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Phytochemistry and pharmacologic properties of Urtica dioica L

  • Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical Sciences

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Urtica dioica is known as Stinging Nettle. U. dioica extracts are important areas in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in many countries. For a long time U. dioica has been used in alternative medicine, food, paint, fiber, manure and cosmetics. U. dioica has recently been shown to have antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-colitis, anticancer and anti-Alzheimer activities. Flavonoids, tanins, scopoletin, sterols, fatty acids, polysaccharides, isolectins and sterols are phytochemicals which are reported from this plant. Due to the easy collection of the plant and being widespread and also remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both medicine and food in many countries especially in Mediterranean region. This paper presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of U. dioica.
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Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(46), pp. 5714-5719, 3 December, 2012
Available online at
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR12.540
ISSN 1996-0875 ©2012 Academic Journals
Phytochemistry and pharmacologic properties of Urtica
dioica L.
Jinous Asgarpanah* and Razieh Mohajerani
Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.
Accepted 10 July, 2012
Urtica dioica is known as Stinging Nettle. U. dioica extracts are important areas in drug development
with numerous pharmacological activities in many countries. For a long time U. dioica has been used in
alternative medicine, food, paint, fiber, manure and cosmetics. U. dioica has recently been shown to
have antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-colitis, anticancer and anti-
Alzheimer activities. Flavonoids, tanins, scopoletin, sterols, fatty acids, polysaccharides, isolectins and
sterols are phytochemicals which are reported from this plant. Due to the easy collection of the plant
and being widespread and also remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both medicine
and food in many countries especially in Mediterranean region. This paper presents comprehensive
analyzed information on the botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of U. dioica.
Key words: Urtica dioica, Urticaceae, pharmacology, phytochemistry.
Urtica dioica L. commonly known as Stinging Nettle is an
herbaceous perennial plant that grows in temperate and
tropical wasteland areas around the world (Krystofova et
al., 2010). Stinging Nettle has been among the key plants
of the European pharmacopoeia since ancient times. It
belongs to Urticaceae family in the order of Rosales that
contains about 60 genera and more than 700 species. U.
dioica has been known as Gazaneh in Iran and
distributed in North, North-West and central parts of Iran.
U. dioica is a dioecious herbaceous perennial, reaches to
1-2 m high (Figure 1). It has widely spreading rhizomes
and stolons, which are bright yellow as are the perennial
roots (Figure 2). The soft green leaves are 3-15 cm long
and are borne oppositely on an erect wiry green stem.
The leaves have a strongly serrated margin, a cordate
base and an acuminate tip with a terminal leaf tooth
longer than adjacent laterals (Figure 3). It bears small
greenish or brownish numerous flowers in dense axillary
inflorescences (Figure 4). The male flowers have stamens
only, and the female ones have only pistil or seed-
producing organs. Usually a plant will bear either male or
female flowers throughout (Zargari, 1998). The leaves and
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel:
22640051. Fax: 22602059.
stems are very hairy with non-stinging hairs and also
bear many stinging hairs or trichomes (Figure 5), whose
tips come off when touched, transforming the hair into a
needle that will inject several chemicals including
acetylcholine, histamine, 5-HT (serotonin), moroidin,
leukotrienes and possibly formic acid (Casarett et al.,
2008; Greenberg, 2003). After contacting human skin, the
irritant is released and produces pain, wheals or a
stinging sensation which may last for even more than 12
h (Oliver et al., 1991). The burning property of the juice is
dissipated by heat, enabling the young shoots of the
Nettle, when boiled, to be eaten as a pot-herb.
For a long time, in folklore medicine, U. dioica has been
used as a diuretic agent and to treat arthritis and
rheumatism. Nowadays it is an important medical herb
and consumed as a component of the human diet due to
its content of minerals, chlorophyll, amino acids, lecithin,
carotenoids and vitamins. A number of chemical
constituents such as flavonoids, tanins and sterols have
been isolated from different parts of the plant (Krystofova
et al., 2010).
From current pharmaceutical studies, additional
pharmaceutical applications of U. dioica have revealed
antioxidant (Mavi et al., 2004), anti-inflammatory, anti-
ulcer (Gulcin et al., 2004), antiviral (Krystofova et al.,
2010), anticancer (Koch, 2001), antibacterial, antifungal
(Meepagala et al., 2005), antiandrogenic (Khouri and El-
Figure 1. Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle).
