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Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults [ACSM position stand]

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Progression Models in
Resistance Training
for Healthy Adults
POSITION STAND
This pronouncement was written for the American College of
Sports Medicine by Nicholas A. Ratamess, Ph.D.; Brent A. Alvar,
Ph.D.; Tammy K. Evetoch, Ph.D., FACSM; Terry J. Housh, Ph.D.,
FACSM (Chair); W. Ben Kibler, M.D., FACSM; William J. Kraemer,
Ph.D., FACSM; and N. Travis Triplett, Ph.D.
SUMMARY
In order to stimulate further adaptation toward specific training goals,
progressive resistance training (RT) protocols are necessary. The optimal
characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of concentric
(CON), eccentric (ECC), and isometric muscle actions and the performance
of bilateral and unilateral single- and multiple-joint exercises. In addition, it
is recommended that strength programs sequence exercises to optimize the
preservation of exercise intensity (large before small muscle group
exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and
higher-intensity before lower-intensity exercises). For novice (untrained
individuals with no RT experience or who have not trained for several
years) training, it is recommended that loads correspond to a repetition
range of an 8–12 repetition maximum (RM). For intermediate (individuals
with approximately 6 months of consistent RT experience) to advanced
(individuals with years of RT experience) training, it is recommended that
individuals use a wider loading range from 1 to 12 RM in a periodized
fashion with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1–6 RM) using 3- to
5-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction
velocity (1–2 s CON; 1–2 s ECC). When training at a specific RM load, it
is recommended that 2–10% increase in load be applied when the
individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions
over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is
2–3 dIwk
j1
for novice training, 3–4 dIwk
j1
for intermediate training, and
4–5 dIwk
j1
for advanced training. Similar program designs are recom-
mended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and
frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to
1–12 RM be used in periodized fashion with emphasis on the 6–12 RM
zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity.
Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing
hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading
strategies: 1) strength training and 2) use of light loads (0–60% of 1 RM for
lower body exercises; 30–60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises) performed
at a fast contraction velocity with 3–5 min of rest between sets for multiple
sets per exercise (three to five sets). It is also recommended that emphasis be
placed on multiple-joint exercises especially those involving the total body.
For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to
moderate loads (40–60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (915)
using short rest periods (G90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand as
with prior ones, recommendations should be applied in context and should be
contingent upon an individual’s target goals, physical capacity, and training
status. Key Words: strength, power, local muscular endurance, fitness,
functional abilities, hypertrophy, health, performance
INTRODUCTION
The current document replaces the American College
of Sports Medicine (ACSM) 2002 Position Stand entitled
BProgression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy
Adults[(8). The 2002 ACSM Position Stand extended the
resistance training (RT) guidelines initially established by
the ACSM in the position stand entitled BThe Recommen-
ded Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and
Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and
Flexibility in Healthy Adults[(7), which suggested the min-
imal standard of one set of 8–12 repetitions for 8–10 exer-
cises, including one exercise for all major muscle groups,
and 10–15 repetitions for older and more frail persons. The
2002 Position Stand (8) provided a framework for superior
training prescription guidelines relative to the need for pro-
gression in healthy (without disease or orthopedic limitations)
novice, intermediate, and advanced trainees. Specifically,
these guidelines effectively distinguished numerous modifi-
cations to the original guidelines to accommodate individuals
seeking muscular development beyond that of minimal
general health and fitness. Since 2002, numerous studies have
been published examining one or more RT variable(s) to sup-
port the progressive adaptation in muscular strength and per-
formance. These studies have identified other mechanisms
of physiological adaptations and have served to bolster the
scientific integrity of the RT knowledge base. As with all
position stands, interpretation of these revised recommenda-
tions should be applied in context and should be contin-
gent upon an individual’s goals, physical capacity, and
training status.
Progression in RT may be defined as Bthe act of moving
forward or advancing toward a specific goal over time until
the target goal has been achieved,[whereas maintenance
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RT refers to programs designed to maintain the current level
of muscular fitness (8). Although it is impossible to improve
at the same rate over long-term periods (e.g., 96 months),
the proper manipulation of program variables (choice of
resistance, exercise selection and order, number of sets
and repetitions, frequency, and rest period length) can limit
training plateaus and increase the ability to achieve a higher
level of muscular fitness. Trainable characteristics include
muscular strength, power, hypertrophy, and local muscular
endurance (LME). Variables such as speed and agility,
balance, coordination, jumping ability, flexibility, and other
measures of motor performance may be enhanced by RT.
RT, when incorporated into a comprehensive fitness pro-
gram, improves cardiovascular function (72), reduces the
risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (89,130)
and non–insulin-dependent diabetes (184), prevents osteo-
porosis (163), may reduce the risk of colon cancer (146),
promotes weight loss and maintenance (61), improves dy-
namic stability and preserves functional capacity (61), and
fosters psychological well-being (62).
This position stand presents evidence-based guidelines
using The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (194)
criteria shown in Table 1. Each recommendation is given a
grade of A, B, C, or D based on the quantity and quality of
evidence.
PROGRESSION PRINCIPLES
The foremost principles of RT progression are progres-
sive overload, specificity, and variation (157). Countless RT
models can be effective if these principles are incorporated
and manipulated into the design. The magnitude of im-
provement depends upon the individual’s training status and
genetic predisposition (8). Progressive overload is the grad-
ual increase of stress placed upon the body during exercise
training. Among untrained or novice populations, physio-
logical adaptations to an RT program may occur in a short
period. Systematically increasing the demands placed upon
the body is necessary for further improvement and may
be accomplished through altering one or more of the fol-
lowing variables: 1) exercise intensity (i.e., absolute or
relative resistance/load for a given exercise/movement) may
be increased; 2) total repetitions performed at the current
intensity may be increased; 3) repetition speed/tempo with
submaximal loads may be altered according to goals; 4) rest
periods may be shortened for endurance improvements or
lengthened for strength and power training; and 5) training
volume (total work represented as the product of the total
number of repetitions performed and the resistance) may be
gradually increased (e.g., 2.5–5% [75]) (Table 2).
Specificity. All training adaptations are Bspecific[to
the stimulus applied. The specific physiological adapta-
tions to RT are determined by various factors, including
1) muscle actions involved (56), 2) speed of movement
(39,44), 3) range of motion (145), 4) muscle groups trained
(156), 5) energy systems involved (259), and 6) intensity
and volume of training (225). Although there is some car-
ryover of training effects to other general fitness and per-
formance attributes, the most effective RT programs are
those that are designed to target-specific training goals.
Variation. Variation, or periodization, entails the sys-
tematic process of altering one or more program variable(s)
over time to allow for the training stimulus to remain
challenging and effective. Because the human body adapts
quickly to an RT program, at least some changes are needed
in order for continual progression to occur. It has been
shown that systematic variation of volume and intensity is
most effective for long-term progression (254). Variation
may take place in many forms and manifests by manip-
ulation of any one or a combination of the acute program
variables. However, the two most commonly studied
variables have been volume and intensity. The concept of
periodization was developed based on the studies of gen-
eral adaptation syndrome by Hans Selye (239) to optimize
performance and recovery (74,100). In addition to sport-
specific training, periodized RT has been shown to be
effective for recreational (54) and rehabilitative (67) ob-
jectives and is supported through a meta-analytical inves-
tigation to be superior to nonperiodized RT (223).
Classical periodization. The classic (linear) model of
periodization is characterized by high initial training
volume and low intensity, and as training progresses,
volume decreases and intensity gradually increases. This
traditional model of periodization is carried out to enhance
fundamental fitness variables through training in a desig-
nated succession to serve as an appropriate arrangement to
elicit Bpeak[performance of a distinct fitness variable (e.g.,
strength, rate of force development [RFD], and/or peak
power) for a precise and often narrow time window (74).
Most, but not all (14), studies have shown classic strength/
power periodized training to be superior to nonperiodized
RT for increasing maximal strength (e.g., 1 repetition
TABLE 1. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI; 194) evidence categories.
Category Source of Evidence Definition
A Randomized control trials (RCT; rich body of data) Evidence is from well-designed RCT that provide a consistent pattern of findings in the population for which the
recommendation is made. Requires substantial number of studies involving substantial number of participants.
B RCT (limited body of data) Evidence is from intervention studies that include only a limited number of RCT, post hoc or
subgroup analysis of RCT, or meta-analysis of RCT. Pertains when few randomized trials exist, they are small,
and the results are somewhat inconsistent or were from a nonspecific population.
C Nonrandomized trials, observational studies Evidence is from outcomes of uncontrolled trials or observations.
D Panel consensus judgment Expert judgment is based on panel’s synthesis of evidence from experimental research or the consensus of
panel members based on clinical experience or knowledge that does not meet the above-listed criteria.
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maximum [RM] squat), cycling power, motor performance,
and jumping ability (252,254,272). It appears that longer
training periods (96 months) may be necessary to under-
score the benefits of periodized training (273) because
periodized and nonperiodized training are effective during
short-term training. Important to periodization is the use of
rest days to allow recovery and to reduce the probability or
magnitude of overtraining (79).
Reverse periodization. A reverse linear periodiza-
tion model has also been studied (227). This model is the
inverse of the classical model in which intensity is initially
at its highest and volume at its lowest. Subsequently, over
an extended time, intensity decreases and volume increases
with each phase. This periodization model has been used
for individuals targeting local muscular endurance (LME)
enhancement (59) and was shown to be superior for en-
hancing LME to other periodization models when volume
and intensity were equated (227). Strength improvements
following this model have been shown to be lower com-
pared with linear and undulating models (227).
Undulating periodization. The undulating (nonlinear)
model of periodization enables variation in intensity and
volume within a cycle by rotating different protocols to
train various components of neuromuscular performance
(e.g., strength, power, LME). For example, in loading
schemes for core exercises (those exercises most specific to
target goals), the use of heavy, moderate, and light
resistances may be systematically or randomly rotated over
a training sequence, for example, 3–5 repetition maximum
(RM) loads, 8–10 RM loads, and 12–15 RM loads may
used in the rotation. This model has compared favorably
with linear periodized and nonperiodized multiple-set
models (14) and has been shown to produce superior
strength increases over 12 wk of RT compared with the
classical model (226). Further, this model has demonstrated
advantages in comparison to nonperiodized, low-volume
training in women (155,169). Few investigations have
evaluated the impact of undulating RT for multiple fitness
objectives (199). Most recently, this model has been
demonstrated superior over nonundulating RT for generat-
ing fitness and performance enhancement outcomes among
firefighter trainees (209).
