Response to ovarian stimulation in patients facing gonadotoxic therapy
Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of Pennsylvania, 3701 Market St, Ste 800, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address: .Reproductive biomedicine online (Impact Factor: 3.02). 01/2013; 26(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2013.01.003
Chemotherapy naive patients undergoing embryo/oocyte banking for fertility preservation (FP) were assessed for response to ovarian stimulation. Fifty FP patients facing gonadotoxic therapy were matched by age, race, cycle number, date of stimulation and fertilization method to patients undergoing IVF for infertility or oocyte donation. There were no differences in baseline FSH, anti-Mullerian hormone, antral follicle count and total gonadotrophin dose. FP patients had more immature oocytes (2.2 versus 1.1; P = 0.03) and lower fertilization rates per oocyte retrieved (52% versus 70%; P = 0.002). There were no differences in numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes or fertilized embryos. Subgroup analysis revealed that FP patients taking letrozole required higher gonadotrophin doses (3077 IU versus 2259 IU; P = 0.0477) and had more immature oocytes (3.4 versus 1.2; P = 0.03) than matched controls. There were no differences in gonadotrophin dose or oocyte immaturity among FP patients not taking letrozole. Overall, chemotherapy naive FP patients had similar ovarian reserve, response to stimulation and oocyte and embryo yield compared to controls. Patients who received letrozole required higher gonadotrophin doses and produced more immature oocytes, suggesting that response to ovarian stimulation may be impaired in patients with hormone-sensitive cancers receiving letrozole.
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ABSTRACT: The patients referred for fertility preservation owing to a malignant disease do not represent the typical population of subfertile patients treated in IVF units. Cancer may affect multiple tissues throughout the body and can result in a variety of complications during controlled ovarian stimulation. Determination of the controlled ovarian stimulation protocol and gonadotropin dose for oocyte/embryo cryopreservation requires an individualized assessment. This review highlights the new protocols that are emerging to reduce time constraints and emphasizes management considerations to decrease complications.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether random-start controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), in which a patient is stimulated on presentation regardless of her menstrual-cycle phase, has outcomes similar to conventional early follicular phase-start COS for fertility preservation in cancer patients. Retrospective cohort study. Academic medical center. Women recently diagnosed with cancer and in preparation for gonadotoxic therapy. Random- versus conventional-start COS. Primary outcome: number of mature oocytes retrieved; secondary outcomes: pattern of follicular development, oocyte yield, and fertilization rate. The number of total and mature oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturity rate, mature oocyte yield, and fertilization rates were similar in random- (n = 35) and conventional-start (n = 93) COS cycles. No superiority was noted when comparing COS started in late follicular (n = 13) or luteal phase (n = 22). The addition of letrozole, in the case of estrogen-sensitive cancers, did not adversely affect COS outcomes or oocyte maturity and competence in either random- or conventional-start protocols. Random-start COS is as effective as conventional-start COS in fertility preservation. This protocol would minimize delays and allow more patients to undergo fertility preservation and still proceed with cancer treatment within 2-3 weeks.
Article: Fertility preservation in women[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In women, ∼10% of cancers occur in those <45 years old. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation can cure >90% of girls and young women with diseases that require such treatments. However, these treatments can result in premature ovarian failure, depending on the follicular reserve, the age of the patient and the type and dose of drugs used. This article discusses the different fertility preservation strategies: medical therapy before chemotherapy; ovarian transposition; embryo cryopreservation; oocyte vitrification; and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The indications, results and risks of these options are discussed. Whether medical therapy should be used to protect the gonads during chemotherapy remains a source of debate. Fertility preservation needs to be completed before chemotherapy and/or irradiation is started and might take 2-3 weeks with established techniques such as embryo or oocyte cryopreservation. Further studies are needed in patients with cancer to confirm the excellent outcomes obtained in patients without cancer or in egg donation programmes. For prepubertal girls or cases where immediate therapy is required, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is the only available option. Finally, possible future approaches are reviewed, including in vitro maturation of nonantral follicles, the artificial ovary, oogonial stem cells and drugs to prevent follicle loss.
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