Figure 2. Urtica dioica roots.
Akawi, 2005), insecticide (Barbosa et al., 2011), effects
among others.
Since review and systemic analysis of chemistry,
pharmacology and clinical properties of U. dioica have
not been reported, we prompted to provide the currently
available information on traditional and local knowledge,
ethno biological and ethno medicinal issues, identification
of pharmacologically important molecules and pharma-
cological studies on this useful plant. The aim of this
Asgarpanah and Mohajerani. 5715
Figure 3. U. dioica leaf.
Figure 4. U. dioica flowers.
paper is to introduce U. dioica as a potent medicinal plant
by highlighting its traditional applications as well as the
recent findings for novel pharmacological and clinical
The commonly known phytochemical compounds from U.
dioica are flavonoids, tanins, volatile compounds and
sterols (Krystofova et al., 2010; Gul et al., 2005).
Three smooth-muscle stimulating substances including
acetylcholine, histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
have been identified in U. dioica (Collier and Chesher,
1956). Formic acid, histamine and serotonin are also
identified as the pain-inducing agents in the stinging hairs
of U. dioica (Fu et al., 2006). Carvacrol (38.2%), carvone
(9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexa-
hydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone
(2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are
characterized as the main components of U. dioica
essential oil (Gul et al., 2005).
5716 J. Med. Plants Res.
Figure 5. U. dioica trichomes.
Rhizomes of U. dioica contain other biological active
compounds such as scopoletin, sterols, fatty acids,
polysaccharides and isolectins (Krystofova et al., 2010).
These rhizomes contain a complex mixture of agglutinin
isolectins which are differ definitely with respect to their
amino acid composition. It is likely that at least some of
them are different polypeptides coded for by different
genes (Van Damme et al., 1988).
Although a number of steroidal or non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs have been developed, researchers
are changing their focus to natural products to develop
new anti-inflammatory agents due to the side-effects of
chemical drugs (Hyun and Kim, 2009; Shokrzadeh and
Saeedi Sarvari, 2009). As a result, the search for other
alternatives seems necessary and beneficial. U. dioica is
an open door for new and effective compounds. Many
cells and mediators are involved in proceeding inflame-
mation. For example, macrophages are representative
inflammatory cells involved in acute or chronic
inflammatory responses by over-production of pro-
inflammatory cytokines [for example, tumor necrosis
factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-1b and granulocyte/
macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF)] and
inflammatory mediators (Rhee et al., 2009; Lundberg,
2003; Walsh, 2003). U. dioica sting seems a safe
treatment for musculoskeletal pain. It contains serotonin
and histamine that are involved in the cascade of
stimulation affecting levels of nerve growth factor which in
turn increases activation of nociceptive pain neurons
(McMahon, 1996). The mechanism of this plant analgesia
could be hyper stimulation of the sensory nociceptors
causing a TENS-like effect (Melzack and Wall, 1965), a
substance P depletion effect similar to that of capsaicin
(Frucht-Pery et al., 1997), an acupuncture-like effect
(Lewith and Kenyon, 1984), or a counter irritant effect
(Turner, 1984). A stinging rash might also have a power-
ful effect on patients cognitive perception of pain
(Weisenberg, 1998).
Leaf extracts from U. dioica acts by switching Th1
derived responses to Th2; therefore it may inhibit
inflammatory events of rheumatoid arthritis (Riehemann
et al., 1999). The combination of 50 mg U. dioica with 50
mg diclofenac showed similar effectiveness to 200 mg
diclofenac and this is important for patients suffering from
non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Chrubasik et al.,
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly
associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a
potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hydro
alcoholic extract of U. dioica has also shown effective-
ness on some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic
patients. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration
of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an
intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg
nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8
weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and High Sensitive C-Reactive
protein (hs-CRP) showed a significant decrease in
patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks inter-
vention (Namazi et al., 2007).
Phytalgic® consists of capsules containing fish oils, U.
dioica, zinc, and vitamin E. The medicinal treatment of
osteoarthritis (OA) is mostly symptomatic to relieve pain
and incapacity with analgesics and non-steroidal anti-
inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), drugs with well-known
risks. Complementary medicines might reduce the
symptoms of OA and decrease the need for NSAIDs. A
randomized double-blind parallel-groups clinical trial
compared Phytalgi to a placebo for three months, in 81
patients with OA of the knee or hip using NSAIDs and/or
analgesics regularly. The food supplement tested appeared
to decrease the need for analgesics and NSAIDs and
improve the symptoms of osteoarthritis. The effect size
(ES) of this supplement for pain reduction was -1.27,
which corresponds to a very large ES and indicated that
Phytalgic® is 76% more efficacious than intra-articular
corticosteroid therapy for knee OA (Zhang et al., 2007).