TRAINABLE CHARACTERISTICS
Muscular Strength
The ability to generate force is necessary for all types of
movement. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) is
positively related to maximal force production (71). The
arrangement of fibers according to their angle of pennation,
muscle length, joint angle, and contraction velocity can alter
the expression of muscular strength (95,145). Force
generation is further dependent upon motor unit activation,
and motor units are recruited according to their recruitment
threshold that typically involves the activation of the slower
(lower force-producing) motor units before the faster
(higher force-producing) units, that is, size principle (114).
Adaptations to RT enable greater force generation through
numerous neuromuscular mechanisms. Muscle strength
may increase significantly within the first week of training
(39), and long-term strength enhancement manifests itself
through enhanced neural function (e.g., greater recruitment,
rate of discharge) (234), increased muscle CSA (5,176,250),
changes in muscle architecture (138), and possible adapta-
tions to increased metabolites, for example, H
+
(242), for
increased strength. The magnitude of strength enhancement
is dependent on the type of program used and the careful
prescription of muscle actions, intensity, volume, exercise
selection and order, rest periods between sets, and frequen-
cy (157).
Muscle Action
Most RT programs primarily include dynamic repetitions
with both concentric (CON; muscle shortening) and
eccentric (ECC; muscle lengthening) muscle actions,
whereas isometric (ISOM; no net change in muscle length)
actions play a secondary role (e.g., during nonagonist
muscle stabilization, core strength, grip strength, pauses
between ECC and CON actions, or specific agonist ISOM
exercises). Greater force per unit of muscle size is produced
during ECC actions (147) than either CON or ISOM
actions. Moreover, ECC actions require less motor unit
activation per specific load (147), are less metabolically
demanding (26), and are conducive to promoting hypertro-
phic adaptation (112) yet result in more pronounced
delayed onset muscle soreness (58) as compared with
CON actions. Dynamic CON muscular strength improve-
ment is greatest when ECC actions are included with CON
actions (56), and independently, ECC isokinetic training has
been shown to produce greater muscle action-specific
strength gains than CON training (64). The role of muscle
action manipulation during RT is minimal with respect to
overall progression because most programs include both
CON and ECC actions in a given repetition. However, the
inclusion of additional ISOM exercise may be beneficial. In
some programs, the use of different forms of ISOM
training, for example, functional ISOM (131) and supra-
maximal ECC actions (143), has been reported to produce
additional benefit. Specifically, certain ISOM actions have
been recommended for promoting low back health and have
been demonstrated effective for the selective recruitment of
postural, spinal-stabilization musculature (181).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. For progression during RT for novice, intermedi-
ate, and advanced individuals, it is recommended that
CON, ECC, and ISOM muscle actions be included
(56,64,112,131,143).
Loading
Altering the training load affects the acute metabo-
lic (221), hormonal (151–154,158,159,165,219), neural
(96,235), and cardiovascular (72) responses to resistance
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exercise. Depending on an individual’s training experience
and current level of fitness, proper loading during RT
encompasses one or more of the following loading
schemes: 1) increasing load based on a percentage of 1
RM, 2) increasing absolute load based on a targeted
repetition number, or 3) increasing loading within a
prescribed zone (e.g., 8–12 RM). The load required to
increase maximal strength in untrained individuals is fairly
low. Loads of 45–50% of 1 RM (and less) have been
shown to increase dynamic muscular strength in previous-
ly untrained individuals (9,33,255,268). Light loads that
can be lifted a maximum of 15–25 repetitions have been
showntoincreasestrengthinmoderately trained individ-
uals (227). It appears greater loading is needed with
progression. At least 80% of 1 RM is needed to produce
further neural adaptations and strength during RT in
experienced lifters (96). Several pioneering studies indi-
cated that training with loads corresponding to 1–6 RM
(mostly 5–6 RM) was most conducive to increasing
maximal dynamic strength (22,201). Strength increases
have been shown to be greater using heavy weights for 3–
5 RM compared with 9–11 and 20–28 RM (33). Although
significant strength increases have been reported using
loads corresponding to 8–12 RM and lighter (33,149,250),
this loading range may be inferior for maximizing strength
in advanced lifters (96). Research examining periodized
RT has demonstrated a need for variable-intensity load-
ing schemes (74,223). Contrary to early suggestions of 6
RM loading, it appears that using a variety of training
loads is most conducive to maximizing muscular strength
(74). Meta-analytical data have shown that 60% of 1 RM
produced the largest effect sizes for strength increases in
novice individuals whereas 80% of 1 RM produced the
largest effect sizes for strength increases in trained in-
dividuals (225) and 85% of 1 RM was most effective in
athletes (206). For novice individuals, it has been sug-
gested that moderate loading (50–60% of 1 RM or less)
be used initially as learning proper form, and technique is
paramount. These dose–response data refer to average
training dosages, that is, mean loads used for all exercises.
Further, using a variety of loads appears to be most ef-
fective for long-term progression in muscular strength
(157). Recent studies have shown that self-selected RT
intensities are lower than what is recommended, for
example, 38–58% of 1 RM (76,87,222). Thus, intensity
needs to be prescribed above one’s threshold (based on
targeted repetition number) for progression in experienced
populations.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that novice to intermediate
individuals train with loads corresponding to 60–70% of 1
RM for 8–12 repetitions and advanced individuals cycle
training loads of 80–100% of 1 RM to maximize muscular
strength (9,33,96,206,225,227,255,268).
Evidence category B. For progression in those individu-
als training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that a
2–10% (lower percent for small muscle mass exercises,
higher percent increase for large muscle mass exercises)
increase in load be applied when the individual can perform
the current workload for one to two repetitions over the
desired number on two consecutive training sessions (68).
Volume
Training volume is a summation of the total number of
repetitions performed during a training session multiplied
by the resistance used (kg) and is reflective of the duration
of which muscles are being stressed (262). Volume has
been shown to affect neural (102), hypertrophic (258),
metabolic (221), and hormonal (92,151,152,191,220)
responses and subsequent adaptations to RT. Altering
training volume can be accomplished by changing the
number of exercises performed per session, the number of
repetitions performed per set, or the number of sets per
exercise. Low-volume programs, for example, high load,
low repetitions, moderate to high number of sets, have been
characteristic of RT. Studies using two (55,170), three
(149,250), four to five (56,122), and six or more (123,236)
sets per exercise have all produced significant increases in
muscular strength in both trained and untrained individuals.
In direct comparison, studies have reported similar strength
increases in novice individuals between two and three sets
(35) and two and four sets (202), whereas three sets have
been reported superior to one and two (23). Although little
is known concerning the optimal number of sets performed
per muscle group per session, a meta-analysis of 37 studies
has shown that approximately eight sets per muscle group
produced the largest effect size in athletes (206,207).
Another aspect that has received considerable attention is
the comparison of single- and multiple-set programs. In many
of these studies, one set per exercise performed for 8–12
repetitions at a relatively slow velocity has been compared
with both periodized and nonperiodized multiple-set pro-
grams. A common criticism of these investigations is that the
number of sets per exercise was not controlled from other
variables such as intensity, frequency, and repetition velocity.
Notwithstanding this concern, most research investigations
comparing single- versus multiple-set training for muscular
fitness have examined the effects of a standard single-set
training program relative to that of any number of possible
multiple-set programs of varying intensity. This design has
made the process of identifying a clear-cut prescription re-
commendation very difficult because these studies have
yielded conflicting results. Several studies have reported
similar strength increases between single- and multiple-set
programs (40,132,248), whereas others reported multiple-set
programs superior (23,27,237,251,256) in previously un-
trained individuals. Since 2002, six studies have shown
multiple-set superiority for 33–100% of the dynamic
strength assessments used, whereas the remaining dynamic
strength assessments showed similar increases (81,126,
175,192,203,231). These data have prompted the notion that
untrained individuals respond favorably to both single- and
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multiple-set programs and formed the basis for the popularity
of single-set training among general fitness enthusiasts (68).
In resistance-trained individuals, multiple-set programs have
been shown to be superior for strength enhancement (142,
149,155,160,228,238) in all but one study (110). Among
resistance-trained postmenopausal women, multiple-set train-
ing led to 3.5–5.5% strength increases, whereas single-set
training led to j1% to 2% strength reductions (142). No
comparative study has shown single-set training superior to
multiple-set training in trained or untrained individuals.
The results of meta-analytical studies have shown
multiple-set RT superior to single sets for strength enhance-
ment in untrained (224,225) and trained populations (224,
225,278) and superior for strength increases for programs
lasting 17–40 wk (278). These studies have shown that
performing three to four sets per exercise produced the most
substantial effect sizes (224,225). Thus, it appears that both
program types are effective for increasing strength in
untrained to moderately trained individuals during relatively
short-term training periods. Long-term studies support the
contention that a moderate increase in training volume is
needed for further improvement (27,224,225,278). How-
ever, there is a point where further increase in volume may
be counterproductive. In weightlifters, a moderate volume
was shown to be more effective for increasing strength
than low or high volumes of training with similar intensity
(90). The key factor may be variation of training volume
(and its interaction with intensity) rather than absolute
number of sets.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that one to three sets per
exercise be used by novice individuals initially (23,35,40,
55,132,170,202,206,207).
Evidence category B. For progression into intermediate to
advanced status, data from long-term studies indicate that
multiple sets be used with systematic variation of volume
and intensity over time (142,149,155,160,228,238). To re-
duce the risk of overtraining, a dramatic increase in volume
is not recommended. It is important to point out that not all
exercises need to be performed with the same number of
sets, and that emphasis of higher or lower volume is related
to the program priorities of the individual as well as the
muscle(s) trained in an exercise movement.
Exercise Selection
Both single- and multiple-joint exercises have been
shown to be effective for increasing muscular strength in
the targeted muscle groups using multiple modalities, for
example, free weights, machines, cords, etc. (47,157).
Multiple-joint exercises, such as bench press and squat,
require complex neural responses (37) and have generally
been regarded more effective for increasing overall muscu-
lar strength because they enable a greater magnitude of
weight to be lifted (253). Single-joint exercises, such as
knee extensions and knee curls, have been used to target-
specific muscle groups and pose a reduced level of skill and
technical involvement. It is important to note that alterations
in body posture, grip, and hand width/foot stance and
position change muscle activation and alter the exercise.
