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Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Coriandrum sativum L

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  • Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical Sciences

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Coriandrum sativum L. commonly known as "Coriander" is an annual herb, indicated for a number of medical properties in traditional medicine. For a long time, C. sativum has been used in traditional medicines as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial agent. Its essential oil is also used as a natural fragrance with some medicinal properties. C. sativum has recently been shown to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Volatile components, flavonoids, and isocoumarins are the main constituents of C. sativum. 2-decenoic acid, E-11-tetradecenoic acid, and capric acid were identified as the major components for C. sativum leaves essential oil. The seed oil contained linalool and geranyl acetate. Due to the easy collection of the plant and being widespread and also remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both food and medicine in many parts of the world. This review presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of C. sativum.
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African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 6(31), pp. 2340-2345, 22 August, 2012
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJPP
DOI: 10.5897/AJPP12.901
ISSN 1996-0816 © 2012 Academic Journals
Review
Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal
properties of Coriandrum sativum L.
Jinous Asgarpanah* and Nastaran Kazemivash
Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.
Accepted 6 August, 2012
Coriandrum sativum L. commonly known as “Coriander” is an annual herb, indicated for a number of
medical properties in traditional medicine. For a long time, C. sativum has been used in traditional
medicines as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antibacterial agent. Its essential oil is also used as a
natural fragrance with some medicinal properties. C. sativum has recently been shown to have
antioxidant, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Volatile components,
flavonoids, and isocoumarins are the main constituents of C. sativum. 2-decenoic acid, E-11-
tetradecenoic acid, and capric acid were identified as the major components for C. sativum leaves
essential oil. The seed oil contained linalool and geranyl acetate. Due to the easy collection of the plant
and being widespread and also remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both food and
medicine in many parts of the world. This review presents comprehensive analyzed information on the
botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of C. sativum.
Key words: Coriandrum sativum, apiaceae, phytochemistry, pharmacology.
INTRODUCTION
Coriandrum sativum L. commonly known as “Coriander”
is an annual small plant like parsley which dates back to
around 1550 BC, and is one of the oldest spice crops in
the world (Coskuner and Karababa, 2007). It belongs to
Apiaceae family in the order of Apiales that contains
about 300 genera and more than 3000 species
(Asgarpanah et al., 2012).
C. sativum probably originated from Eastern
Mediterranean and it is spread as a spice plant to India,
China, Russia, Central Europe, and Morocco, and has
been cultivated since human antiquity (Small, 1997).
India is the largest producer of coriander which is used
extensively in curry powder (Coskuner and Karababa,
2007). Coriander has been known as “Geshniz” in Iran.
C. sativum is an annual, herbaceous plant that grows
25 to 60 cm in height. It has thin, spindle-shaped roots,
erect stalk, alternate leaves (Figure 1), and small,
pinkish-white flowers. The plant flowers from June to July
and yields round fruits consisting of two pericarps
*Corresponding author. E-mail: asgarpanah@iaups.ac.ir. Tel:
22640051. Fax: 22602059.
(Burdock and Carabin, 2009). These fruits are almost
ovate globular and there are many longitudinal ridges on
the surface. The length of this fruit is 3 to 5 mm and the
color, when dried, is usually brown, but may be green,
straw-colored or off white (Figure 2) (Coskuner and
Karababa, 2007).
The plant is grown widely all over the world for seed, as
a spice, or for essential oil production (Bhuiyan et al.,
2009). The whole or ground seed (fruit) is an ingredient of
pickling spices also used to flavor various commercial
foods, particularly, to prepare some instant soups and
dishes, in many cakes, breads and other pastries,
alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts, candy, and
puddings. The fruits essential oil is a common ingredient
in creams, detergents, surfactants, emulsifiers, lotions,
and perfumes (Coskuner and Karababa, 2007). There
are two varieties of C. sativum: vulgare Alef. and
microcarpum DC. These varieties differ in the fruit size
and oil yield: vulgare has fruits of 3 to 5 mm diameter and
yields 0.1 to 0.35% essential oil, while microcarpum fruits
are 1.5 to 3 mm and yield 0.8 to 1.8% essential oil (Small,
1997).
The green leaves of coriander are known as "cilantro"
in the United States, and are consumed as fresh herb in
Asgarpanah and Kazemivash 2341
Figure 1. C. sativum L. (Coriander).