Osteoarthritis experts who endorse nutraceuticals would
probably agree that a nutraceutical with an ES above 0.5
is rarely seen and it has never been seen anything as
efficacious as Phytalgic® (Bliddal and Christensen, 2009).
U. dioica has a protective effect on hepatic damage created
with ischemia-reperfusion. Since U. dioica is known to be
a strong antioxidant, breaking up free radicals, it is
expected to be protective in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion
injury of rats. U. dioica exhibited liver protection effect by
increasing the activity of paraoxonase, arylesterase, and
liver tissue catalase activity. Treatment with U. dioica
reduced oxidative stress resulting in a decrease in
ceruloplasmin levels. Also, it was found that treatment
with U. dioica decreased the lipid hydroperoxide activity,
indicating that the antioxidant effect of U. dioica had
prevented the emergence of an oxidant agent such as
LOOH with creation of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion
(Kandis et al., 2010).
A histopathological examination detected no
pathological changes. Also, evaluation of liver enzymes
and histopathological findings of liver tissue indicated that
UD had beneficial effects on the liver, so UD can be
considered a preventive treatment agent in hepatic
ischemia-reperfusion injury (Kandis et al., 2010).
U. dioica extract has shown hypocholesterolemic
effects in animal models at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg
and significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol
and LDL and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and
weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet (Nassiri-Asl
et al., 2009).
U. dioica treatment for 60 days has exhibited significant
reduction in liver enzyme levels and also has increased
the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels in CCl4-treated
rats (Kanter et al., 2005). U. dioica has also shown a
protective effect against oxidative damage in isolated rat
hepatocytes (Daba and Abdel-Rahman, 1998). It was
found that the fixed oil of this plant has both antioxidant
and anti-eicosanoid effects greater than thymoquinone
which is its active constituent (Houghton et al., 1995).
Furthermore, U. dioica has antioxidant activity by
suppressing the chemiluminescence in phagocytes (Haq
et al., 1995). Recently, it is observed that U. dioica has a
significant hepatoprotective effect in CCl4-administrated
rabbits, and that hepatocellular degenerative and necrotic
changes are slight without advanced fibrosis and cirrhotic
process (Turkdogan et al., 2003). However, it is found
that U. dioica can prevent liver fibrosis and cirrhosis,
suggesting that this plant protects liver against fibrosis
possibly through immunomodulator and antioxidant
activities (Turkdogan et al., 2001). U. dioica extract pre-
vented CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by decreasing
the lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant
defense system activity (Kanter et al., 2005).
U. dioica leaves extract (100 mg/kg/day for 5 days)
before inducing diabetes in rats could prevent reduction
of hepatocyte area in the periportal zone and increase in
the nucleus area in the perivenous zone in the protective
Since the U. dioica extract has antioxidant properties, it
can possibly affect the mechanisms of STZ and modulate
or limit the effects of diabetes on the liver tissue
(Golalipour et al., 2010).
Asgarpanah and Mohajerani. 5717
Mannose-binding proteins derived from several plants
inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication
and select for drug-resistant viruses that show profound
deletion of N-glycosylation sites in the GP120 envelope.
The N-acetylglucosamine-binding protein from U. dioica
(UDA) prevented HIV entry and eventually selected for
viruses in which conserved N-glycosylation sites in
GP120 were deleted. In contrast to the mannose-binding
proteins, which have a 50 to 100-fold decreased antiviral
activity against the UDA-exposed mutant viruses, UDA
has decreased anti-HIV activity to a very limited extent,
even against those mutant virus strains that lack at least
9 of 22 glycosylation sites in their GP120 envelope. UDA
represents the prototype of a new conceptual class of
carbohydrate-binding agents with an unusually specific
and targeted drug resistance profile. It forces HIV to
escape drug pressure by deleting the indispensable
glycans on its GP120 (Balzarini et al., 2005).