Thus, many variations or progressions of single- and
multiple-joint exercises can be performed. Another way to
vary exercise selection is to include unilateral as well as
bilateral exercises. The level of muscle activation differs
when an exercise is performed bilaterally versus unilateral-
ly. Unilateral training may increase bilateral strength (in
addition to unilateral strength), and bilateral training may
increase unilateral strength (179). Unilateral training has
been shown to improve some aspects of sports performance,
such as single-leg jumping ability to a greater extent than
bilateral training (179). Of interest has been the perfor-
mance of single- and multiple-joint exercises in unstable
environments, for example, with stability balls, wobble
boards, and BOSU balls (144). These exercises have been
shown to increase the activity of lower torso musculature
and other stabilizer muscles (compared with stable environ-
ments); however, the magnitude of agonist force production
is considerably lower resulting in lighter weights lifted
(10,21). There are a multitude of exercises that can be
performed in a variety of conditions that leaves many
options for RT variation.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. Unilateral and bilateral single- and multiple-joint
exercises should be included in RT with emphasis on
multiple-joint exercises for maximizing overall muscle
strength in novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals
(33,96–107,113,118,120,149–157,169,172,176).
Free Weights and Machines
Weight machines have been regarded as safer to use, easy
to learn, and allow performance of some exercises that may
be difficult with free weights, for example, knee extension.
Machines help stabilize the body and limit movement about
specific joints involved in synergistic force production, and
machine exercises have demonstrated less neural activation
when matched for intensity for most comparisons to free-
weight exercises (178). Unlike machines, free weights may
result in a pattern of intra- and intermuscular coordination
that mimics the movement requirements of a specific task.
Both free weights and machines are effective for increasing
strength. Research shows that free-weight training leads to
greater improvements in free-weight tests and machine
training results in greater performance on machine tests
(30). When a neutral testing device is used, strength
improvement from free weights and machines appears
similar (274). The choice to incorporate free weights or
machines should be based on level of training status and
familiarity with specific exercise movements as well as the
primary training objective.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. For novice to intermediate training, it is
recommended that free-weight and machine exercises are
included (30,169,172,178,248–250,274).
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Evidence category C. For advanced RT, it is recom-
mended that emphasis be placed on free-weight exercises
with machine exercises used to compliment program needs
(100–103,251).
Exercise Order
The sequencing of exercises significantly affects the acute
expression of muscular strength (240). This also applies
when exercises are sequenced based on agonist/antagonist
muscle group relationships. Muscle force and power may
be potentiated when opposing exercises (antagonist move-
ments) are performed (16); however, force and power may
be reduced if the exercises are performed consecutively
(171). Studies show that multiple-joint exercise (bench press,
squat, leg press, and shoulder press) performance declines
significantly when these exercises are performed later (af-
ter several exercises stressing similar muscle groups) rather
than early in a workout (244,245). Considering that these
multiple-joint exercises have been shown to be effective for
increasing strength, maximizing performance of these exer-
cises by performing them early in a workout may be nec-
essary for optimal strength gains (247).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category C. Recommendations for sequencing exercises for
novice, intermediate, and advanced strength training for total
body (all muscle groups trained in the workout), upper/lower
body split (upper-body musculature trained 1 d and lower-
body musculature trained another day), and muscle group split
(individual muscle groups trained during a workout) workouts
include large muscle group exercises before small muscle
group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint
exercises, higher-intensity exercises before lower-intensity
exercises, or rotation of upper and lower body or agonist–
antagonist exercises, that is, exercise performed for a muscle
group followed by an exercise for the opposing muscle group
(244,245).
Rest Periods
The amount of rest between sets and exercises signifi-
cantly affects metabolic (150,221), hormonal (158), and
cardiovascular (72) responses to an acute bout during
resistance exercise as well as performance of subsequent
sets (149,279) and training adaptations (212,230). Acute
resistance exercise performance may be compromised with
one versus 3-min rest periods (149), and strength recovery
may not be complete within 3 min (20). Several studies
have shown that the number of repetitions performed may
be compromised with short rest intervals, and 3- to 5-min
rest intervals produce less performance decrements than 30
s to 2 min (221,229,269–271). In untrained individuals,
circuit RT programs (using minimal rest in between
exercises) have been shown to produce modest increases
in strength (108). However, most longitudinal training
studies have shown greater strength increases with long
versus short rest periods (e.g., 2–5 min vs 30–40 s
[3,213,230]), and one study has shown a lack of strength
increase with 40-s rest periods (213). It is important to note
that rest period length will vary based on the complexity of
a given exercise (e.g., Olympic lifts and variations require
longer rest periods) and the primary objective for incorpo-
rating the exercise into the training program (i.e., not every
exercise will use the same rest interval).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category B. For novice, intermediate, and advanced training, it
is recommended that rest periods of at least 2–3 min be used
for core exercises using heavier loads (those exercises included
specifically to improve maximal strength such as the squat and
bench press) (3,149,213,214,221,229,230,269–271).
Evidence category C. For assistance exercises (those
exercises complimentary to core exercises), a shorter rest
period length of 1–2 min may suffice (149,213,229,
230,269).
Velocity of Muscle Action
The velocity of muscular contraction used to perform dy-
namic muscle actions affects the neural (97), the hypertrophic
(123,241), and the metabolic (17,173) responses to resistance
exercise and is inversely related to the relative load during
maximal muscle contractions (48,234). Isokinetic training
has been shown to increase strength specific to the training
velocity with some carryover in performance at other ve-
locities in the proximity to the training velocity (39,44,63,
123,137,145). However, it appears that training at moderate
velocity (180–240-Is
j1
) produces the greatest strength in-
creases across all testing velocities (137).
Dynamic constant external resistance (also called iso-
tonic) or isoinertial training poses a different stress. Sig-
nificant reductions in force production are observed when
the intent is to perform the repetition slowly with sub-
maximal loading. In interpreting the effects of intent to
perform slow repetitions, it is important to note that two
types of slow-velocity contractions exist during dynamic
RT, unintentional and intentional. Unintentional slow ve-
locities are used during high-intensity repetitions in which
either the loading or the fatigue is responsible for the rep-
etition tempo and duration (velocity of movement) (187).
Conversely, intentional slow-velocity contractions are used
with submaximal loads and occur when an individual has
greater control of the velocity and influences the time the
muscles are under tension.
It has been shown that CON force was significantly lower
for an intentionally slow velocity (5:5; e.g., 5-s CON, 5-s
ECC) compared with a traditional (moderate) velocity with a
corresponding lower level of neural activation, for example,
determined via electromyography (143). The rate of energy
expenditure is lower using an intentionally slow velocity
(173). Substantially, less peak force, power, and number of
repetitions performed were observed with Bsuper slow[
repetition velocity (10:10) compared with a self-selected fast
velocity when matched for intensity (111). A 30% reduction
in training load is necessary when using a Bvery slow[
velocity (10:5) compared with a slow velocity (2:4) (141).
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Another study comparing Bvery slow[(10:5) to traditional
velocity (1:1) showed that 37–40% reductions in training
loads were needed to attain the same number of repetitions
(129). These data suggest that motor unit activity may be
limited when intentionally slow velocities at lighter loads are
incorporated and ultimately may not provide an optimal
stimulus for strength enhancement in resistance-trained
individuals.
Compared with slow velocities, moderate (1–2:1–2) and
fast (G1:1) velocities have been shown to be more effective for
enhanced muscular performance capacities (e.g., number of
repetitions performed, work and power output, and volume)
(161,189) and for increasing the rate of strength gains (113).
The number of repetitions performed is based upon a
continuum depending on the lifting velocity where the
largest numbers of repetitions are performed with a fast
velocity and decreases proportionately as velocity becomes
slower (234). The effect of lifting velocity on repetition
performance appears largest with light to moderately heavy
loading (234). Most advanced RT studies examining fast
velocities with moderately high intensities have shown these
velocities to be more effective than traditionally slower
velocities for strength increases (133,190). It appears that the
intent to maximally accelerate the weight during training is
critical in maximizing strength gains (19). Although loading
may be moderate to heavy, the intent to lift the weight as fast
as possible has been shown to be critical for maximizing
strength increases (19). Keeler et al. (141) showed that
traditional velocity (2:4) RT produced significantly greater
strength increases over 10 wk than Bsuper slow[training in
five of eight exercises trained (overall increase of 39% vs
15% in traditional and Bsuper slow,[respectively). Over 6
wk of RT in untrained individuals, it was shown that training
at a faster velocity (1:1) led to È11% greater strength
increases than training at a slower velocity (3:3) (192).
However, a study by Neils et al. (195) showed statistically
similar increases in strength between Bsuper slow[and slow-
velocity (2:4) training.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. For untrained individuals, it is recommended that
slow and moderate velocities be used (113,141,161,189,192,195).
Evidence category B. For intermediate training, it is
recommended that moderate velocity be used for RT
(113,141,161,189,192,195).
Evidence category C. For advanced training, the inclusion
of a continuum of velocities from unintentionally slow to fast
velocities is recommended. The velocity selected should
correspond to the intensity and the intent should be to
maximize the velocity of the CON muscle action (19,133).
Frequency
Optimal RT frequency (the number of workouts per week)
depends upon several factors such as volume, intensity,
exercise selection, level of conditioning, recovery ability,
and number of muscle groups trained per workout session.
Numerous studies have used frequencies of two to three
alternating days per week in previously untrained individuals
(34,44,56,116). This frequency has been shown to be an
effective initial frequency, whereas 1–2 dIwk
j1
appears to be
an effective maintenance frequency for those individuals
already engaged in RT (93). In several studies comparing
strength gains, 1) 3 d of training per week was superior to 1
(183) and 2 d (94), 2) 3 d produced similar strength increases
to 2 dIwk
j1
when volume was equated (34), 3) 4 dIwk
j1
was superior to three (127), 4) 2 dIwk
j1
was superior to 1
(217), and 5) 3–5 dIwk
j1
was superior to 1 and 2 d (85).
Meta-analytical data have shown that strength gains in
untrained individuals were highest with a frequency of 3
dIwk
j1
(225).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that novice individuals train the
entire body 2–3 dIwk
j1
(34,44,56,94,116,183,225).
It appears that progression from untrained to intermediate
training does not necessitate a change in frequency for
training each muscle group but may be more dependent upon
alterations in other acute variables such as exercise selection,
volume, and intensity. Increasing frequency enables greater
specialization (e.g., greater exercise selection and volume per
muscle group in accordance with more specific goals).
Upper/lower body split or muscle group split routines are
common at this level in addition to total-body workouts
(157). Similar increases in strength have been observed
between upper/lower- and total-body workouts (32).
Evidence category B. It is recommended that for
progression to intermediate training, a frequency of 3–4
dIwk
j1
be used (3 d if using a total-body workout, 4 d if
using a split routine thereby training each major muscle
group twice) (34,85,94,183,225).