Figure 2. C. sativum fruits (seeds).
preparing chutneys, sauces, in flavoring curries and
soups. The fruits are mainly responsible for the medical
use of coriander and have been used as a drug for
indigestion, against worms, rheumatism, and pain in the
joints (Wangensteen et al., 2004). The fruit extract is
used in lotions and shampoos as an antibacterial agent
2342 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
O
O
OOMe
A
H2CCH3
H3C OH CH3
B
Figure 3. Structures of (A) coriandrin and (B) linalool from C. sativum.
(Bhuiyan et al., 2009). There are records that it is
effective for relief of insomnia, anxiety, and convulsion
(Emamghoreishi and Heidari-Hamedani, 2008). It is also
used for sub-acid gastritis, diarrhea, and dyspepsia of
various origins as well as for its digestive stimulation,
stomachic, and antibilious properties (Platel and
Srinivasan, 2004). In folk medicine, coriander is used
against intestinal parasites (Wichtl, 1994). Coriander has
been reported to possess strong lipolytic activity (Leung
and Foster, 1996), and, as a member of Apiaceae family,
its use has been suggested with caution, because of
potential allergic reactions from furanocoumarins
(Burdock and Carabin, 2009). Coriander leaves are
widely used as folk medicine as carminative, spasmolytic,
digestive, and galactagogue. It has the advantage of
being more stable and of retaining its agreeable odor
longer than any other oil of its class (Eikani et al., 2007).
A number of chemical constituents such as volatile
constituents, flavonoids, isocoumarins, and coriandrones
have been isolated from different parts of the plant
(Taniguchi et al., 1996). From current pharmaceutical
studies, additional pharmaceutical applications of C.
sativum have revealed antibacterial (Silva et al., 2011a),
antifungal (Silva et al., 2011b), antioxidant (Wangensteen
et al., 2004), hepatoprotective (Sreelatha et al., 2009),
antihelmintic (Eguale et al., 2007), anticonvulsant
(Emamghoreishi and Heidari-Hamedani, 2008),
protection of gastric mucosal damage (Al-Mofleh et al.,
2006), hypocholestrolemia (Dhanapakiam et al., 2008)
and antileishmania (Rondon et al., 2011), gut modulatory,
blood pressure lowering, and diuretic (Jabeen et al.,
2009) activities among others.
Since review and systemic analysis of chemistry,
pharmacology, and clinical properties of C. sativum have
not been reported, we were prompted to provide the
currently available information on the traditional and local
knowledge, ethno biological and ethno medicinal issues,
identification of pharmacologically important molecules,
and pharmacological studies on this useful plant. The aim
of this paper is to introduce C. sativum as a potent
medicinal plant by highlighting its traditional applications
as well as the recent findings for novel pharmacological
and clinical applications.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
The odor and flavor of mature fruits and fresh herbage
are completely different. While aliphatic aldehydes
(mainly C10 to C16 aldehydes) with fetid-like aroma are
predominant in the fresh herb oil (Potter, 1996), major
components in the oil isolated from coriander fruit include
oxygenated monoterpenes and monoterpene
hydrocarbons (Bhuiyan et al., 2009).
The most important constituents of coriander fruits are
the essential oil and fatty oil. The essential oil content of
dried coriander fruits varies between 0.03 and 2.6%,
while the fatty oil content varies between 9.9 and 27.7%.
Other constituents including crude protein, fat, crude
fiber, and ash contents vary from 11.5 to 21.3%, 17.8 to
19.15%, 28.4 to 29.1%, and 4.9 to 6.0%, respectively
(Coskuner and Karababa, 2007).
The essential oil content of the dried coriander fruits
varies from 0.1 to 0.36%. Linalool (40.9 to 79.9%) (Figure
3), neryl acetate (2.3 to 14.2%), γ-terpinene (0.1 to
13.6%), and α-pinene (1.2 to 7.1%) were identified as the
main components in the oil of the coriander fruits
cultivated in Iran (Nejad et al., 2010), while linalool
(37.7%), geranyl acetate (17.6%), and γ-terpinene
(14.4%) were characterized as the main ones in
Bangladesh coriander cultivars (Bhuiyan et al., 2009).