Effects of U. dioica on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
induced by testosterone have been exhibited. In vitro
studies were conducted to assess the -reductase
inhibitory potential of this plant. Hyperplasia was induced
in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3
mg/kg sc.) for 28 days. Simultaneous administration of
petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50
mg/kg po.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg/kg
po.) was undertaken. Measurement of prostate/body
weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone
levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and
histological examinations carried out led to conclude that
U. dioica can be used as an effective drug for the
management of BPH. These effects are related to two
biochemical markers, β-sitosterol and scopoletin (Nahata
and Dixit, 2002).
Various extracts of U. dioica were commonly used in the
treatment of prostatic disease. Some extracts from U.
dioica roots were demonstrated to exert proliferation-
reducing effects in an in vivo animal model. It has been
observed that some sterols and hydroxyl fatty acids, even
they exist at low concentrations in this plant can inhibit
aromatase, which is a key enzyme in steroid hormone-
metabolism mediation the conversion of androgens into
estrogens. The aqueous extract of U. dioica roots
demonstrated a dose dependent inhibition of the binding
globulin to its receptor and directly inhibits cell
proliferation of HeLa cells and block binding of epidermal
growth factor to its receptor. The aqueous extract of U.
5718 J. Med. Plants Res.
dioica leaves also caused significant inhibition on ADA
activities in prostate tissues from prostate cancer patients
(Durak et al., 2004).
Cisplatin (CP) is a widely used cytotoxic agent against
cancer, and high doses of CP have been known to cause
nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective,
nephroprotective, and antioxidant activities of U. dioica
methanolic extract against CP toxicity in Erhlich ascites
tumor-bearing mice have been demonstrated. After a
single dose of CP administration on day 1, the extract
was given at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg
body weight daily during 6 days. Almost all doses of the
extract performed a significant preventive role against CP
toxicity by decreasing aspartate aminotransferase,
alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood
urea nitrogen, creatinine, lipid peroxidation, protein
oxidation levels, and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as
increasing reduced glutathione content, superoxide
dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and
glutathione peroxidase activities. This suggests that
methanolic extract of this plant has a protective capacity
and antioxidant activity against CP toxicity in EAT-
bearing mice, probably by promoting antioxidative
defense systems (Ozkol et al., 2000).
The objective of this paper has been to show the recent
advances in the exploration of U. dioica as phytotherapy
and to illustrate its potential as a therapeutic agent. With
the current information, it is evident that U. dioica has
pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory,
analgesic, antiandrogenic, antihyperglycemia, anti-
hyperlipidemia, antiviral and anticancer activities, among
others. As the current information shows, it is also
possible that Scopoletin, polysaccharides, isolectins and
sterols might be useful in the development of new drugs
to treat various diseases. However, the present results
suggest a possibility that scopoletin, polysaccharides and
isolectins can be further developed as potential disease-
curing remedy. It must be kept in mind that clinicians
should remain cautious until more definitive studies
demonstrate the safety, quality and efficacy of U. dioica.
For these reasons, extensive pharmacological and
chemical experiments, together with human metabolism
will be a focus for future studies. Last but not the least,
this article emphasizes the potential of U. dioica to be
employed in new therapeutic drugs and provide the basis
for future research on the application of transitional
medicinal plants.
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... Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle), is a perennial plant belonging to the genus Urtica of the family Urticaceae (Ahmed and Parasuraman 2014). This plant has become both medicine and food in many nations due to its ease of harvesting and extensive distribution, as well as its extraordinary biological properties (Asgarpanah and Mohajerani, 2012). The presence of many chemical components in the plant, such as flavonoids, tannins, phytosterols, and phenolic acids suggested that the plant may be cheaply cultivated and used for naturopathy. ...
The various properties of Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle) supplemented feeds were evaluated in amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus). Four iso-protein and iso-energy diets were prepared by using different dietary levels of U. dioica i.e., 0.5 g (T1), 0.75 g (T2), and 1.0 g/kg (T3) respectively, and the treatment TC (control) consist of the basal diet with 0% of U. dioica. The phytochemical analyses of U. dioica revealed the presence of flavonoids (25.39 μg/mL), alkaloids (30.21 μg/mL), tannin (2.97 μg/mL), terpenoid (6.15 μg/mL), glycosides (10.12 μg/mL), phenolic (25.16 μg/mL) and saponin was absent. The best result of growth parameters such as net weight gain (415±0.55 g), net length gain (4.20±0.04 cm), weight gain percent (85.65±0.40%), specific growth rate (0.30±0.01%), gross conversion efficiency (0.229±0.01%), feed conversion ratio (4.37±0.13) and condition factor (1.53±0.01) were recorded in treatment T3 in comparison with the other treatments. No mortality was observed in all the treatments resulting in a 100% survival rate. The haematological parameters (like haemoglobin level, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, etc.) and serum biochemical parameters (including total serum protein, albumin, and globulin) showed better results in treatment T3.