Optimal progression of frequency during advanced training
varies considerably. It has been shown that football players
training 4–5 dIwk
j1
achieved better results than those who
trained either 3 or 6 dIwk
j1
(118). Advanced and elite
weightlifters and bodybuilders use high-frequency training,
for example, four to six sessions per week or more. Double-
split routines (two training sessions per day with emphasis on
different muscle groups) are common during training (102),
which may result in 8–12 training sessions per week.
Frequencies as high as 18 sessions per week have been
reported in elite Olympic weightlifters (280). The rationale
for high-frequency training is that frequent short sessions
followed by periods of recovery, nutrition supplementation,
and food intake allow for high-intensity training and
performance (reduced fatigue). Ha¨kkinen and Kallinen
(103) reported greater increases in muscle cross-sectional
area (CSA) and strength when training volume was divided
into two sessions per day as opposed to one. Elite power
lifters train 4–6 dIwk
j1
(75). It is important to note that not
all muscle groups are trained per workout during a high-
frequency model of training. Meta-analytical data have
shown that training a muscle group two times per week in
advanced individuals yielded the highest effect size (225)
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and two to three times per week yielded similar effect sizes
in athletes (206).
Evidence category C. It is recommended that advanced
lifters train 4–6 dIwk
j1
. Elite weightlifters and body-
builders may benefit from using very high frequency, for
example, two workouts in 1 d for 4–5 dIwk
j1
(102,118,206,225).
Muscular Hypertrophy
It is well known that RT induces muscular hypertrophy
(156,176,249,250) through mechanical, metabolic, and hor-
monal processes. The process of hypertrophy involves a
proportionate increase in the net accretion of the contractile
proteins actin and myosin as well as other structural proteins.
Mechanical loading leads to a series of intracellular events
that ultimately regulates gene expression and protein
synthesis. RT may alter the activity of nearly 70 genes
(232), up-regulate factors involved with myogenesis (e.g.,
myogenin, MyoD), and down-regulate inhibitory growth
factors (e.g., myostatin) (148,233). Protein synthesis in
human skeletal muscle increases after only one bout of
vigorous RT (210) and peaks approximately 24 h postexer-
cise. This anabolic environment remains elevated from 2 to 3
h postexercise up through 36–48 h postexercise (83,166).
Other factors such as fiber type (176), muscle action (84),
metabolite formation (242), amino acid intake (80), and
endocrine responses (testosterone, growth hormone [GH],
cortisol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I) contribute
to the magnitude of hypertrophy (158). Optimal hypertrophy
may comprise maximizing the combination of mechanical
(use of heavy weights, ECC actions, and low to moderate
volume) and metabolic (accumulation of metabolic waste
products) stimuli.
The time course of hypertrophy has been examined in
previously untrained individuals. Neural adaptations pre-
dominate during the early stages of training (188). Muscle
hypertrophy becomes evident within the first 6 wk (211),
although changes in the quality of proteins (250) and
protein synthesis rates (211) take place much earlier. From
this point onward, there appears to be interplay between
neural adaptations and hypertrophy in the expression of
strength. Less muscle mass is recruited during training with
a given workload once adaptation has taken place (215).
These findings indicate that progressive overloading is
necessary for maximal muscle fiber recruitment and,
consequently, muscle fiber hypertrophy. This also indicates
that alterations in program design targeting both neural and
hypertrophic factors may be most beneficial for maximizing
strength and hypertrophy.
PROGRAM DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR INCREASING MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY
Muscle Action
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. Similar to strength training (55,112,131), it is
recommended that CON, ECC, and ISOM muscle actions be
included for novice, intermediate, and advanced RT.
Loading and Volume
A variety of styles of training have been shown to
increase hypertrophy in men and women (3,49,157,249). In
untrained individuals, similar increases in lean body mass
have been shown between single- and multiple-set training
(175,228), although there is evidence supporting greater
hypertrophy enhancement with multiple-set training (231).
Many of these studies in previously untrained individuals
have demonstrated that general, nonspecific program design
is effective for increasing hypertrophy in novice to
intermediate individuals. Manipulation of acute program
variables to optimize both the mechanical and the metabolic
factors (using several loading/volume schemes) appears to
be the most effective way to optimize hypertrophy during
advanced stages of training. RT programs targeting muscle
hypertrophy have used moderate to very high loading,
relatively high volume, and short rest intervals (75,157).
These programs have been shown to induce a greater acute
elevation in testosterone and GH than high-load, low-volume
programs with long (3 min) rest periods (91,151,152). Total
work, in combination with mechanical loading, has been
implicated for both gains in strength and hypertrophy (190).
This finding has been supported, in part, by greater
hypertrophy associated with high-volume, multiple-set pro-
grams compared with low-volume, single-set programs in
resistance-trained individuals (149,155,169). Traditional RT
(high load, low repetition, and long rest periods) has
produced significant hypertrophy (96,258); however, it has
been suggested that the total work involved with traditional
RT alone may not maximize hypertrophy. Goto et al. (91)
showed that the addition of one set per exercise (to a
conventional RT workout) consisting of light loading for 25–
35 repetitions led to increased muscle CSA whereas
conventional strength training alone (e.g., multiple sets of
3–5 RM) did not increase muscle CSA. The addition of the
high-volume sets led to greater acute elevations in GH (91).
However, light loading alone may not be sufficient as
Campos et al. (33) have reported that 8 wk of training with
two sets of 25–28 RM did not result in Type I or Type II
muscle fiber hypertrophy. Thus, it appears that the combi-
nation of strength training (emphasizing mechanical loading)
and hypertrophy training, that is, moderate loading, high
repetitions, short rest intervals, which emphasizes total work
(and reliance upon glycolysis and metabolic factors), is most
effective for advanced hypertrophy training.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. For novice and intermediate individuals, it is
recommended that moderate loading be used (70–85% of 1
RM) for 8–12 repetitions per set for one to three sets per
exercise (3,49,157,175,228,249).
Evidence category C. For advanced training, it is
recommended that a loading range of 70–100% of 1 RM
be used for 1–12 repetitions per set for three to six sets per
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exercise in periodized manner such that the majority of
training is devoted to 6–12 RM and less training devoted to
1–6 RM loading (149,155,169).
Exercise Selection and Order
Both single- and multiple-joint exercises increase hyper-
trophy, and the complexity of the exercises chosen has been
shown to affect the time course of hypertrophy such that
multiple-joint exercises require a longer neural adaptive
phase than single-joint exercises (37). Less is understood
concerning the effect of exercise order on muscle hypertro-
phy. Although exceptions exist (e.g., using an opposite
sequencing strategy to induce higher levels of fatigue), it
appears that the recommended exercise sequencing guide-
lines for strength training apply for increasing muscle
hypertrophy.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that single- and multiple-joint
free-weight and machine exercises be included in an RT
program in novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals
(30,157,169,172,178,248–250,274).
Evidence category C. For exercise sequencing, an order
similar to strength training is recommended (244,245,256).
Rest Periods
The amount of rest between sets and exercises
significantly affects the metabolic (221) and the hor-
monal (158) responses to an acute bout of resistance
exercise. Rest period length significantly affects muscu-
lar strength, but less is known concerning hypertrophy.
One study reported no significant difference between 30-,
90-, and 180-s rest intervals in muscle girth, skinfolds, or
body mass in recreationally trained men over 5 wk (230).
Ahtiainen et al. (3) showed that 3 months of training with
5-min rest intervals produced similar increase in muscle
CSA to training with 2-min rest intervals. Short rest
periods (1–2 min) coupled with moderate to high
intensity and volume have elicited the greatest acute
anabolic hormonal response in comparison to programs
utilizing very heavy loads with long rest periods
(151,152). The acute hormonal responses have been
regarded potentially more important for hypertrophy than
chronic changes (177). It appears a range of rest intervals
may be used effectively to target hypertrophy depending
on training intensity. In that regard, training for muscular
hypertrophy alone may differ from training for strength
or power per se because the explicit objective is to
produce an anabolic environment.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category C. It is recommended that 1- to 2-min rest periods be
used in novice and intermediate training programs. For
advanced training, rest period length should correspond to
the goals of each exercise or training phase such that 2- to 3-
min rest periods may be used with heavy loading for core
exercises and 1–2 min may be used for other exercises of
moderate to moderately high intensity (3,151,152).
Repetition Velocity
Less is known concerning the effect of repetition velocity
on hypertrophy. In untrained individuals, fast (1:1) and
moderate to slow (3:3) velocities of training produced
similar changes in elbow flexor girth after 6 wk of training
(192). However, 8 wk of fast (210-Is
j1
) ECC isokinetic
training produced larger increases in Type II muscle fiber
CSA than slow (20-Is
j1
) training (241), and 8 wk of fast
ECC (180-Is
j1
) isokinetic training produced greater hyper-
trophy than slow ECC (30-Is
j1
), fast and slow CON
training (64). For dynamic constant external RT, it has
been suggested that higher velocities of movement pose less
of a stimulus for hypertrophy than slow and moderate
velocities. However, intentional slow velocities require
significant reductions in loading and result in less of a
blood lactate response and less metabolic response when
total training time is equated (129). It does appear that the
use of different velocities is warranted for long-term
improvements in hypertrophy for advanced training.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category C. It is recommended that slow to moderate
velocities be used by novice- and intermediate-trained
individuals. For advanced training, it is recommended that
slow, moderate, and fast repetition velocities be used
depending on the load, the repetition number, and the goals
of the particular exercise (64,192).
Frequency
The frequency of training depends upon the number of
muscle groups trained per workout as well as the volume and
intensity. Frequencies of 2–3 dIwk
j1
have been effective in
novice and intermediate men and women (34,49,116).
Higher frequency of RT has been suggested for advanced
hypertrophy training. However, only certain muscle groups
are trained per workout with a high frequency.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that a frequency of 2–3 dIwk
j1
be used for novice training (when training the total body each
workout) (34,49,116).
Evidence category B. For intermediate training, the
recommendation is similar for total-body workouts or 4
dIwk
j1
when using an upper/lower body split routine (each
major muscle group trained twice per week).
Evidence category C. For advanced training, a frequency
of 4–6 dIwk
j1
is recommended. Muscle group split routines
(one to three muscle groups trained per workout) are
common enabling higher volume per muscle group.
PROGRAM DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
INCREASING MUSCULAR POWER
Maximal power production is required in the movements of
sport, work, and daily living. By definition, more power is
produced when the same amount of work is completed in a
shorter period or when a greater amount of work is performed
during the same period. Muscular power is the scalar product
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of force generation and movement velocity, is demonstrated as
the highest power output attainable during a given movement/
repetition, and has been viewed as an exceedingly important
testing variable and training objective.
