qualities relevant to rock art research? Though predominantly a visual cultural expression, rock images were (and some still are) entangled with sensorial, embodied and social experiences that take part in cultural transmission’s mechanisms. Thus, these aspects are interconnected: like a mycelium network spreading, integrating its nutrients and growing.
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This article focuses on one section of the former Iron Curtain between Hungary and Austria that incorporates diverse memory events after the political change in 1989. The article concentrates on the Hungarian region during the last nearly three decades and investigates the actors and the memories of the former historic period, which show a uniquely diverse set of realizations. Among others, two private museums about the Iron Curtain (established and managed by two former border guards) and a memorial park (commemorating only one day, established and managed by a civil organization) in comparison to the official narrative presented in the last room of the permanent exhibition at the Hungarian National Museum in the capital are subjects of this investigation. Besides the actual memory places and the actors (those who initiated, maintain, and visit these memory spots), their relationship and role in the formation of the regional identity are also analyzed. As theoretical background, the connection between heritage, museum, and memory; the notion of post-Soviet nostalgia; authenticity; and the importance of time are activated for the analysis and to disentangle the complexity of the chosen case study.
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In a diverse society like India, the nation-state has imperative to select certain collective memories to be its unified official narrative and be taught to its students. However, in a quest to hand over a unitary vision of the nation, the states often overlook the multiple sources of knowledge, assuming only the school as a mode of transmission about the past. There are documented debates around the Indian state selecting one version of history over the others. But, not much is known about the reception of such knowledge by the marginalised communities in India. Although the relationship between memory, history, identity and social relationships has its grounding in psychology, the discipline has been governed by different reductionism, which does not facilitate understanding and explanation of such complex social issues ( Marty, 1994 , Wertsch, 2002 ). Nevertheless, learnings from social psychology can be extended to understand the complexities around collective memories, social identity and marginalisation. This article will discuss the dynamics involved in dealing with marginalised collective memories and foreground students’ experiences of learning mainstream collective memories. It argues that dealing with exclusions and denials of one’s collective memories has implications for one’s identity and sense of self. It may lead to individuals and communities devaluing their collective memories, thereby undermining their social position and identity.
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The modern economic era is experience-oriented, with pleasure generated through perceptual experiences to create an enjoyable process and more sales. Under the influence of the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, people have begun to pursue a sense of ritual and to focus on their emotion, which has enhanced the connection between brands and consumers. The new emphasis on enhancing consumer experiences illustrates how incorporation of ritual and cultural imagery have become a means through which fashion brands can distinguish themselves from global competitors. Although international fashion weeks are now being hosted through virtual catwalks, these shows lack face-to-face interactions and a sense of on-site ritual. Therefore, many have proposed that the COVID-19 era fashion industry should be redesigned to ensure shows maintain a strong sense of ritual that enables audiences to transform their perceptions through a cultivated atmosphere to experience pleasure and satisfaction. In the present study, we explored the incorporation of cultural experiences into fashion curation to identify modern design focuses for fashion curation. We also analyzed the shows of different brands participating in the fashion weeks and discussed whether incorporation of ritual in the design of the shows affected their experiential value and audience satisfaction. Our conclusions were as follows: 1. use of ritual in designing fashion shows was effective, 2. ritual in the design of fashion shows increased participants’ satisfaction with the show and its experiential value. Future studies should integrate design practice into our proposed research framework to provide a reference for fashion curation and instruction to develop curators that meet the needs of the fashion industry.
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Christianity has existed for more than 167 years on the island of Sabu (East Nusa Tenggara). Even though the majority of Sabu people are Protestant Christians, in everyday life, the Sabu people still adhere to the Jingitiu religion’s local beliefs. The value of Christianity is still considered foreign in the appreciation of most people’s faith even though they have become Christians. This research aims to develop the contextualisation of the missiological paradigm in the social culture of the Sabu people in a transformative mission challenge. Furthermore, the method used is a descriptive and qualitative research approach. The results showed the following: (1) the church needs to develop contextual studies (in the light of the Bible) on the cultural understandings of the Sabu people; (2) there is a need to bring together the gospel and culture through traditional activities and (3) the church needs to be proactive in transforming the Sabu people’s traditions as a tool to deliver education, such as moral and ethical education. Contribution: This article aims to assist churches in adopting strategies for inculcating gospel values in the religious traditions and practices of the Sabu people. This approach is proposed to further develop the appreciation of faith through transformation according to gospel values as a support system for proclaiming the message of the Great Commission in transmitting relevant and contextual Christian messages to transform the culture and society of Sabu.
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This article asks what impact temporality and timing have on the ways in which memories are felt and made to matter on social media. Drawing on Taina Bucher’s theorisation of the ‘kairologic’ of algorithmic media, I explore how digital memories are resurfaced or made visible to people at the ‘right time’ in the present. The article proposes the notion of ‘right-time memories’ to examine the ways in which social media platforms and timing performatively shape people’s engagement with the past. Drawing on interview and focus group data, I explore four ways that right-time memories are sociotechnically produced and felt in everyday life: through an anniversary logic, personalisation, rhythms, and tensions. Ultimately, it is argued that when memories are made to matter in the present is a crucial way to further examine the temporal politics of social media platforms and algorithms.