The leaf oil contained mostly aromatic acids, including 2-
decenoic acid (30.8%), E-11-tetradecenoic acid (13.4%),
capric acid (12.7%), undecyl alcohol (6.4%), tridecanoic
acid (5.5%), and undecanoic acid (7.1%) as major
constituents (Bhuiyan et al., 2009). Analysis of Kenya
coriander leaves essential oil showed the presence of
2E-decenal (15.9%), decanal (14.3%), 2E-decen-1-ol
(14.2%), and n-decanol (13.6%) as the main ones
(Matasyoh et al., 2009). The commonly known
phytochemicals from C. sativum are volatile components,
flavonoids, isocoumarins, fatty acids, sterols, and
coriandrones, coumarins, catechins, polyphenolic
compounds (Taniguchi et al., 1996; Sriti et al., 2009; Al-
Mofleh et al., 2006).
Two new isocoumarins, coriandrone A and B were
isolated from the aerial parts of C. sativum together with
two known isocoumarins, coriandrin and
dihydrocoriandrin (Baba et al., 1991) (Figure 3). Three
new isocoumarins, coriandrones C, D, and E were also
isolated from C. sativum whole plants (Taniguchi et al.,
1996).
Caffeic acid, protocatechinic acid, and glycitin were
characterized as the major polyphenolics of coriander
aerial parts (Melo et al., 2005).
POTENTIAL OF C. SATIVUM IN PHYTOTHERAPIES
Antibacterial and antifungal properties
C. sativum essential oil has been reported to inhibit a
broad spectrum of micro-organisms (Silva et al., 2011b).
The effective antibacterial activity of C. sativum essential
oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative
bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two clinical multidrug-
resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates has been
shown. The primary mechanism of action of coriander oil
is membrane damage, which leads to cell death (Silva et
al., 2011b). Aliphatic (2E)-alkenals and alkanals
characterized from the fresh leaves of C. sativum were
found to possess bactericidal activity against the food-
borne bacterium, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp.
choleraesuis with the minimum bactericidal concentration
(MBC) of 6.25 μg/ml (34 μM) and 12.5 µg/ml (74 μM),
respectively (Kubo et al., 2004).
Coriander essential oil has a fungicidal activity against
the Candida strains tested with minimal lethal
concentrations (MLC) values equal to the MIC value and
ranging from 0.05 to 0.4% (v/v). The fungicidal effect is
as a result of cytoplasmic membrane damage and
subsequent leakage of intracellular components such as
Asgarpanah and Kazemivash 2343
DNA (Silva et al., 2011a). The efficacy of C. sativum
essential oil has also been shown against Candida
species isolates from the oral cavity of patients with
periodontal disease. 2-hexen-1-ol, 3-hexen-1-ol and
cyclodecane were characterized as the active
constituents in the oil (Furletti et al., 2011).
Antioxidant activity
An antioxidant is defined as „any substance that, when
present at low concentrations as compared to those of an
oxidizable substrate, significantly delays or prevents
oxidation of that substrate‟ (Rhee et al., 2009; Halliwell
and Gutteridge, 1995; Wiseman et al., 1997; Mates et al.,
1999). Antioxidants are of interest to biologists and
clinicians, because they help to protect the human body
against damages induced by reactive free radicals
generated in atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease,
cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and
even in aging process (Aruoma, 2003; Hemati et al.,
2010). There are many evidences that natural products
and their derivatives have efficient anti-oxidative
characteristics, consequently linked to anti-cancer,
hypolipidemic, anti aging, and anti-inflammatory activities
(Rhee et al., 2009; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1995;
Wiseman et al., 1997; Hogg, 1998; Mates et al., 1999;
Aruoma, 2003; Cho et al., 2006).
Anti-oxidative capacities of different parts of C. sativum
were evaluated by three methods, including determining
its effect on scavenging the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl
(DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO),
and inhibition of Fe2+ induced porcine brain phospholipid
peroxidation. The leaves showed stronger antioxidant
activity than the fruits. Positive correlations were found
between total phenolic content in the extracts and
antioxidant activity (Wangensteen et al., 2004).