Neuromuscular contributions to maximal muscle power
include 1) maximal rate of force development (RFD), 2) force
production at slow and fast contraction velocities, 3) stretch-
shortening cycle performance, and 4) coordination of move-
ment pattern and skill. Several studies have shown improved
power performance following traditional RT (1,88,156,277),
demonstrating the reliance of power production on muscular
force development. However, programs consisting of move-
ments with high power output using relatively light loads
have been shown to be superior for improving vertical jump
ability than traditional strength training (98,99). Considering
that power is the product of force and velocity, it appears that
heavy RT with slow velocities improves maximal force
production whereas power training (utilizing light to moder-
ate loads at high velocities) increases force output at higher
velocities and RFD (98,99).
Heavy RT could decrease power output over time unless
accompanied by explosive movements (25). The inherent
problem with traditional weight training is that the load is
decelerated for a considerable proportion (24–40%) of the
CON movement (60,197). This percentage increases to 52%
when performing the lift with a lower percentage (81%) of
1 RM lifted (60) or when attempting to move the bar
rapidly in an effort to train more specifically near the
movement speed of the target activity (197). Ballistic
resistance exercise (explosive movements which enable
acceleration throughout the full range of motion resulting in
greater peak and average lifting velocities) has been shown
to limit this problem (48,121,198,276). Loaded jump squats
with 30% of 1 RM have been shown to increase vertical
jump performance more than traditional back squats and
plyometrics (276).
Exercise Selection and Order
Although single-joint exercises have been studied,
multiple-joint exercises have been used extensively for
power training (139). The inclusion of total-body exercises
(e.g., power clean and push press) is recommended as these
exercises have been shown to require rapid force production
(82) and be very effective for enhancing power (263). It is
recommended that these exercises be performed early in a
workout and sequenced based on complexity (e.g., snatch
before power cleans and variations such as high pulls).
Additionally, performing high-velocity power exercises
before a multiple-joint exercise such as the squat has been
shown to improve squat performance (247), for example,
via postactivation potentiation.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category B. The use of predominately multiple-joint exercises
performed with sequencing guidelines similar to strength
training is recommended for novice, intermediate, and
advanced power training (82,139,247,263).
Loading/Volume/Repetition Velocity
The intensity of which peak power is attained has been
variable and shown to be dependent on the type of exercise,
whether it is ballistic or traditional, and the strength level of
the individual (139). Peak power during ballistic exercises
has been shown to range between 15% and 50% (upper
body exercises), from 0% (body weight) to 60% (lower
body exercises, primarily the jump squat), and peak power
for traditional exercises ranges between 30% and 70% of 1
RM (41–43,139,260). Peak power for the Olympic lifts
typically occurs approximately 70–80% of 1 RM (42,140).
Although any intensity can enhance muscle power and shift
the force-velocity curve to the right, specificity is needed
such that training encompasses a range of intensities but
emphasis placed upon the intensities that match the
demands of the sport or activities performed (139). Fast
lifting velocities are needed to optimize power development
with submaximal loading, and the intent to maximally lift
the weight fast is critical when a higher intensity is
used (19).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that concurrent to a typical
strength training program, a power component is incorporated
consisting of one to three sets per exercise using light to
moderate loading (30–60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises,
0–60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises) for three to six
repetitions (19,41–43,139,260).
Evidence category B. Progression for power enhance-
ment uses various loading strategies in a periodized manner.
Heavy loading (85–100% of 1 RM) is necessary for
increasing the force component of the power equation,
and light to moderate loading (30–60% of 1 RM for upper
body exercises, 0–60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises)
performed at an explosive velocity is necessary for
increasing fast force production. A multiple-set (three to
six sets) power program be integrated into a strength
training program consisting of one to six repetitions in
periodized manner is recommended (74,199,206).
Rest Periods
Rest period length for power training is similar to
strength training. Taking the needed rest is vital to ensure
the quality of each repetition being performed in a set
(achieving a high percent of peak velocity and achieving a
high percentage of maximal power output). In addition to
the technical quality of each repetition performed in a
power training program, accentuated rest periods are
also needed for preservation of the appropriate training
intensity to occur, which will elicit the desired neurological
response.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category D. Rest periods of at least 2–3 min between
sets for core exercises are recommended. A shorter
rest interval (1–2 min) is recommended for assistance
exercises.
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Frequency
Power training is typically integrated into a periodized
strength training program due to the important inherent
relationships between the two variables (97,198,199).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. The recommended frequency for novice power
training is similar to strength training (2–3 dIwk
j1
stressing
the total body).
Evidence category B. For intermediate power training, it
is recommended that either a total-body or an upper/lower-
body split workout be used for a frequency of 3–4 dIwk
j1
.
Evidence category C. For advanced power training, a
frequency of 4–5 dIwk
j1
is recommended using predomi-
nantly total-body or upper/lower body split workouts.
PROGRAM DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
INCREASING MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
Local muscular endurance, submaximal local muscular
and high-intensity (or strength) endurance, has been shown
to improve during RT (9,59,125,169,255). RT has been
shown to increase absolute LME (i.e., the maximal number
of repetitions performed with a specific pretraining load)
(9,33,125,149), but limited effects are observed in relative
LME (i.e., endurance assessed at a specific relative intensity
or %1 RM) (172). Moderate to low RT with high repetitions
has been shown to be most effective for improving absolute
LME in most studies (9,33,91,125,227), although one study
found high-intensity, low-repetition training to be more ef-
fective in highly trained endurance athletes (59). A rela-
tionship exists between increases in strength and LME such
that strength training alone may improve endurance to a
certain extent. However, specificity of training produces the
greatest improvements (9,255). Training to increase LME
implies that the individual 1) performs high repetitions
(long-duration sets with high muscle time under tension)
and/or 2) minimizes recovery between sets.
Exercise Selection and Order
Exercises stressing multiple or large muscle groups have
elicited the greatest acute metabolic responses during
resistance exercise (17). Metabolic demand is an important
stimulus for adaptations within skeletal muscle necessary to
improve LME (increased mitochondrial and capillary
number, fiber type transitions, and buffering capacity).
The sequencing of exercises may not be as important in
comparison to strength training as fatigue (i.e., substrate
depletion and accumulation of metabolic waste products) is
a necessary component of endurance training.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. It is recommended that unilateral and bilateral
multiple- and single-joint exercises be included in a program
targeting improved LME using various sequencing com-
binations for novice, intermediate, and advanced LME training
(9,59,125,169,255).
Loading and Volume
Loading is multidimensional. Light loads coupled with
higher repetitions (15–25 repetitions or more) have been
shown to be most effective for increasing LME (9,33,
227,255). However, moderate to heavy loading (coupled
with short rest periods) is also effective for increasing high-
intensity and absolute LME (9,33). High-volume (including
multiple sets) programs have been shown to be superior for
LME enhancement (33,149,169,255).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. For novice and intermediate training, it is
recommended that relatively light loads be used (10–15
repetitions) (9,33,227,255).
Evidence category C. For advanced training, it is
recommended that various loading strategies be used for
multiple sets per exercise (10–25 repetitions or more) in
periodized manner leading to higher overall volume using
lighter intensities (227).
Rest Periods
The duration of rest intervals during resistance exercise
appears to affect LME. It has been shown that bodybuilders
(who typically train with high-volume and short rest
periods) demonstrate a significantly lower fatigue rate in
comparison to power lifters (who typically train with low to
moderate volume and longer rest periods) (150). These data
demonstrate the benefits of high-volume, short rest period
workouts for improving LME. It is important to note that
another popular method of endurance training is circuit RT.
Circuit RT has been shown to increase LME (167,275) and
is effective due to its high continuity. Thus, minimal rest is
taken between exercises.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category C. It is recommended that short rest periods be used
for LME training, for example, 1–2 min for high-repetition
sets (15–20 repetitions or more), G1 min for moderate (10–15
repetitions) sets. For circuit weight training, it is recommended
that rest periods correspond to the time needed to get from one
exercise station to another (167,275).
Frequency
The frequency for LME training appears similar to
hypertrophy training.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. Low frequency (2–3 dIwk
j1
) is effective in
novice individuals when training the entire body
(9,59,125,169,255).
Evidence category B. For intermediate training, 3 dIwk
j1
is recommended for total-body workouts and 4 dIwk
j1
is
recommended for upper/lower body split routine workouts.
Evidence category C. For advanced training, a higher
frequency may be used (4–6 dIwk
j1
) if muscle group split
routines are used.
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Repetition Velocity
Studies examining isokinetic exercise have shown that a
fast training velocity, that is, 180-Is
j1
, was more effective
than a slow training velocity, that is, 30-Is
j1
, for improving
LME (2,186). Thus, fast contraction velocities are recom-
mended for isokinetic training. However, it appears that both
fast and slow velocities are effective for improving LME
during dynamic constant external RT. Two effective strate-
gies used to prolong set duration are 1) moderate repetition
number using an intentionally slow velocity and 2) high rep-
etition number using moderate to fast velocities. Ballor et al.
(17) has shown that intentionally slow-velocity training with
light loads (5:5 and slower) was more metabolically
demanding than moderate and fast velocities. However,
Mazzetti et al. (173) showed that explosive CON repetition
velocity resulted in greater rates of energy expenditure than a
slower velocity (2:2). When matched for intensity and volume,
slower velocity may result ingreater blood lactates (173).
Increasing the time under tension with sufficient loading
can increase muscular fatigue (262), and fatigue is
important to eliciting LME enhancement. This result was
shown by Tran et al. (262) who compared three sets of 10
repetitions (5:5), 10 repetitions (2:2), or 5 repetitions (10:4)
and reported that the highest volume load and time under
tension, for example, protocol 1, resulted in the largest
magnitude of peripheral fatigue. Peak ISOM force (19%)
and rate of force development (RFD) (46%) were reduced
significantly more than with the other protocols (13–15%
and 9–13%, respectively). Thus, traditional velocities may
result in less fatigue than slower velocities provided loading
is sufficient. However, it is difficult to perform a large
number of repetitions using intentionally slow velocities.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category B. It is recommended that intentionally slow velocities
be used when a moderate number of repetitions (10–15) are
used. Moderate to fast velocities are more effective for
increasing repetition number than slow-velocity training
(161). If performing a large number of repetitions (15–25 or
more), then moderate to faster velocities are recommended.