... 117 Los compuestos bioactivos comúnmente encontrados en la U. dioica son flavonoides, taninos, compuestos volátiles y esteroles. 118,119 Se ha sugerido que estos compuestos exhiben propiedades farmacológicas hipoglucemiantes, antidiabéticas, antinflamatorias, antirreumáticas, antimicrobianas, antiasmáticas, antioxidantes, diuréticas, hipotensivas y analgésicas. Por lo tanto, es una planta muy popular en la medicina tradicional. ...
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La osteoartrosis (OA) es la enfermedad reumática más frecuente y suele resultar en discapa-cidad. Su tratamiento debe ser integral y contemplar diversos aspectos. Sin embargo, el uso crónico de medi-camentos antinflamatorios se asocia con reacciones adversas graves de tipo gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, hematológico y renal. Hace siglos que las plantas medicinales se utilizan en el manejo de esta enfermedad. Ob-jetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una revisión sistemática de la evidencia publicada de 13 plantas, cuyo uso en OA está reportado. Material y métodos. La estrategia de búsqueda incluyó los siguientes criterios: documentos en inglés y español, textos completos, estudios en humanos, guías clínicas, revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, estudios clínicos aleatorizados, estudios observacionales/ epidemiológicos/ económicos, revisiones, consensos. Se enfatizó especialmente en el mecanismo de acción farmacológico que pudiera justificar el uso, así como fundamentar la eficacia clínica. La evidencia obtenida se seleccionó mediante preguntas de trabajo y nivel de evidencia. Resultados. Se encontraron 734 artículos; se seleccionaron 346 artículos para su análisis; de éstos, 131 tuvieron utilidad por su nivel de evidencia. Entre los mecanismos de acción encontrados de las plantas investigadas se encuentra la inhibición de citocinas proinflamatorias, disminución de la señalización de TNF-α y NF-κB, reducción de la osteoclastogénesis, incremento de la diferenciación de los osteoclastos, descenso de la actividad de ciclooxigenasa 2 y de la síntesis de prostaglandinas. Conclusiones. Se concluye que las diversas plantas estudiadas tienen mecanismos de acción que apoyan su uso en el tratamiento de la OA y poseen diversos grados de efectividad demostrada.
... Nettles (Urtica) are very popular in the ethnomedicine, being used for treating rheumatism, asthma, bleeding, inflammation and anemia. There is much research dedicated to these issues (Asgarpanah and Mohajerani, 2012;Quattrocchi 2012;Wiersema and León, 2013;Bibi et al. 2014;Zlatović et al. 2014;Fontini et al. 2016;Kregiel et al. 2018). ...
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Layers of the Namcheduri II settlement (Western Georgia) dated from the 5th-4th centuries BC have been studied by the palynological method. It revealed that cereals represented the main component of the population’s diet in the discussed period. The nutritive ratio included chestnut, hazel, walnut, and grapes. The majority of the plants apparently used for medical purposes represent medicinal remedies against rheumatism, arthritis, and diarrhea. Presumably, malaria, diabetes, and epilepsy occurred rarely since the medicinal remedies used against them were poorly evidenced. Plenty of eggs of parasitic worms discovered in the group of non-pollen palynomorphs in some samples and their taxonomic variety indicates at wide spreading of helminthosis in the population in the period under discussion. Eggs of Trichuris trichuira, Ascaris lumbricoides, Capillaria, Enterobius vermicularis, Yokogava fluke were present. The abundance and diversity of eggs of parasitic worms in the obtained material gives grounds for supposition that this part of the settlement was used as a latrine.
... When we compare our findings to those of Asgarpanah and Mohajerani (2012) on Urtica dioica leaves from North West Iran, we find that the contents are comparable, with concentrations of 32 ± 0.148 mg GAE per gram of methanoic extract. ...
... Given this wide spectrum of compounds, the nettle leaf indicates various biological activities, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-anemic, anti-asthmatic, and cardiovascular. The diuretic, hypoglycemic, immunostimulating, choleretic and metabolism-accelerating properties of the nettle leaf have been proved as well [3,12,[17][18][19][20][21][22]. Due to their high nutritional value, fresh leaves, young herb and seeds have been used traditionally as a healthy food and feed. ...