Polyphenolic compounds are present in C. sativum,
and are known to be excellent antioxidants. They have
the capacity to reduce free-radical formation by
scavenging free radicals and protecting antioxidant
defenses. The antioxidant potencies of polyphenolic
compounds from C. sativum against hydrogen peroxide-
induced oxidative damage in human lymphocytes have
also been shown. H2O2 treatment significantly decreased
the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide
dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione
reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and caused
decreased glutathione content and increased
thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS).
Treatment with polyphenolic fractions (50 μg/ml)
increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and
glutathione content and reduced the levels of TBARS
significantly. Polyphenolic compounds are effectively
responsible for suppression of hydrogen peroxide-
induced oxidative stress (Hashim et al., 2005).
Analyses also showed that caffeic acid, protocatechinic
acid, and glycitin were present in high concentration
2344 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
(6.98, 6.43, and 3.27 μg/ml) in coriander aerial parts.
They are principal components responsible for the
antioxidant activity of the aqueous coriander extract
(Melo et al., 2005).
Hepatoprotective activity
C. sativum extract protects liver from oxidative stress
induced by carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4) and thus helps in
evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. Pretreatment
of rats with different doses of plant extract (100 and 200
mg/kg) significantly lowered serum glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate
pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and TBARS levels
against CCl4 treated rats. Hepatic enzymes like
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and
glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly increased
by treatment with plant extract, against CCl4 treated rats.
Oral administration of the leaf extract at a dose of 200
mg/kg significantly reduced the toxic effects of CCl4. The
activity of leaf extract at this dose was comparable to the
standard drug, silymarin (Sreelatha et al., 2009).
Antidiabetic effects
Sub-chronic oral administration of C. sativum extract (20
mg/kg) in obese-hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic
animal model normalized glycemia and decreased the
elevated levels of insulin, insulin resistance (IR), total
cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-
cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Since C. sativum
extract decreased several components of the metabolic
syndrome and decreased atherosclerotic and increased
cardioprotective indices, its extract may have
cardiovascular protective effect (Aissaoui et al., 2011).
It has been demonstrated that C. sativum extract was
able to decrease hyperglycemia and increase glucose
uptake and metabolism, and insulin secretion (Gray and
Flatt, 1999; Swanston-Flatt et al., 1990).
Safety of C. sativum essential oil
Coriander essential oil is obtained by steam distillation of
the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds). Based on the results of
a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a no-observed effect-
level (NOEL) for coriander oil is approximately 160
mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the
maternal no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of
coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental
NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not
clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the
spice and some extracts are mixed. The major
component of the essential oil, linalool, is non-mutagenic.
Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity.
Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not to
humans; it is not a sensitizer, although, the whole spice
may be. Based on the history of consumption of
coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its
toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major
constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added
food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use
(Burdock and Carabin, 2009). The median lethal dose
(LD50) of C. sativum essential oil was determined as
2.257 ml/kg (Özbek et al., 2006).
C. sativum as an oilseed crop grown in Italy was
investigated regarding anti-nutritive compounds such as
glucosinolates, sinapine, inositol phosphates, and
condensed tannins, which can adversely affect the
nutritional value of residues from the oilseed processing.
All these compounds were found in C. sativum fruits in
different amounts (Matthäus and Angelini, 2005).
CONCLUSION
The objective of this review has been to show the recent
advances in the exploration of C. sativum as
phytotherapy and to illustrate its potential as a
therapeutic agent. With this present information, it is
evident that C. sativum has pharmacological functions
including antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal,
antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and antihyperlipidemic
activities, among others. As this present information
shows, it is also possible that the fruits essential oil or
the whole plant extract might be useful in the
development of new drugs to treat various diseases.
However, the present results suggest a possibility that
volatile components and polyphenolics can be further
developed as a potential disease-curing remedy. It must
be kept in mind that clinicians should remain cautious
until more definitive studies demonstrate the quality and
efficacy of C. sativum. For these reasons, extensive
pharmacological and chemical experiments, together with
human metabolism will be a focus for future studies.
Finally, this review emphasizes the potential of C.
sativum to be employed in new therapeutic drugs and
provides the basis for future research on the application
of transitional medicinal plants.
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Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 37:705-718.