RELEVANCE TO SPORTS APPLICATIONS
Motor Performance
Improved motor performance results from RT. The prin-
ciple of Bspecificity[is important for improving motor per-
formance as the greatest improvements are observed when
RT programs are prescribed that are specific to the task or the
activity. The recommendations for improving motor perfor-
mance are similar to that of strength and power training.
Vertical Jump
Force production during isokinetic and dynamic resistance
exercise measures correlates to vertical jump height
(28,208,216), and RT may improve vertical jump (1,252).
High correlations between closed-chain exercises (exercises
where the distal segments are fixed, i.e., squat) and vertical (r
=0.72)andstandinglongjump(r= 0.65) performance have
been reported (24), and training with closed-chain exercises
is more effective for improving vertical jump than open-
chain exercises (12). Total-body multiple-joint exercises such
as the Olympic lifts (snatch, clean and jerk, and variations)
have been shown to improve jumping ability (82,120,263) to
a greater extent than strength training (120). The high
velocity and joint involvement of these exercises and their
ability to integrate strength, power, and neuromuscular
coordination demonstrates a direct carryover to improving
jump performance. The effect of intensity on vertical jump
improvements appears related to contraction velocity. Sev-
eral studies (98,99,276) have shown improvements in jump
height using light loads (G60% of 1 RM). Other reports show
vertical jump enhancement can be achieved while using
higher intensities (980% of 1 RM) (1). Multiple-set RT has
been shown to be superior for improving vertical jump
performance in comparison to single-set RT programs (149),
and 5–6 dIwk
j1
of training elicited greater vertical jump
improvements than 3–4 dIwk
j1
in football players (118).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category B. It is recommended that multiple-joint exercises
be performed using a combination of heavy and light to
moderate loading (using fast repetition velocity), with moder-
ate to high volume in periodized fashion 4–6 dIwk
j1
for
maximal progression in vertical jumping ability
(1,82,98,99,120,149,263). The inclusion of plyometric training
(explosive form of exercise involving various jumps) in
combination with RT is recommended.
Sprint Speed
Force production is related to sprint performance (4,11)
and is a good indicator of speed when testing is performed
at isokinetic velocities greater than 180-Is
j1
(205). Relative
(to body mass) strength correlates highly with sprint
velocity and acceleration (r= 0.88) (208) as well as jump
squat height and power (46). However, increasing maximal
strength does not appear to be highly related to reducing
sprint time (15). Traditional strength and ballistic training
has only produced small reductions in sprint times
(118,120,174). However, specific hip flexor strength train-
ing was shown to reduce sprint time (50). The combination
of strength and sprint training results in the greatest
improvements in sprinting speed (52).
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category B. It is recommended that the combination of
resistance and ballistic resistance exercise (along with sprint
and plyometric training) be included for progression in
sprinting ability (51,118,120,174).
Agility
Muscular strength is an important factor in an individual’s
ability to stop and change direction rapidly (11,119,208).
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Lower-body multiple-joint exercise strength and power
have been shown to correlate to various agility tests (168).
A significant relationship has been reported between peak
ECC hamstring force at 90-Is
j1
and agility run time and
may be an important indicator of success (11). No change
(48,119,120), a reduction (45), or an increase in time (78) in
agility (t-test) has been observed following RT. It appears
that agility-specific training is most beneficial for enhancing
agility performance.
Sport-Specific Activities
The importance of RT for other sport-specific activities
has been shown. Strength in the kicking limb for soccer
players highly correlates to ball velocity (218). Significant
correlations have been shown between wrist and elbow
extensor and flexors, shoulder abduction/adduction, and
shoulder internal rotation strength and throwing speed
(73,204). Several studies have shown increases (2.0–4.1%)
in throwing velocities in both baseball (162,180,196) and
European handball (117) players following traditional
(162,196) and ballistic (180) RT. Improvements in shot
put performance (38), golf (261), distance running (134),
swimming performance (86), and tennis service velocity
(155) have been reported following RT.
PROGRESSION MODELS FOR RESISTANCE
EXERCISE IN HEALTHY, OLDER ADULTS
Progression and maintenance (maintenance of physical
function in this population may be viewed as progression)
in healthy, older adults is brought about by systematic
manipulation of the acute program variables. However,
caution must be taken with the elderly population as to the
rate of progression, particularly those with hypertension,
arthritis, cardiovascular disease, or any other debilitating
condition that limits physical function. There are other
modes of resistance exercise, such as aquatic resistance
exercise, that have been shown to be especially beneficial in
the older population and to reduce some of the risks of
resistance exercise. These studies have shown increased
muscular strength, power, and bone mineral density as well
as improvements in cardiovascular and psychological
function (13,257,264,266,267). Further, each individual
will respond differently based on their current training
status and past experience, joint health, and individual
response to the training stress. A quality training program
should improve the quality of life by enhancing several
components of muscular fitness, that is, strength, balance,
etc. (61). Programs that include variation, gradual progres-
sive overload, careful attention to recovery and stress, and
specificity are warranted. This finding was recently shown
in elderly women where peak torque and average power
plateaued as a result of a significant increase in volume (at
the same intensity) (243).
Muscular strength and hypertrophy training may im-
prove the quality of life and limit sarcopenia. Optimizing
strength to meet/exceed performance goals is important to
a growing number of older adults. Numerous studies have
shown increased muscle strength and size in older adults
following RT as long as basic requirements of intensity
and volume are met (31,36,61,69,77,105,106). The basic
RT program recommended by the ACSM for the healthy
adult (6,7) has been an effective starting point in the el-
derly population.
When the older adult’s long-term goal is progression
toward higher levels of strength and hypertrophy, evidence
supports the use of variation in program design (105,
106,154). Studies have shown significant improvements in
strength in this population (61,69,77). It is important that
progression be introduced gradually. A training frequency of
1–3 dIwk
j1
produced similar increases in strength; however,
3dIwk
j1
was superior to 1–2 d for improving LME, co-
ordination, balance, and cardiorespiratory fitness in older
women (193). Some studies have shown similar strength
increases between moderate (50–60% of 1 RM) and high
(80–85% of 1 RM) training intensities or 6–15 RM (109,
265) over 18–24 wk of training. Training 3 dIwk
j1
with
50%, 65%, and 80% of 1 RM each day produced similar
strength increases to training 3 dIwk
j1
with 80% of 1 RM
(128). However, several studies have shown greater strength
increases with high-intensity (80–83% of 1 RM) versus
moderate-intensity (50–63% of 1 RM) and low-intensity
(20–48% of 1 RM) training (53,65,66,135,136). Thus, a va-
riety of intensities may be effective in this population es-
pecially early in training.
Evidence statement and recommendation. Evidence
category A. For improvements in strength and hypertrophy in
older adults, the use of free-weight and machine multiple- and
single-joint exercises with slow to moderate lifting velocity for
one to three sets per exercise with 60–80% of 1 RM for 8–12
repetitions with 1–3 min of rest in between sets for 2–3
dIwk
j1
is recommended (31,53,61,65,66,69,77,105,106,
109,128,135,136,265).
The ability to develop high muscular power diminishes
withage(107).Anincreaseinstrengthandpowerenables
the older adult to improve performance in tasks that re-
quire a rapid RFD, including a reduced risk of falls (212).
There is support for the inclusion of power training for
the healthy older adult (107,154). Muscle atrophy results
from fiber denervation with loss of some fibers and at-
rophy of others, that is, especially fast twitch, with aging
and inactivity (164). Age-related muscle atrophy is as-
sociated with reductions in strength and power (77,104),
and reductions in power exceed decreases in maximal
strength (246). Although most studies in the elderly
examined heavy RT programs, power training may
optimize functional abilities as well as have secondary
effects on other physiological systems, for example, con-
nective tissue (18).
Since 2001, several studies have examined power
training, for example, free-weight and machine exercises
with the CON phase performed rapidly with a controlled
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TABLE 2. Summary of progressive resistance training recommendations.
Evidence Statement Grade
Strength training
CON, ECC, and ISOM actions be included for novice, intermediate, and advanced training. A
Training with loads È60–70% of 1 RM for 8–12 repetitions for novice to intermediate individuals and cycling loads of 80–100% of 1 RM for advanced individuals. A
When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that a 2–10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for
1–2 repetitions over the desired number on two consecutive training sessions.
B
It is recommended that 1–3 sets per exercise be used by novice individuals. A
Multiple-set programs (with systematic variation of volume and intensity) are recommended for progression to intermediate and advanced training. A
Unilateral and bilateral single- and multiple-joint exercises should be included with emphasis on multiple-joint exercises for maximizing strength in novice, intermediate,
and advanced individuals.
A
Free-weight and machine exercises should be included for novice to intermediate training. A
For advanced strength training, it is recommended that emphasis be placed on free-weight exercises with machine exercises used to compliment program needs. C
Recommendations for sequencing exercises for novice, intermediate, and advanced strength training include large muscle group exercises before small muscle
group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, higher-intensity exercises before lower-intensity exercises, or rotation of upper and lower body
or opposing exercises.
C
It is recommended that rest periods of at least 2–3 min be used for core exercises using heavier loads for novice, intermediate, and advanced training. For assistance
exercises, a shorter rest period length of 1–2 min may suffice.
B
C
For untrained individuals, it is recommended that slow and moderate CON velocities be used. A
For intermediate training, it is recommended that moderate CON velocity be used. A
For advanced training, the inclusion of a continuum of velocities from unintentionally slow to fast CON velocities is recommended and should correspond to the intensity. C
It is recommended that novice individuals train the entire body 2–3 dIwk
j1
. A
It is recommended that for progression to intermediate training, a frequency of 3–4 dIwk
j1
be used (based on how many muscle groups are trained per workout). B
It is recommended that advanced lifters train 4–6 dIwk
j1
. C
Muscle hypertrophy
It is recommended that CON, ECC, and ISOM muscle actions be included. A
For novice and intermediate training, it is recommended that moderate loading be used (70–85% of 1 RM) for 8–12 repetitions per set for 1–3 sets per exercise. A
For advanced training, it is recommended that a loading range of 70–100% of 1 RM be used for 1–12 repetitions per set for 3–6 sets per exercise in a periodized
manner such that the majority of training is devoted to 6–12 RM and less training devoted to 1–6 RM loading.
A
It is recommended that single- and multiple-joint free-weight and machine exercises be included in novice, intermediate, and advanced individuals.A
For exercise sequencing, an order similar to strength training is recommended. C
It is recommended that 1- to 2-min rest periods be used in novice and intermediate training; for advanced training, length of rest period should correspond to the
goals of each exercise such that 2- to 3-min rest periods may be used with heavy loading for core exercises and 1–2 min may be used for other exercises of
moderate to moderately high intensity.