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The purpose of the work was to determine the intraspecific variability of the stinging nettle, in respect of the mass of leaves and their chemical composition, including the content of phenolic compounds and assimilative pigments. The objects of the study were 10 populations of nettle, originating from the eastern and southern part of Poland. The results obtained indicate a high level of variability between and within the populations investigated but not strictly related to their geographical locations. The mass of the leaves ranged from 0.19 to 0.28 kg dry weight (DW)/plant (Coefficient of variation (CV) = 16.33%). Using HPLC–DAD, four phenolic acids were detected, i.e., caffeoylmalic (570.97–1367.40 mg/100 g DW), chlorogenic (352.79–1070.83 mg/100 g DW), neochlorogenic (114.56–284.77 mg/100 g DW) and cichoric (58.31–189.52 mg/100 g DW) acids, with the last one differentiating populations to the highest degree (CV = 48.83%). All of the analyzed populations met the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur 10th) concerning the minimum content of caffeoylmalic and chlorogenic acids in nettle leaves (not less than 0.3%). Within the flavonoid fraction, two compounds were identified, namely rutoside (917.05–1937.43 mg/100 g DW, CV = 21.32%) and hyperoside (42.01–289.45 mg/100 g DW; CV = 55.26%). The level of chlorophyll a ranged from 3.82 to 4.49 mg/g DW, chlorophyll b from 1.59 to 2.19 mg/g DW, while the content of carotenoids varied from 2.34 to 2.60 mg/100 g DW. Given all the traits investigated, the level of a population’s polymorphism (CV) was visibly higher within a population than between populations. Population no. 4 was distinguished by the highest mass of leaves, and the highest content of rutoside, while population no. 2 was distinguished by the highest content of hyperoside, caffeoylmalic and chlorogenic acid.
Fonksiyonel gıdalar içeriğindeki bileşenler, minareller, vitaminler, aminoasitler, baharatlar, bitkiler bakımından insan sağlığı için önem arz etmektedir. Yeşil yapraklı bitkiler de işlevsel özelliklere sahip, iyi bir A vitamini kaynağı, flavonoidler ve karotenoidler bakımından zengin besinlerdir. Bu araştırmanın temel amacı; Karadeniz Bölgesi’nin yenilebilir otlarının fonksiyonel gıdalar kapsamında değerlendirilip değerlendirilemeyeceğini belirlemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda literatür taraması yapılarak Karadeniz Bölgesi’nin 17 adet yenilebilir otu incelenmiş, otların besin değerleri, mutfaklarda kullanım şekilleri, sağlık için faydaları, hastalık tedavilerinde kullanım şekilleri içeriğindeki vitamin, minarel ve ağır metaller hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda Karadeniz’in yenilebilir otlarının insan sağlığı üzerinde olumlu etkilerinin olması, hastalık önlemesi ve hastalık tedavisinde kullanılması gerekçeleriyle fonksiyonel gıdalar kapsamında değerlendirebileceği sonucuna varılmıştır.
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Background: This project originated from the study of an 18th century manuscript found in Valle Imagna (Bergamo, Italy) which contains 200 plant-based medicinal remedies. A first comparison with published books concerning 20th century folk medicine in the Valley led to the designing of an ethnobotanical investigation, aimed at making a thorough comparison between past and current phytotherapy knowledge in this territory. Methods: The field investigation was conducted through semi-structured interviews. All data collected was entered in a database and subsequently processed. A diachronic comparison between the field results, the manuscript, and a 20th century book was then performed. Results: A total of 109 interviews were conducted and the use of 103 medicinal plants, belonging to 46 families, was noted. A decrease in number of plant taxa and uses was observed over time, with only 42 taxa and 34 uses reported in the manuscript being currently known by the people of the valley. A thorough comparison with the remedies in the manuscript highlighted similar recipes for 12 species. Specifically, the use of agrimony in Valle Imagna for the treatment of deep wounds calls back to an ancient remedy against leg ulcers based on this species. Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study allow us to outline the partial passage through time fragments of ancient plant-based remedies once used in the investigated area.