... In addition, many compounds such as geraniol ,linalyl acetate, α-pinene, βpinene, β-myrcene, and α-terpinene and others are the antifungal . In addition to its medical properties and the oil of the coriander is considered to be anti-fungal and bacterial, antioxidant and has a distinctive aromatic aroma, beside its medicinal properties (Weiss ,2002 ;Matasyoh et al., 2009 ;Asgarpanah andKazemivash ,2012 andWładysław andNowak,2015) . ...
... In addition, many compounds such as geraniol ,linalyl acetate, α-pinene, βpinene, β-myrcene, and α-terpinene and others are the antifungal . In addition to its medical properties and the oil of the coriander is considered to be anti-fungal and bacterial, antioxidant and has a distinctive aromatic aroma, beside its medicinal properties (Weiss ,2002 ;Matasyoh et al., 2009 ;Asgarpanah andKazemivash ,2012 andWładysław andNowak,2015) . ...
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The present study was conducted during (2017-2018 and 2018-2019) seasons, at the Hort. Dept., Fac., of. Agric., Benha Univ., Egypt to study the effect of chemical fertilizers (NPK) as a full dose and biofertilization (Bio.) consisting of a mixture of (Nitrobein + Phosphorein) in the presence of Salicylic acid (SA) foliar spray at 150 ppm in a single or combinations inbetween them on vegetative growth ,grain yield ,chemical constituents parameters and oil productivity of coriander plants comparison with control plants in both seasons. The results indicated that different treatments of NPK mineral fertilizer, biofertilization and salicylic acid treatments , either alone or mixed among them, resulted in a significant increase in the growth ,chemical constituents parameters and oil productivity in both seasons. The use of 100% NPK achieved the highest results in the characteristics of growth, yield and chemical composition, followed by the use of the treatment of 75%NPK +Bio.+SA, where it achieved a significant maximize in this concern,whereas the treatment of 75% NPK + Bio. ranked the third in this context as compared with untreated plants in both seasons. Also, the combined treatment of 75% NPK + Bio. + SA gave the highest values of oil productivity. Consequently, in order to achieve the highest values of growth and chemical constituents ,it is preferable to treate coriander with NPK at 100% or 75%NPK + Bio. + SA. Also, it is possible to treat coriander plant with 75% dose NPK +Bio. + SA to improve oil productivity.
... Multiple research and clinical trials have validated that essential oils have positive benefits in AD patients. Plant essential oils and specific terpenes have been demonstrated to have antioxidant and AChEIs properties (Asgarpanah and Kazemivash, 2012). Effective anti-AD compounds include terpenoids such as ginsenosides, ginkgolides, and cannabinoids. ...
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The current scientific community is facing a daunting challenge to unravel reliable natural compounds with realistic potential to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The reported compounds/drugs mostly synthetic deemed the reliability and therapeutic potential largely due to their complexity and off-target issues. The natural products from nutraceutical compounds emerge as viable preventive therapeutics to fill the huge gap in treating neurological disorders. Considering that Alzheimer’s disease is a multifactorial disease, natural compounds offer the advantage of a multitarget approach, tagging different molecular sites in the human brain, as compared with the single-target activity of most of the drugs so far used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. A wide range of plant extracts and phytochemicals reported to possess the therapeutic potential to Alzheimer’s disease includes curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, morin, delphinidins, quercetin, luteolin, oleocanthal, and other phytochemicals such as huperzine A, limonoids, and azaphilones. Reported targets of these natural compounds include inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, amyloid senile plaques, oxidation products, inflammatory pathways, specific brain receptors, etc. We tenaciously aimed to review the in-depth potential of natural products and their therapeutic applications against Alzheimer’s disease, with a special focus on a diversity of medicinal plants and phytocompounds and their mechanism of action against Alzheimer’s disease pathologies. We strongly believe that the medicinal plants and phytoconstituents alone or in combination with other compounds would be effective treatments against Alzheimer’s disease with lesser side effects as compared to currently available treatments.
... Being a significant edible herb, coriander has also been encountered with enormous number of medicinal properties including anti-microbial (Ozkinali et al., 2017;Sumalan et al., 2019;Zare-Zardini et al., 2012), anti-cancer (Gomez-Flores et al., 2010;Tang et al., 2013), anti-diabetic (Asgarpanah & Kazemivash, 2012), anti-inflammatory (Nair et al., 2013) as well as against hypertension and various other diseases (Laribi et al., 2015;Sangeetha et al., 2022). The current literature review mainly focuses on the various exploitations of the C. sativum in the field of treatment of human clinical diseases. ...