C
It is recommended that slow to moderate velocities be used by novice- and intermediate-trained individuals; for advanced training, it is recommended that slow,
moderate, and fast repetition velocities be used depending on the load, repetition number, and goals of the particular exercise.
C
It is recommended that a frequency of 2–3 dIwk
j1
be used for novice training. A
For intermediate training, the recommendation is similar for total-body workouts or 4 dIwk
j1
when using an upper/lower body split routine. B
For advanced training, a frequency of 4–6 dIwk
j1
is recommended. C
Muscle power
The use of predominately multiple-joint exercises performed with sequencing guidelines similar to strength training is recommended for novice, intermediate, and
advanced power training.
B
It is recommended that concurrent to a typical strength training program, a power component is incorporated consisting of 1–3 sets per exercise using light to
moderate loading (30–60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises, 0–60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises) for 3–6 repetitions not to failure.
A
Various loading strategies are recommended for advanced training. Heavy loading (85–100% of 1 RM) is necessary for increasing force and light to moderate loading
(30–60% of 1 RM for upper body exercises, 0–60% of 1 RM for lower body exercises) performed at an explosive velocity is necessary for increasing fast force production.
A multiple-set (3–6 sets) power program be integrated into a strength training program consisting of 1–6 repetitions in a periodized manner is recommended.
B
A
Rest periods of at least 2–3 min between sets for core exercises are recommended when intensity is high. For assistance exercises and those of less intensity,
a shorter rest interval (1–2 min) is recommended.
D
A
The recommended frequency for novice power training is similar to strength training (2–3 dIwk
j1
). C
For intermediate power training, it is recommended that either a total-body or upper/lower–body split workout be used for a frequency of 3–4 dIwk
j1
.C
For advanced power training, a frequency of 4–5 dIwk
j1
is recommended using predominantly total-body or upper/lower–body split workouts.
Local muscular endurance
It is recommended that unilateral and bilateral multiple- and single-joint exercises be included using various sequencing combinations for novice, intermediate, and
advanced local muscular endurance training.
A
For novice and intermediate training, it is recommended that relatively light loads be used (10–15 repetitions) with moderate to high volume. A
For advanced training, it is recommended that various loading strategies be used for multiple sets per exercise (10–25 repetitions or more) in a periodized manner
leading to a higher overall volume using lighter intensities.
C
It is recommended that short rest periods be used for muscular endurance training, e.g., 1–2 min for high-repetition sets (15–20 repetitions or more), less than 1 minute for
moderate (10–15 repetitions) sets. For circuit weight training, it is recommended that rest periods correspond to the time needed to get from one exercise station to another.
C
Low frequency (2–3 dIwk
j1
) is effective in novice individuals when training the entire body. A
For intermediate training, 3 dIwk
j1
is recommended for total-body workouts and 4 dIwk
j1
is recommended for upper/lower body split routine workouts. C
For advanced training, a higher frequency may be used (4–6 dIwk
j1
) if muscle group split routines are used. C
It is recommended that intentionally slow velocities be used when a moderate number of repetitions (10–15) are used. B
If performing a large number of repetitions (15–25 or more), then moderate to faster velocities are recommended. B
Motor performance
It is recommended that multiple-joint exercises be performed using a combination of heavy and light to moderate loading (using fast repetition velocity) with
moderate to high volume in periodized fashion 4–6 dIwk
j1
for maximal progression in vertical jumping ability. The inclusion of plyometric training (explosive
form of exercise involving various jumps) in combination with resistance training is recommended.
B
It is recommended that the combination of heavy resistance and ballistic resistance exercise (along with sprint and plyometric training) be included for progression in
sprinting ability.
B
Older adults
For further improvements in strength and hypertrophy in older adults, the use of both multiple- and single-joint exercises (free weights and machines) with
slow-to-moderate lifting velocity, for 1–3 sets per exercise with 60–80% of 1 RM for 8–12 repetitions with 1–3 min of rest in between sets for 2–3 dIwk
j1
is recommended.
A
Increasing power in healthy older adults include: 1) training to improve muscular strength, and 2) the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises for
1–3 sets per exercise using light to moderate loading (30–60% of 1 RM) for 6–10 repetitions with high repetition velocity.
B
Similar recommendations may apply to older adults as young adults, e.g., low to moderate loads performed for moderate to high repetitions (10–15 or more) for
enhancing muscular endurance.
B
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(2–3 s) ECC phase, in the elderly. Low-to-moderate
intensity (20–80% of 1 RM), high-velocity training has
been tolerable in this population and consistently shown to
enhance power production, strength, and performance of
activities of daily living, for example, chair rise, and
balance (29,53,57,107,115,124,199,200,243). In compari-
son to traditional RT, power training has been shown to
produce similar (29,70) and inferior increases (185) in
maximal strength, greater improvements in power (29,70),
and greater functional performance enhancement (29,185).
de Vos et al. (53) reported that power training with 50% of
subjects’ 1 RM led to the highest gains in muscle power,
whereas RT with loads corresponding to 80% of subjects’ 1
RM led to the highest gains in muscular strength and
endurance. On the basis of these data, it appears prudent to
include high-velocity, low-intensity movements in progres-
sion models for older adults.
Evidence category B. Increasing power in healthy older
adults include 1) training to improve muscular strength and 2)
the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises for
one tot three sets per exercise using light to moderate loading
(30–60% of 1 RM) for 6–10 repetitions with high repetition
velocity (29,53,57,70,107,115,124,185,199,200,243).
Improvements in LME in the older adult may lead to an
enhanced ability to perform submaximal work and recrea-
tional activities. Although studies examining LME training
in the older adult are limited, LME may be enhanced by
circuit RT (275), strength training (125), and high repeti-
tion, moderate-load programs (9) in younger populations.
Multiple-set training led to 44.3–60.5% increases in LME,
whereas single-set training led approxiamtely10% increases
in individuals 65–78 yr of age (81).
Similar recommendations may apply to older adults as
young adults, for example, low to moderate loads (40–70%
of 1 RM) performed for moderate to high repetitions (10–15
or more) (81).
CONCLUSION
Progression in RT is dependent upon the development of
appropriate and specific training goals and should be an
Bindividualized[process using appropriate equipment,
program design, and exercise techniques needed for the
safe and effective implementation of a program. Trained
and competent strength and conditioning specialists should
be involved with this process to optimize the safety and
design of a training program. Although examples and
guidelines can be presented, ultimately the good judgment,
experience, and educational training of the exercise profes-
sional involved with this process will dictate the amount of
training success. Nevertheless, many exercise prescription
options are available in the progression of RT to attain goals
related to health, fitness, and physical performance.
This pronouncement was reviewed by the American College of
Sports Medicine Pronouncements Committee and by Ira Jacobs,
PhD, FACSM; Brian Schilling, PhD; Ann Swank, PhD, FACSM;
Anthony Vandervoort, PhD, FACSM; and Joseph Weir, PhD,
FACSM.
This Position Stand replaces the 2002 ACSM Position Stand,
‘‘Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults,’’
Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2002;34(2):364–80.
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... The previously described variables are typically determined under standardized conditions to compare strength endurance within and between individuals. In exercises with isoinertial loading (i.e., when exercising against a constant external load), research has promoted two different approaches to standardization: first, the absolute strength endurance can be tested against a fixed load, which is predominantly expressed in a unit of mass like kg or lbs (Anderson & Kearney, 1982;Hackett et al., 2022;Johnson et al., 2009;Ratamess et al., 2009;Schoenfeld et al., 2021;M. H. Stone et al., 2006; W. J. Stone & Coulter, 1994). ...
... Second, the relative strength endurance can be tested against a fixed percentage of a reference load. Typically, relative loads are expressed as a percentage of the individual's one-repetition maximum (1-RM) load or as a percentage of the individual's body mass (Anderson & Kearney, 1982;Hackett et al., 2022;Johnson et al., 2009;Ratamess et al., 2009;Schoenfeld et al., 2021;M. H. Stone et al., 2006; W. J. Stone & Coulter, 1994). ...
... This spectrum was selected for two main reasons. First, it covers most of the load range recommended in the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stand to promote muscle hypertrophy and strength adaptations (Ratamess et al., 2009). Second, it was assumed that including lower relative loads in the single-visit protocol would have induced greater fatigue levels, resulting in more biased parameter estimates. ...
Thesis
The relationship between the applied load and the number of repetitions performed to momentary failure (i.e., the strength-endurance relationship) in a given exercise has repeatedly drawn the interest of researchers over the past decades. While this relationship was commonly assumed to be virtually identical across individuals and, thus, described by unified equations, there is evidence that it may actually differ between individuals. The present thesis aimed to investigate the concept of “strength-endurance profiles”, which describe the strength-endurance relationship on an individual level. The main objective was to identify a model function that yields good descriptive and predictive validity while being robust across test-retest trials. Since strength-endurance profiles require the completion of multiple repetitions-to-failure tests, the thesis further aimed to compare different strategies for data acquisition to evaluate whether they may be used interchangeably. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the individual strength-endurance relationship can be best represented by a 2-parameters exponential regression or a reciprocal regression function. Data acquisition should be completed in multiple separate sessions distributed across different days, rather than a single session with 22 min breaks in between repetitions-to-failure tests.
... Professional basketball, strength and conditioning coaches discussed and showed effective exercise techniques (Robergs, 2004). The subjects are constantly encouraged by the coaches to maintain good technique. ...
Research
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Background: In this context, Medicine ball training has been studied to see if it might help basketball players' physical performance and skills. Objectives: Investigated the effects of eight weeks of medicine ball training on physical performance and basketball skill performance among male basketball players aged 18 to 24 years. Materials and Methods: 28 Subjects were recruited into two groups, the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG), EG=14 (Mean age 21.25 ±1.34) and CG=14 (Mean age 20.52 ±1.77). To detect differences within-between the study groups, repeated-measures ANOVA was used. Results: The analyses demonstrated significant pre-, mid-, and post-test effects on physical performance; all the physical fitness variables examined p<0. 01 and skill performance analyses looked at all variables p<0.01. The medicine ball training EG improves a player's physical performance, which is markable in percentage. The variables such as Overhead Medicine Ball Throw (OHMBT), Standing Long Jump (SLJ), Sprinting 20 m (SPRINT), Agility T-Test (AGILITY), Vertical Jump (VJ), Back and Leg Dynamometer (BLD); 5.11%, 4.52%, 1.34%, 3.49%, 6.45% and 16.40% respectively. Moreover, the study emphasizes that the medicine ball improves basketball skills performance percentage measures in EG, which comprise Control Dribble (CD), Defensive Movement (DM, Passing (PASS) and Speed Spot Shooting (SSS); 2.14%, 3.22%, 6.83% and 13.29% respectively. Conclusion: This research indicates that medicine ball training in conjunction with regular exercise can significantly increase physical performance and basketball skills. It is advised that coaches add medicine balls into players' daily training regimes. The execution of medicine ball workouts free in the direction of skill work improves basketball skill performance. The recommended program for medicine ball workouts is ideal for evaluating improvement in basketball players' physical performance and basketball skill performance.