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present book focuses upon the Trends and Innovations in Humanities, Management, Commerce, Science and Technology. Humanities, Management, Commerce, Science and Technology are the key drivers for economic growth and human development. For India to march ahead on a sustainable development pathway to include economic development, social inclusion and environmental sustainability for achieving an “Atmanirbhar Bharat'', a greater emphasis will be given on promoting traditional knowledge system, developing indigenous technologies and encouraging grass root innovation. The emergence of disruptive and impactful technologies poses new challenges and simultaneously greater opportunities. The COVID-19 pandemic provided a compelling opportunity for Research and Development institutions, academia and industry to work in unison for sharing of purpose, synergy, collaboration and cooperation. Innovations in Humanities, Management, Commerce, Science and Technology will to bring about profound changes through short-term, medium-term, and long-term mission mode projects by building a nurtured ecosystem that promotes research and innovation on the part of both individuals and organizations. It will identify and address strengths and weaknesses of the Indian Innovations in Humanities, Management, Commerce, Science and Technology ecosystem to catalyse socioeconomic development of the country and also make the Indian Innovations in Humanities, Management, Commerce, Science and Technology ecosystem globally competitive. In this book we have covered all the related to Trends and Innovations in Humanities, Management, Commerce, Science and Technology issues.
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Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with no definite treatment, but it can be controlled by changing lifestyle and diet. Consumption of high-fiber and nutrient-rich foods including vegetables have been shown to reduce risks of obesity and Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Also, many herbal plants have been associated with reduced risks of T2DM because of their composition of secondary metabolites. Antioxidant activities of some secondary metabolites have potent inhibitory effects against inflammation linked with insulin resistance and oxidative stress. More than 800 known medicinal plants are used to control diabetes and its relevant complications. However, variations in preharvest factors including plant genotype, growing medium properties, climatic factors, and management practices can influence plant growth and their accumulation of phytochemicals with health-promoting properties. However, the effects of these preharvest factors on the antidiabetic properties of plant secondary metabolites are neither explicit nor easily accessible in the literature. Therefore, this review aims to document recent studies that reported on under-exploited medicinal plants with antidiabetic properties. We reviewed several important preharvest factors that can potentially affect the synthesis of phytoconstituents which possess antidiabetic properties. This review will help identify gaps for future research in phytomedicine and functional foods.
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One of the tomato’s acutely devastating diseases is Alternaria leaf spot, lowering worldwide tomato production. In this study, one fungal isolate was isolated from tomatoes and was assigned to Alternaria alternata TAA-05 upon morphological and molecular analysis of the ITS region and 18SrRNA, endoPG, Alt a1, and gapdh genes. Also, Urtica dioica and Dodonaea viscosa methanol leaf extracts (MLEs) were utilized as antifungal agents in vitro and compared to Ridomil, a reference chemical fungicide. The in vitro antifungal activity results revealed that Ridomil (2000 µg/mL) showed the highest fungal growth inhibition (FGI) against A. alternata (96.29%). Moderate activity was found against A. alternata by D. viscosa and U. dioica MLEs (2000 µg/mL), with an FGI value of 56.67 and 54.81%, respectively. The abundance of flavonoid and phenolic components were identified by HPLC analysis in the two plant extracts. The flavonoid compounds, including hesperidin, quercetin, and rutin were identified using HPLC in D. viscosa MLE with concentrations of 11.56, 10.04, and 5.14 µg/mL of extract and in U. dioica MLE with concentrations of 12.45, 9.21, and 5.23 µg/mL, respectively. α-Tocopherol and syringic acid, were also identified in D. viscosa MLE with concentrations of 26.13 and 13.69 µg/mL, and in U. dioica MLE, with values of 21.12 and 18.33 µg/mL, respectively. Finally, the bioactivity of plant extracts suggests that they play a crucial role as antifungal agents against A. alternata. Some phenolic chemicals, including coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and α-tocopherol, have shown that they may be utilized as environmentally friendly fungicidal compounds.