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i>Coriandrum sativum L. is a potential herb that is commonly known as coriander or Chinese parsley is being possessed to have various medicinal properties. Almost all the parts of the herb have been examined for its effectiveness in various human diseases such as migraine, hypertension and diabetes specifically. The diseases considered for the current review are migraine, hypertension and diabetes, which are highly prevalent as well as major co-morbidity for other clinical conditions. The extracts of different parts of C. sativum have been identified to have roles in treating and managing migraine, hypertension and diabetes. The genetic inter-relationship of C. sativum with the diseases are also being discussed in this review. The literature surf was done in platforms for the journals life science and medicinal research using the keywords C. sativum , herbal medicine, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, migraine, genetics etc. The results obtained through the clinical trials conducted by various researchers globally were satisfactorily acceptable in treating these diseases along with some other diseases to a certain extent, whereas the genetic studies were insignificant. Henceforth, the current literature review highlights the medicinal exploitation of C. sativum in accordance with the treatment and management of migraine, hypertension and diabetes.
... Rhus coriaria L. Gallic acid, methyl gallate, kaempferol and quercetin (Shidfar et al., 2014) 10 Coriandrum sativum L. Polyphenolics and volatile components (Asgarpanah and Kazemivash, 2012) 11 ...
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Context: Diabetes mellitus is a condition, which is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, abnormal functioning of insulin and difficulty in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Antidiabetic medicines of herbal origin are widely consumed in Pakistan. Therefore, there was a need to generate data on antidiabetic herbal formulations manufactured and marketed in Pakistan. Aims: To develop a list of Pakistani manufactured antidiabetic herbal products and the most common herbal ingredients found in them. Methods: Antidiabetic herbal formulations were collected from the renowned herbal stores of Karachi, Pakistan, and their ingredients were checked. The most common herbal ingredients found in them were determined, and the possible constituents responsible for the antidiabetic action of these herbs were discovered. Results: A total of 15 herbal antidiabetic products were collected from the herbal stores. The most common herbs found in them include Syzygium cumini, Conclusions: The herbs incorporated in these formulations have proven antidiabetic effects; therefore, these formulations can produce significant results in the management of diabetes. More research on each of these formulations is needed to confirm the potency of all these herbal products. Resumen Contexto: La diabetes mellitus es una condición que se caracteriza por hiperglucemia persistente, funcionamiento anormal de la insulina y dificultad en el metabolismo de carbohidratos, grasas y proteínas. Los medicamentos antidiabéticos de origen vegetal se consumen ampliamente en Pakistán. Por lo tanto, era necesario generar datos sobre las formulaciones a base de hierbas antidiabéticas fabricadas y comercializadas en Pakistán. Objetivos: Desarrollar una lista de productos herbales antidiabéticos fabricados en Pakistán y los ingredientes herbales más comunes que se encuentran en ellos. Métodos: Se recolectaron formulaciones de hierbas antidiabéticas de renombradas tiendas de hierbas de Karachi, Pakistán, y se verificaron sus ingredientes. Se determinaron los ingredientes herbales más comunes que se encuentran en ellos y se determinaron los posibles constituyentes responsables de la acción antidiabética de estas hierbas. Resultados: Se recogió un total de 15 productos antidiabéticos a base de hierbas de las tiendas de hierbas. Las hierbas más comunes que se encuentran en ellos incluyen Syzygium Conclusiones: Las hierbas incorporadas en estas formulaciones tienen efectos antidiabéticos comprobados; por lo tanto, estas formulaciones pueden producir resultados significativos en el manejo de la diabetes. Se necesita más investigación sobre cada una de estas formulaciones para confirmar la potencia de todos estos productos a base de hierbas. Palabras Clave: diabetes mellitus; hiperglucemia; drogas a base de plantas. ARTICLE INFO
... It has small, pinkish-white flowers. Its seeds, which are close to the spherical form, are brown in color (sometimes in light-ocher tones or green, gray colors) and are about 3-5 mm in size (Asgarpanah & Kazemivash, 2012). According to the general classification, Coriandrum sativum L. var. ...