... The ability to perform both moderate-intensity and highintensity RT would permit the clinicians to prescribe a broader range of training loads for BCS with persistent pain, which may have important implications for the potential long-term benefits of this training modality. For example, a systematic variation of volume and intensity is recommended to optimize long-term progression in muscle strength and hypertrophy (34). Hence, using a variety of intensity zones in an RT program will most likely be advantageous to combat the loss of muscular strength and mass commonly observed in BCS (22). ...
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Fogh Rasmussen, GH, Madeleine, P, Arroyo-Morales, M, Voigt, M, and Kristiansen, M. Resistance training-induced acute hypoalgesia in women with persistent pain after breast cancer treatment. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The aim of this study was to determine whether a single bout of resistance training (RT) produces acute exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) in breast cancer survivors (BCS) suffering from persistent pain ≥1.5 years after treatment. Twenty individuals with self-reported pain ≥3 on a 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale after treatment for breast cancer completed 3 experimental sessions, (a) familiarization; (b) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) normalization, and (c) training, consisting of 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 60% of 1 repetition maximum. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured before and after training for the dorsal and ventral shoulder regions of the affected side. Movement-evoked pain (MEP) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected immediately after each set. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results demonstrated a significant increase in PPTs of the ventral shoulder region after a single bout of RT (p ≤ 0.05), indicating a localized analgesic response for this area. By contrast, no change was detected in PPTs on the dorsal shoulder region. No significant differences were found in MEP between sessions despite a significant increase in load and RPE during 1RM assessment (p ≤ 0.05), indicating that MEP was not affected by increase in absolute and relative intensity. In conclusion, a single bout of submaximal RT reduced PPTs for the ventral shoulder region of BCS with persistent pain after treatment and was well tolerated. Hence, RT may be a useful therapeutic tool for managing persistent pain after breast cancer treatment in clinical practice.
... Among resistance training (RT) variables, exercise choice is one of the most important factors to develop muscle mass, strength, or muscular endurance (15). The exercise choice is based on movement specificity and it takes into account factors like the number of joints, range of motion, prime movers, level of balance, type of routine, frequency, periodization phase, etc (10). ...
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Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 15(4): 797-807, 2022 The aim of the present study was to compare the myoelectric activation and peak force (PF) between pullover (PO) and pulldown (PW) exercises in different shoulder joint positions during maximal isometric contractions (0º, 45º, 90º, 135º, and 180°). Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men were recruited. The participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions for each exercise at five shoulder joint positions. The myoelectric activation (iEMG) from pectoralis major (PM); latissimus dorsi (LD); posterior deltoid (PD), and PF were measured. For PF, there were significant main effects for exercise and joint positions (p < 0.001). For iEMG PM, there was significant a main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was a significant interaction between exercises and joint positions (p < 0.001). For iEMG LD, there was a significant main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between exercises and joint positions. For iEMG PD, there was a significant main effect for joint positions (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between exercises and joint positions. For RPE, there were no significant differences between exercises and joint positions. The study concludes that specific shoulder joint positions affect PF production and iEMG during both exercises. RPE was not affected.
... Professional basketball, strength and conditioning coaches discussed and showed effective exercise techniques (Robergs, 2004). The subjects are constantly encouraged by the coaches to maintain good technique. ...
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Full-text available
Background: In this context, Medicine ball training has been studied to see if it might help basketball players' physical performance and skills. Objectives: Investigated the effects of eight weeks of medicine ball training on physical performance and basketball skill performance among male basketball players aged 18 to 24 years. Materials and Methods: 28 Subjects were recruited into two groups, the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG), EG=14 (Mean age 21.25 ±1.34) and CG=14 (Mean age 20.52 ±1.77). To detect differences within-between the study groups, repeated-measures ANOVA was used. Results: The analyses demonstrated significant pre-, mid-, and post-test effects on physical performance; all the physical fitness variables examined p<0. 01 and skill performance analyses looked at all variables p<0.01. The medicine ball training EG improves a player's physical performance, which is markable in percentage. The variables such as Overhead Medicine Ball Throw (OHMBT), Standing Long Jump (SLJ), Sprinting 20 m (SPRINT), Agility T-Test (AGILITY), Vertical Jump (VJ), Back and Leg Dynamometer (BLD); 5.11%, 4.52%, 1.34%, 3.49%, 6.45% and 16.40% respectively. Moreover, the study emphasizes that the medicine ball improves basketball skills performance percentage measures in EG, which comprise Control Dribble (CD), Defensive Movement (DM, Passing (PASS) and Speed Spot Shooting (SSS); 2.14%, 3.22%, 6.83% and 13.29% respectively. Conclusion: This research indicates that medicine ball training in conjunction with regular exercise can significantly increase physical performance and basketball skills. It is advised that coaches add medicine balls into players' daily training regimes. The execution of medicine ball workouts free in the direction of skill work improves basketball skill performance. The recommended program for medicine ball workouts is ideal for evaluating improvement in basketball players' physical performance and basketball skill performance.
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Just like a rudderless ship in the ocean, an athlete can never succeed in international sporting events without proper planning and training periodization. Although the concept of periodization in not new, it was scientifically initiated in 1960s and now due to the advancement of science and technology and increment of complexity and number of international competitions the entire training protocol has drastically changed. The traditional concept and practice of training periodization has largely replaced by modern goal-oriented training methodologies. The present review-based article critically discussed the different areas of sports training periodization for optimizing the better sporting performance.
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For more than a century, many concepts and several theories and principles pertaining to the goals, organization, methodology and evaluation of the effects of resistance training (RT) have been developed and discussed between coaches and scientists. This cumulative body of knowledge and practices has contributed substantially to the evolution of RT methodology. However, a detailed and rigorous examination of the existing literature reveals many inconsistencies that, unless resolved, could seriously hinder further progress in our field. The purpose of this review is to constructively expose, analyze and discuss a set of anomalies present in the current RT methodology, including: (a) the often inappropriate and misleading terminology used, (b) the need to clarify the aims of RT, (c) the very concept of maximal strength, (d) the control and monitoring of the resistance exercise dose, (e) the existing programming models and (f) the evaluation of training effects. A thorough and unbiased examination of these deficiencies could well lead to the adoption of a revised paradigm for RT. This new paradigm must guarantee a precise knowledge of the loads being applied, the effort they involve and their effects. To the best of our knowledge, currently this can only be achieved by monitoring repetition velocity during training. The main contribution of a velocity-based RT approach is that it provides the necessary information to know the actual training loads that induce a specific effect in each athlete. The correct adoption of this revised paradigm will provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with accurate and objective information concerning the applied load (relative load, level of effort and training effect). This knowledge is essential to make rational and informed decisions and to improve the training methodology itself.
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Davies, TB, Halaki, M, Orr, R, Mitchell, L, Helms, ER, Clarke, J, and Hackett, DA. Effect of set structure on upper-body muscular hypertrophy and performance in recreationally trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2176–2185, 2022—This study explored the effect of volume-equated traditional-set and cluster-set structures on muscular hypertrophy and performance after high-load resistance training manipulating the bench press exercise. Twenty-one recreationally trained subjects (12 men and 9 women) performed a 3-week familiarization phase and were then randomized into one of two 8-week upper-body and lower-body split programs occurring over 3 and then progressing to 4 sessions per week. Subjects performed 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% one repetition maximum (1RM) using a traditional-set structure (TRAD, n = 10), which involved 5 minutes of interset rest only, or a cluster-set structure, which included 30-second inter-repetition rest and 3 minutes of interset rest (CLUS, n = 11). A 1RM bench press, repetitions to failure at 70% 1RM, regional muscle thickness, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were used to estimate changes in muscular strength, local muscular endurance, regional muscular hypertrophy, and body composition, respectively. Velocity loss was assessed using a linear position transducer at the intervention midpoint. TRAD demonstrated a significantly greater velocity loss magnitude (g = 1.50) and muscle thickness of the proximal pectoralis major (g = −0.34) compared with CLUS. There were no significant differences between groups for the remaining outcomes, although a small effect size favoring TRAD was observed for the middle region of the pectoralis major (g = −0.25). It seems that the greater velocity losses during sets observed in traditional-set compared with cluster-set structures may promote superior muscular hypertrophy within specific regions of the pectoralis major in recreationally trained subjects.
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American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand on Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002, pp. 364-380. In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric. 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d.wk(-1) for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d.wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the force-velocity response of the neuromuscular system to a variety of concentric only, stretch-shorten cycle, and ballistic bench press movements. Twenty-seven men of an athletic background (21.9 +/- 3.1 years, 89.0 +/- 12.5 kg, 86.3 +/- 13.6 kg 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) performed 4 types of bench presses, concentric only, concentric throw, rebound, and rebound throw, across loads of 30-80% 1RM. Average force output was unaffected by the technique used across all loads. Greater force output was recorded using higher loading intensities. The use of rebound was found to produce greater average velocities (12.3% higher mean across loads) and peak forces (14.1% higher mean across loads). Throw or ballistic training generated greater velocities across all loads (4.4% higher average velocity and 6.7% higher peak velocity), and acceleration-deceleration profiles provided greater movement pattern specificity. However, the movement velocities (0.69-1.68 m.s(-1)) associated with the loads used in this study did not approach actual movement velocities associated with functional performance. Suggestions were made as to how these findings may be applied to improve strength, power, and functional performance.
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Fifty college women were randomly assigned to one of three resistance training protocols that employed progressive resistance with high resistance/low repetitions (HRLR), medium resistance/medium repetitions (MRMR), and low resistance/high repetitions (LRHR). The three groups trained on the same resistance exercises for 9 weeks at 3 sets of 6 to 8 RM, 2 sets of 15 to 20 RM, and 1 set of 30 to 40 RM, respectively. Training included free weights and multistation equipment. The 1-RM technique was used for strength testing, and muscular endurance tests consisted of maximum repetitions either at a designated resistance or at a percentage of 1-RM. There were significant pre/post strength increases in both upper and lower body tests, but no significant posttreatment difference in muscular strength