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Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that almost 1.5 million people in Iran are affected, Regarding to the adverse effects of chemical drugs, the tendency to use medicinal plants, among which nettle was chosen to be studied, is growing. In this research the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of nettle on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory factors in type II diabetic patients were studied.Materials & Methods: A blind randomized clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes; (mean age: 52.39±13.75) was designed to determine the aforementioned effect. Patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups who received 100 mg/kg, Nettle extract or placebo respectively three times a day for 8 weeks. Fasting Insulin and some inflammatory factors (Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and hsCRP (High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein) levels at the beginning and end of the study were measured. Results: IL-6 and hsCRP showed a significant decrease (P
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Kalopanax pictus is known as Castor-Aralia or Prickly Castor-oil tree. K. pictus extracts have been used for dietary health supplements and are an important area in drug development with numerous pharmacological functions in East Asia; however, their pharmacological functions have not been introduced in Western countries. This paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the pharmacological actions of K. pictus to overcome the lack of information on this plant. K. pictus extracts have proved to be effective in the treatment of inflammation and were shown to have a number of pharmaceutically relevant benefits that include anti-rheumatoidal, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer effects, etc. There are a few known active pharmacological components such as kalopanaxsaponin A and I. Although the molecular mechanisms of most of the effects are not fully understood, major mechanisms seem to involve the interplay between active components and signaling mediated by phosphorylation events during stress adaptation.
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Salicornia (S.) herbacea L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a salt marsh plant and one of the most salt tolerant species on Western coast of Korea. In a long time, S. herbacea has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of intestinal ailments, nephropathy, and hepatitis in Oriental countries. In addition, S. herbacea has recently reported to be effective on the atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. A variety of pharmacological experiments have revealed that solvent-extracted fractions of S. herbacea exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities, supporting rationale behind its several traditional uses. Tungtungmadic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside have been isolated from S. herbacea, and identified as active ingredients of biological and pharmacological activities. Due to the easily collection of the plant and remarkable biological activities, this plant has become the food and medicine in seashore area of Korea. This review presents comprehensively analyzed information on the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of S. herbacea.
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The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Urtica dioica essential oil, and to evaluate its cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, using cytogenetic tests such as the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro. GC-MS analysis of U. dioica essential oil identified 43 compounds, representing 95.8% of the oil. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of U. dioica revealed that carvacrol (38.2%), carvone (9.0%), naphthalene (8.9%), (E)-anethol (4.7%), hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.0%), (E)-geranyl acetone (2.9%), (E)-β-ionone (2.8%) and phytol (2.7%) are the main components, comprising 72.2% of the oil. A significant correlation was found between the concentration of essential oil and the following: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells, and binucleated cells.
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Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Inflammation is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, hydro alcoholic extract of Nettle (Urtica dioica) on insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory indicators in type 2 diabetic patients were studied. A randomized double-blind clinical trial on 50 men and women with type 2 diabetes was done for 8 weeks. Patients were adjusted by age, sex and duration of diabetes, then randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and control group. They received, 100 mg kg-1nettle extract or placebo in three portions a day for 8 weeks. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), High Sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Fasting Insulin concentration were measured. Insulin Sensitivity was calculated, at the beginning and the end of the study. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 18, p<0.05 was considered significant for all variables. After 8 weeks, IL-6 and hs-CRP showed a significant decrease in the intervention group compared to the control group (p<0.05). The findings showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of nettle has decreasing effects on IL-6 and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes after eight weeks intervention.
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Sambucus ebulus is known as dwarf elder or elderberry. S. ebulus extracts are an important area in drug development with numerous pharmacological functions in the Middle East. However, their pharmacological functions have not been clearly studied. For a long time, S. ebulus has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of inflammatory reactions, such as hemorrhoid, bites and sore-throat. In addition, S. ebulus has recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-oxidative activities. Ebulitin, ebulin 1, flavonoid, athocyanin and other components have been isolated from S. ebulus and identified as active ingredients of biological and pharmacological activities. Due to the easy collection of the plant and remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both food and medicine in the coastal area of Iran. This review presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical, chemical, toxicopharmacological and clinical aspects of S. ebulus.
edited by Michael I. Greenberg, Richard J. Hamilton, and Scott D. Phillips, 1997, Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 620 pages; $89.95.edited by Michael I. Greenberg, Richard J. Hamilton, and Scott D. Phillips, 1997, Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 620 pages; $89.95.
Forty individuals suffering from an acute arthritis took part in an open randomized study comparing the effects of 50 mg diclofenac plus stewed Herba Urticae dioicae (stinging nettles) with 200 mg diclofenac. Thirty-seven patients completed the study. Assessment was based on the decrease of the elevated acute phase protein CRP and the clinical signs of acute arthritis (physical impairment, subjective pain and pressure pain (patient assessment) and stiffness (physician assessment). All assessments were done on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 4. In both groups median scores improved by about 70% relative to the initial value. Only minor adverse effects occurred during treatment. The authors conclude, that stewed Herba Urticae dioicae may enhance the NSAID antirheumatic effectiveness.