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Medicinal plants are an important source of therapeutic compounds used in the treatment of many diseases since ancient times. Interestingly, they form associations with numerous microorganisms developing as endophytes or symbionts in different parts of the plants. Within the soil, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most prevalent symbiotic microorganisms forming associations with more than 70% of vascular plants. In the last decade, a number of studies have reported the positive effects of AMF on improving the production and accumulation of important active compounds in medicinal plants. In this work, we reviewed the literature on the effects of AMF on the production of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. The major findings are as follows: AMF impact the production of secondary metabolites either directly by increasing plant biomass or indirectly by stimulating secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. The magnitude of the impact differs depending on the plant genotype, the AMF strain, and the environmental context (e.g., light, time of harvesting). Different methods of cultivation are used for the production of secondary metabolites by medicinal plants (e.g., greenhouse, aeroponics, hydroponics, in vitro and hairy root cultures) which also are compatible with AMF. In conclusion, the inoculation of medicinal plants with AMF is a real avenue for increasing the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of pharmacological, medical, and cosmetic interest.
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Himalayan communities illustrate a rich agriculture–medicine use system that not only provides adequate dietary diversity and nutrition but also delivers therapeutic security. This study explores the food–medicine interface as observed by the marginal hill communities in the central Himalaya with an aim to assess traditional agriculture and food plants with relation to dietary diversity and nutritional and medicinal values based on comprehensive research. A total of 445 respondents were interviewed to obtain data on food intakes using dietary recall methods and dietary diversity indices (DDIs). The ethnomedical use of plant species was gathered from respondents as well as from various published studies for respective species. Nutritional parameters were collected from the Indian Food Composition Table developed by the ICMR, India to analyze the average nutritional intake. The traditional food system achieves the dietary and nutritional needs of the community within the standard norms. The average household dietary diversity of 7.45, 7.34, and 8.39 in summer, monsoon, and winter seasons, respectively, sustain 79, 74, and 93% of energy requirements in respective, seasons. The average food consumption score (FCS) was 73.46, and all the food exhibited rich phytochemicals, such as amino acids, alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic acids. These plants also provided effective treatments against several ailments and illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetics, gastrointestinal issues, and inflammation The indigenous cuisines also have significant food and medicinal values. Considering that the community had significant knowledge of food systems with their nutritional and therapeutic utility, there is a need to protect and document this indigenous knowledge. Also, most of the crops are still under cultivation, so there is a need to create more awareness about the nutritional and therapeutic value of the system so that it could be retained intact and continued. The implications of this research are of both academic importance and practical significance to ensure food–medicine security and avoid malnutrition among rural communities. It is expected that the study would lead to renewed thinking and policy attention on traditional agriculture for its role in food and nutritional security that may lead to a sustainable food supply system.
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Nutraceuticals and natural health products globally represent one of the fastest growing sectors of research and development leading to novel products intended for disease risk reduction and human health promotion. The global nutraceutical market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027 to reach USD 722.5 billion by 2027. There is a need to respond to this sector by exploring the local resources to target the production of innovative products from plant/marine biofactors with high prospects for commercial ventures. This paper explores the nutraceutical potentials enshrined in biodiversity values in a small island state in view to promote sustainable agricultural development to facilitate available resources for the development of regimen for the management of health and disease and in essence, pharmacotherapy. The reported phytochemical composition and pharmacological activities, of the terrestrial flora and marine organisms with high propensity for development and production of nutraceutical products will be discussed. Bioactive phytochemicals encompassing the immensely diverse groups of phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, possess therapeutic virtues including anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory attributes, all of which are highly relevant to the budding nutraceutical industry.
Chapter
Diabetes has emerged as one of the major health problems of the modern world. It is often described as a syndrome rather than a disease. It is considered to result in abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It signifies a condition where body is unable to regulate carbohydrate metabolism due to partial or complete absence of insulin. Inadequate regulation of the blood sugar in turn starts a cascade of imbalances in the fat and protein metabolism. These impose serious consequences to the health of patients. The complications that ensue due to glycation of proteins and deposition of fat are diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and cardiovascular disorders. Thus diabetes along with its related complications result in high incidences of morbidity and mortality among the sufferers. As per the recent estimates the incidence of diabetes are increasing at alarming rates worldwide. India in particular is termed as the diabetes capital of the world. The conventional antidiabetic drugs are oral hypoglycaemic drugs and insulin therapy. These interventions are effective in the management of diabetes, however, they do not treat it and some of them have serious side effects. Medicinal plants offer highly attractive alternative to synthetic antidiabetic agents. In this chapter the plants with antidiabetic potential are described with focuses on edible plants. The use of edible antidiabetic plants or products remains the mainstay of the chapter. Individual plants have been described with respect to the biological source, geographical origin and distribution, traditional uses along with their biologically active compounds and pharmacological reports.