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En este artículo se describen los restos de moluscos marinos hallados en las excavaciones del yacimiento de la Punta des Patró que pusieron al descubierto dos edificios cuyo uso se halla enmarcado en la Edad del Hierro mallorquina (épocas Talayótica y Balear, respectivamente). El primer edificio no se asocia a una actividad ritual, en cambio el segundo se puede calificar de santuario y se encuentra muy vinculado a la necrópolis vecina del Illot des Porros. El estudio se ha centrado en los aspectos tafonómicos y taxonómicos de las conchas de los moluscos, lo cual ha permitido observar evidentes pruebas de su utilización como elementos alimenticios y su implicación en determinados rituales vinculados con el fuego, así como empezar a entrever una posible distribución de las actividades rituales realizadas dentro del santuario. Además, se han esclarecido algunos interrogantes sobre la estratigrafía del yacimiento.
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The books invites the reader to travel across different continents and various methodologies. Once more, the authors look at Jerzy Wasilewski’s anthropological recognitions and offer their own readings. Taboo, shamanism, yurt, trickster, laughter – these as well as other notions from his ethnological dictionary come to life in new approaches of three generations of anthropologists, cultural theorists and scholars.
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This study presents the lived memory work of Israeli bereaved parents who preserve the bedrooms of their children—fallen soldiers—intact after their deaths. Ethnographic semi-structured interviews and participant observation in the rooms point to an assemblage of interwoven practices that sustain the presence of the dead in the family lifeworld. Enactment of past habitual embodied movement, person-object interaction, and familial roles within the domestic architecture that housed the deceased sustain virtual presence. Removal from view of military objects signifying death, and modulated incorporation of new life in the room forestall cracks in virtuality of presence and temporal absencing, ushering the dead into familial futures. Reconceptualizing livedmemory as the manipulation of temporal stasis and continuity to (re)generate presence rather than represent/commemorate absence and loss, raises questions regarding the dialectical relations between lived memory and public commemoration and the salutary potential of continuing bonds with loved ones.
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How are risk orientations shaped in the sphere of work beyond proximate structuring institutions? In the absence of clear organizational imperatives or institutional supports, what provides the broad contours of a workable imaginary? Using interview data from small business owners in Argentina, I show that the form and content of generational memories of crisis influence the uptake of entrepreneurial discourse and apprehensions of economic risk. Older business owners draw upon their collective memory of the 2001–2002 economic crisis to engage in a process of adversarial personification that posits the macroeconomy as a cunning enemy and positions them as strategic actors. Conversely, younger small business owners—who did not live through these economic shocks as small business owners—draw upon the entrepreneurial ethos that they collectively cultivate through generational communities of practice to engage in a process of empowered distancing that minimizes the severity of economic crisis. Using Kenneth Burke’s theoretical schema to identify grammars of motive and action, I show how older business owners deploy a generationally shared narrative to develop a conceptualization of economic agency that does not derive from the entrepreneurial ethos. By arguing that collective memory generates economic subject positions, this article demonstrates that the “use value” of collective memory lies not only in its uptake by politicians, journalists, and activists engaged in political projects, but also in the everyday ways that economic actors use narratives about the past to develop strategies of risk management in the present.
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The publication, which is the culmination of a European project carried out under the Erasmus Plus Programme, presents the city as a place of culture, heritage and sustainable development, a place where tradition and modernity mingle and where heritage is integrated with new forms. It is a place where cultures meet, but also a place where the inhabitants draw vitality, which is a source of identity; finally, it is a place where new generations are raised. The book shows life in the city as a composition of places of memory, which binds the past, the present and the future into a coherent whole (…). This book not only stimulates the reader's reflection on the city, inspiring them to their own reflections and cultural explorations, but it can also be an excellent textbook for students exploring the mysteries of cultural studies, anthropology, sociology or urban planning. prof. Marcin Rebes
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This article is based on research investigating collective memory in the enactment of leadership identities. The context is derived from a study of Māori leadership and decision-making. The methodology is qualitative and underpinned by Kaupapa Māori research. Methods include pūrākau – Māori epistemology in the form of storytelling. Data is sourced from digital archives in the form of documentaries capturing a rich array of Māori leadership in ritual, ceremonies and interviews with leaders in multiple settings. The process of wānanga (collaborative interactive learning) was required for translation of material from Te Reo Māori into English. As a central feature of a Māori collective memory paradigm, words act as a key, unlocking insight and deeper levels of understanding inherent in Māori epistemology, mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and ontology. We employ whakapapa, a framework for understanding cultural identity and layering of relationships to inform analysis by offering a new concept to the literature; pūmahara, a generative collective memory code. This highlights continuity in the enactment of Māori leadership identities and values which signal social affiliation, self-affirmation and belonging. In terms of contributions, first, the study confirms that as repositories for social and collective memory, digital archives offer a potent opportunity to investigate collective memory in the enactment of leadership identities. Second, a new way of analysing the data through culturally derived methods including wānanga, pūrākau and whakapapa is offered. Third, a distinctive contribution to leadership identity research via a conceptual model highlighting interactions between cognitive, affective, relational, material and cultural values is detailed. Finally, we conclude by offering further avenues of research aimed to advance leadership identity research. In summary, this article offers a distinctive contribution to leadership identity research drawing on collective memory theory.
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