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Nutraceuticals and natural health products globally represent one of the fastest growing sectors of research and development leading to novel products intended for disease risk reduction and human health promotion. The global nutraceutical market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.3% from 2020 to 2027 to reach USD 722.5 billion by 2027. There is a need to respond to this sector by exploring the local resources to target the production of innovative products from plant/marine biofactors with high prospects for commercial ventures. This paper explores the nutraceutical potentials enshrined in biodiversity values in a small island state in view to promote sustainable agricultural development to facilitate available resources for the development of regimen for the management of health and disease and in essence, pharmacotherapy. The reported phytochemical composition and pharmacological activities, of the terrestrial flora and marine organisms with high propensity for development and production of nutraceutical products will be discussed. Bioactive phytochemicals encompassing the immensely diverse groups of phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, possess therapeutic virtues including anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory attributes, all of which are highly relevant to the budding nutraceutical industry.
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2 Objectives: Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) has been indicated for a number of medical problems in traditional medicine such as relief of insomnia, anxiety and convulsion. The aim of this study was to examine whether the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts or essential oil of coriander seeds have anticonvulsant effect in mice. Methods: Anticonvulsant effects of extracts and essential oil were assessed by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. Male mice were received the aqueous or hydroalcoholic extracts or essential oil of coriander seeds or vehicle intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the injection of pentylenetetrazole (85 mg/kg). Diazepam (3 mg/kg) was used as a reference drug. The onset time of myoclonic, clonic and tonic convulsions, the numbers of animals shown convulsion and the percentage of mortality were recorded. Results: A significant linear relationship between the doses of the coriander extracts and essential oil and the protection against PTZ-induced tonic convulsion and death was observed (p
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Heracleum persicum is known as Persian Hogweed. H. persicum extracts and essential oil are important areas in drug development with numerous pharmacological activities in the Middle East especially in Iran. For a long time H. persicum has been used in traditional medicines for the relief of flatulence, stomachs as well as flavoring, as a digestive and an antiseptic. H. persicum has recently been shown to have antioxidant, anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Pimpinellin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, isobergapten and sphondin are furanocoumarins which are reported from roots of this plant. Hexyl butyrate, octyl acetate and hexyl-2-methylbutanoate were identified as the major constituents for H. persicum essential oil. Due to the easy collection of the plant and being widespread and also remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both food and medicine in Iran. This review presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of H. persicum.
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An aqueous coriander extract obtained through a sequential extraction process, was analysed using chromatography and mass spectrometry in order to identify the phenolic compounds responsible for its antioxidant activity. Four fractions were identified from the crude extract using chromatography in a silica gel column. Their antioxidant activity, according to the β-carotene/linoleic acid model, was similar to one another but inferior to that of the crude extract and of butylated hydroxytoluene. Of the phenols identified through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, it was noted that caffeic acid was present in high concentration (4.34μg/ml in fraction I and 2.64μg/ml in fraction III), whereas protocatechinic acid and glycitin were present in high concentration in fraction II (6.43μg/ml) and fraction IV (3.27μg/ml), respectively. These results, when considered with the recognized antioxidant ability of phenolic acids, suggest that they are principal components responsible for the antioxidant activity of the aqueous coriander extract.
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Three new isocoumarins, coriandrones C-E, were isolated from whole plants of Coriandrum sativum and their structures established from spectral and chemical evidence.
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Key Word Index-Coriandrum sativum; Umbelliferae; isocoumarin; X-ray analysis. Abstract-Two new isocoumarins, coriandrone A and B, were isolated from the aerial parts of Coriandrum satiuum together with two known isocoumarins, coriandrin and dihydrocoriandrin. Their structure were established by spectroscopic means and X-ray analysis.